كتاب Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines, Second Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines, Second Edition

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Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines, Second Edition
Ahmed F. El-Sayed

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Contents
Preface
Author
Section I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines
. History and Classifications of Aeroengines
. Pre–Jet Engine History
. Early Activities in Egypt and China
. Leonardo da Vinci
. Branca’s Stamping Mill
. Newton’s Steam Wagon
. Barber’s Gas Turbine
. Miscellaneous Aero-Vehicle’s Activities in the
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
. Wright Brothers
. Significant Events up to the s
. Aero-Vehicle Activities
. Reciprocating Engines
. Jet Engines
. Jet Engines Inventors: Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir
Frank Whittle
. Sir Frank Whittle ( – )
. Dr. Hans von Ohain ( – )
. Turbojet Engines
. Turboprop and Turboshaft Engines
. Turbofan Engines
. Propfan Engine
. Pulsejet, Ramjet, and Scramjet Engines
. Pulsejet Engine
. Ramjet and Scramjet Engines
. Industrial Gas Turbine Engines
. Classifications of Aerospace Engines . Classification of Jet Engines
. Ramjet
. Pulsejet
. Scramjet
. Turboramjet
. Turborocket
. Classification of Gas Turbine Engines
. Turbojet Engines
. Turboprop
. Turboshaft
. Turbofan Engines
. Propfan Engines
. Advanced Ducted Fan
. Industrial Gas Turbines
. Non-Airbreathing Engines
. The Future of Aircraft and Powerplant Industries
. Closure
Problems
References
. Performance Parameters of Jet Engines
. Introduction
. Thrust Force
. Factors Affecting Thrust
. Jet Nozzle
. Airspeed
. Mass Airflow
. Altitude
. Ram Effect
. Engine Performance Parameters
. Propulsive Efficiency
. Thermal Efficiency
. Ramjet, Scramjet, Turbojet, and Turbofan
Engines
. Turboprop and Turboshaft Engines
. Propeller Efficiency
. Overall Efficiency . Takeoff Thrust
. Specific Fuel Consumption
. Ramjet, Turbojet, and Turbofan Engines
. Turboprop Engines
. Aircraft Range
. Range Factor
. Endurance Factor
. Specific Impulse
. Mission Segment Weight Fraction
. Route Planning
. . Point of No Return
. . Critical Point
Problems
References
. Pulsejet and Ramjet Engines
. Introduction
. Pulsejet Engines
. Introduction
. Valved Pulsejet
. Valveless Pulsejet
. Pulsating Nature of Flow Parameters in Pulsejet
Engines
. Pulse Detonation Engine
. Ramjet Engines
. Introduction
. Classifications of Ramjet Engines
. Subsonic–Supersonic Types
. Fixed Geometry–Variable Geometry Types
. Liquid-Fueled and Solid-Fueled Types
. Ideal Ramjet
. Real Cycle
. Case Study
. Nuclear Ramjet
. Double-Throat Ramjet Engine
. Solid-Fueled Ramjet Engine . Summary and Governing Equations for Shock Waves and
Isentropic Flow
. Summary
. Normal Shock Wave Relations
. Oblique Shock Wave Relations
. Rayleigh Flow Equations
. Isentropic Relation
Problems
References
. Turbojet Engine
. Introduction
. Single Spool
. Examples of Engines
. Thermodynamic Analysis
. Ideal Case
. Actual Case
. General Description
. Governing Equations
. Comparison between Operative and Inoperative
Afterburner
. Two-Spool Engine
. Non-Afterburning Engine
. Example of Engines
. Thermodynamic Analysis
. Afterburning Engine
. Examples for Two-Spool Afterburning
Turbojet Engines
. Thermodynamic Analysis
. Statistical Analysis
. Thrust Augmentation
. Water Injection
. Afterburning
. Pressure Loss in an Afterburning Engine
. Supersonic Turbojet
. Optimization of the Turbojet Cycle
. Micro TurbojetProblems
References
. Turbofan Engines
. Introduction
. Forward Fan Unmixed Single-Spool Configuration
. Forward Fan Unmixed Two-Spool Engines
. The Fan and Low-Pressure Compressor (LPC) on One
Shaft
. Fan Driven by the LPT and the Compressor Driven by
the HPT
. A Geared Fan Driven by the LPT and the Compressor
Driven by the HPT
. Examples for This Configuration
. Forward Fan Unmixed Three-Spool Engine
. Examples for Three-Spool Engines
. Forward Fan Mixed-Flow Engine
. Mixed-Flow Two-Spool Engine
. Mixed Turbofan with Afterburner
. Introduction
. Ideal Cycle
. Real Cycle
. Aft-Fan
. VTOL and STOL (V/STOL)
. Swiveling Nozzles
. Switch-in Deflector System
. Cruise
. Takeoff or Lift Thrust
. Performance Analysis
. Geared Turbofan Engines
. Summary
Problems
References
. Shaft Engines: Internal Combustion, Turboprop, Turboshaft, and
Propfan Engines
. Introduction . Internal Combustion Engines
. Introduction
. Types of Aero Piston Engine
. Rotary Engines
. Reciprocating Engines
. Supercharging and Turbocharging Engines
. Aerodynamics and Thermodynamics of the
Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine
. Terminology for the Four-Stroke Engine
. Air-Standard Analysis
. Engine Thermodynamics Cycles
. Superchargers/Turbochargers
. Aircraft Propellers
. Introduction
. Classifications
. Source of Power
. Material
. Coupling to the Output Shaft
. Control
. Number of Propellers Coupled to Each
Engine
. Direction of Rotation
. Propulsion Method
. Number of Blades
. Aerodynamic Design
. Axial Momentum (or Actuator Disk)
Theory
. Modified Momentum or Simple Vortex
Model
. Blade Element Considerations
. Dimensionless Parameters
. Typical Propeller Performance
. Turboprop Engines
. Introduction to Turboprop Engines
. Classification of Turboprop Engines
. Thermodynamics Analysis of Turboprop Engines
. Single-Spool Turboprop . Two-Spool Turboprop
. Analogy with Turbofan Engines
. Equivalent Engine Power
. Static Condition
. Flight Operation
. Fuel Consumption
. Turboprop Installation
. Details of Some Engines
. Performance Analysis
. Comparison between Turbojet, Turbofan and
Turboprop Engines
. Turboshaft Engines
. Power Generated by Turboshaft Engines
. Single-Spool Turboshaft
. Double-Spool Turboshaft
. Examples for Turboshaft Engines
. Propfan Engines
. Conclusion
Problems
References
. High-Speed Supersonic and Hypersonic Engines
. Introduction
. Supersonic Aircraft and Programs
. Anglo-French Activities
. Concorde
. BAe-Aerospatiale AST
. Russian Activities
. Tupolev TU-
. The U.S. Activities
. The Future of Commercial Supersonic Technology
. Technology Challenges of Future Flight
. High-Speed Supersonic and Hypersonic Propulsion
. Introduction
. Hybrid-Cycle Engine
. Turboramjet Engine
. Wraparound Turboramjet . Operation as a Turbojet Engine
. Operation as a Ramjet Engine
. Over/Under Turboramjet
. Turbojet Mode
. Dual Mode
. Ramjet Mode
. Turboramjet Performance
. Turbojet Mode
. Ramjet Mode
. Dual Mode
. Case Study
. Examples for Turboramjet Engines
. Hypersonic Flight
. . History of Hypersonic Vehicles
. . Hypersonic Commercial Transport
. . Military Applications
. Scramjet Engines
. . Introduction
. . Thermodynamics
. Intake of a Scramjet Engine
. . Case Study
. Combustion Chamber
. . Fuel Mixing in Parallel Stream
. . Ramp Injectors
. . Fuel Mixing in Normal Stream
. Nozzle
. Case Study
. Dual-Mode Combustion Engine (Dual Ram-Scramjet)
. . Aero-Thermodynamics of Dual-Mode Scramjet
Problems
References
. Industrial Gas Turbines
. Introduction
. Categories of Gas Turbines
. Types of Industrial Gas Turbines
. Single-Shaft Engine . Single Compressor and Turbine
. Ideal Cycle
. Real Cycle
. Regeneration
. Reheat
. Intercooling
. Combined Intercooling, Regeneration, and Reheat
. Double-Shaft Engine
. Free-Power Turbine
. Two-Discrete Shafts (Spools)
. Three Spool
. Combined Gas Turbine
. Marine Applications
. Additional Components for Marine Applications
. Examples for Marine Gas Turbines
. Offshore Gas Turbines
. Micro-Gas Turbines (μ-Gas Turbines)
. . Micro- versus Typical-Gas Turbines
. . Design Challenges
. . Manufacturing
. . Selection and Design of Bearings
. . Compressor and Turbine
. . Applications
Problems
References
Section II Component Design
. Powerplant Installation and Intakes
. Introduction
. Powerplant Installation
. Subsonic Aircraft
. Turbojet and Turbofan Engines
. Wing Installation
. Fuselage Installation . Combined Wing and Tail Installation
(Three Engines)
. Combined Fuselage and Tail Installation
. Turboprop Installation
. Supersonic Aircraft
. Civil Transports
. Military Aircraft
. Air Intakes or Inlets
. Subsonic Intakes
. Inlet Performance
. Performance Parameters
. Isentropic Efficiency (ηd)
. Stagnation-Pressure Ratio (rd)
. Turboprop Inlets
. Supersonic Intakes
. Review of Gas Dynamic Relations for Normal and
Oblique Shocks
. Normal Shock Waves
. Oblique Shock Waves
. External Compression Intake (Inlet)
. Internal Compression Inlet (Intake)
. Mixed Compression Intakes
. Matching between Intake and Engine
. Case Study
Problems
References
. Combustion Systems
. Introduction
. Subsonic Combustion Chambers
. Tubular (or Multiple) Combustion Chambers
. Tubo-Annular Combustion Chambers
. Annular Combustion Chambers
. Supersonic Combustion Chamber
. Combustion Process
. Components of the Combustion Chamber
. Aerodynamics of the Combustion Chamber . Aerodynamics of Diffusers
. Chemistry of Combustion
. The First Law Analysis of Combustion
. Combustion Chamber Performance
. Pressure Losses
. Combustion Efficiency
. Combustion Stability
. Combustion Intensity
. Cooling
. Louver Cooling
. Splash Cooling
. Film Cooling
. Convection-Film Cooling
. Impingement-Film Cooling
. Transpiration Cooling
. Effective Cooling
. Material
. Aircraft Fuels
. . Safety Fuels
. Emissions and Pollutants
. . Pollutant Formation
. . NO
x Emissions
. . Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Emissions
. The Afterburner
. Supersonic Combustion System
Problems
References
. Exhaust System
. Introduction
. Nozzle
. Governing Equations
. Convergent-Divergent Nozzle
. Convergent Nozzle
. Variable Geometry Nozzles
. Afterburning Nozzles
. Calculation of the Two-Dimensional Supersonic Nozzle . Convergent Nozzle
. Divergent Nozzle
. Analytical Determination of the Contour of
a Nozzle
. Design Procedure for a Minimum Length
Divergent Nozzle
. Procedure of Drawing the Expansion
Waves inside the Nozzle
. Thrust Reversal
. Classification of Thrust Reverser Systems
. Calculation of Ground Roll Distance
. Thrust Vectoring
. Governing Equations
. Noise
. Introduction
. Acoustics Model Theory
. Methods Used to Decrease Jet Noise
. High-Speed Vehicles
. Conical Nozzles
. Bell Nozzles
. Advantages of Bell-Shaped Nozzle
. Disadvantages of Bell-Shaped Nozzle
. Annular Nozzles
. Radial Out-Flow Nozzles
. Radial Inflow Nozzles
Problems
References
. Centrifugal Compressors
. Introduction
. Layout of Compressor
. Impeller
. Diffuser
. Scroll or Manifold
. Classification of Centrifugal Compressors
. Governing Equations
. The Continuity Equation . The Momentum Equation or Euler’s Equation for
Turbomachinery
. The Energy Equation or the First Law of
Thermodynamics
. Slip Factor σ
. Prewhirl
. Types of Impeller
. Radial Impeller
. The Diffuser
. Vaneless Diffuser
. Incompressible Flow
. Compressible Flow
. Vaned Diffuser
. Discharge Systems
. Characteristic Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor
. Erosion
. Introduction
. Theoretical Estimation of Erosion
Problems
References
. Axial Flow Compressors and Fans
. Introduction
. Comparison between Axial and Centrifugal Compressors
. Advantages of the Axial Flow Compressor over the
Centrifugal Compressor
. Advantages of Centrifugal-Flow Compressor over the
Axial Flow Compressor
. Main Points of Comparison between Centrifugal and
Axial Compressors
. Mean Flow (Two-Dimensional Approach)
. Types of Velocity Triangles
. Variation of Enthalpy Velocity and Pressure in an
Axial Compressor
. Basic Design Parameters
. Centrifugal Stress
. Tip Mach Number . Fluid Deflection
. Design Parameters
. Three-Dimensional Flow
. Axisymmetric Flow
. Simplified Radial Equilibrium Equation (SRE)
. Free Vortex Method
. General Design Procedure
. Complete Design Process for Compressors
. Rotational Speed (rpm) and Annulus Dimensions
. Determine the Number of Stages (Assuming Stage Efficiency)
. Calculation of Air Angles for Each Stage at the Mean Section
. . First Stage
. . Stages from ( ) to (n - )
. . Last Stage
. Variation of Air Angles from Root to Tip Based on Type of
Blading (Either Free Vortex, Exponential, or First Power
Methods)
. Blade Design
. . Cascade Measurements
. . Choosing the Type of Airfoil
. . Stage Performance
. Compressibility Effects
. Performance
. . Single Stage
. . Multistage Compressor
. . Compressor Map
. . Stall and Surge
. . Surge Control Methods
. . Multi-Spool Compressor
. . Variable Vanes
. . Air Bleed
. Case Study
. . Mean Section Data
. . Variations from Hub to Tip
. . Details of Flow in Stage Number
. . Number of Blades and Stresses of the Seven Stages
. . Compressor Layout . Erosion
Problems
References
. Axial Turbines
. Introduction
. Comparison between Axial-Flow Compressors and Turbines
. Aerodynamics and Thermodynamics for a Two-Dimensional
Flow
. Velocity Triangles
. Euler Equation
. Efficiency, Losses, and Pressure Ratio
. Nondimensional Quantities
. Several Remarks
. Three-Dimensional Analysis
. Free Vortex Design
. Constant Nozzle Angle Design (α )
. General Case
. Constant Specific Mass Flow Stage
. Preliminary Design
. Main Design Steps
. Aerodynamic Design
. Blade Profile Selection
. Mechanical and Structural Design
. Centrifugal Stresses
. Centrifugal Stresses on Blades
. Centrifugal Stresses on Disks
. Gas Bending Stress
. Centrifugal Bending Stress
. Thermal Stress
. Turbine Cooling
. Turbine Cooling Techniques
. Mathematical Modeling
. Losses and Efficiency
. Profile Loss (Yp)
. Annulus Loss
. Secondary Flow Loss . Tip Clearance Loss (Yk)
. Turbine Map
. Case Study
. Design Point
. Mean Line Flow
. Three-Dimensional Variations
. Number of Blades for Nozzle and Rotor
. Chord Length at Any Section along Blade
Height for Nozzle and Rotor
. Blade Material Selection
. Stresses on Rotor Blades
. Losses Calculations
. Turbine Efficiency
. Summary
Problems
References
. Radial Inflow Turbines
. Introduction
. Thermodynamic
. Dimensionless Parameters
. Stage Loading
. Flow Coefficient
. Rotor Meridional Velocity Ratio
. Specific Speed
. Preliminary Design
. Breakdown of Losses
. Design for Optimum Efficiency
. Cooling
Problems
References
. Module Matching
. Introduction
. Off-Design Operation of a Single-Shaft Gas Turbine Driving a
Load
. Matching Procedure . Different Loads
. Off-Design of a Free Turbine Engine
. Gas Generator
. Free Power Turbine
. Off-Design of Turbojet Engine
Problems
References
. Selected Topics
. Introduction
. New Trends in Aeroengines
. Intercooler
. Intercooler and Recuperator
. Inter-Turbine Burner
. Double-Bypass/Three-Stream Turbofan
. D Printing as the Future of Manufacturing Aircraft
and Aircraft Engines
. Aviation Environmental Issues
. Introduction
. Sustainable Alternative Fuels
. Introduction
. Potential Second-Generation Biofuel
Feedstocks
. Key Advantages of Second-Generation
Biofuels for Aviation
. Commercial and Demonstration Flights
. Biofuels for Aviation Economic Viability
. Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles
. Introduction
. Categorization of UAV
. Based on Function
. Based on Range/Altitude
. Based on Size
. European Classifications (EUROUVS)
. Power Plant of UAV
. Electric Engine
. Internal Combustion (IC) Engines . Gas Turbine Engines
. Engine Characteristics
Problems
References
Section III Rocket Propulsion
. Introduction to Rocketry
. Introduction
. History
. Important Events
. Recent and Future Plans for Rocket and Space Flights
( and Beyond)
. Missile Configuration
. External Configuration
. Main Sections of a Missile Body
. Nose Section (Fore-Body)
. Mid-Section
. Tail Section
. The Auxiliary Components (Wings, Fins, and
Canards)
. Wings
. Fins
. Classification
. Propulsion
. Energy Source
. Types of Missiles
. Launch Mode
. Range
. Warheads
. Guidance Systems
. Number of Stages
. Application
. Military Rockets
. . According to Purpose and Use . . According to the Location of the
Launching Site and Target
. . According to the Main Characteristics
. Rocket Performance Parameters
. Thrust Force
. Effective Exhaust Velocity (Veff)
. Exhaust Velocity (ue)
. Important Nozzle Relations
. Characteristic Velocity (C*)
. Thrust Coefficient (CF)
. Total Impulse (It)
. Specific Impulse (Isp)
. Specific Propellant Consumption
. Mass Ratio (MR)
. Propellant Mass Fraction (ζ)
. Impulse-to-Weight Ratio
. Efficiencies
. . Thermal Efficiency
. . Propulsive Efficiency
. . Overall Efficiency (η )
. The Rocket Equation
. Single-Stage Rocket
. Negligible Drag
. Negligible Drag and Gravity Loss
. Multistage Rockets
. Rocket Equation for a Multistage Series Rocket
. Rocket Equation for a Parallel Multistage Rocket
. Advantages of Staging
. Disadvantages of Staging
. Space Flight
. Orbital Velocity
. Escape Velocity
Problems
References
. Rocket Engines . Chemical Rocket Engines
. Introduction
. Performance Characteristics
. Solid Propellants
. Introduction
. Composition of a Solid Propellant
. Basic Definitions
. Burning Rate
. Characteristics of Some Solid Propellants
. Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines (LRE)
. Introduction
. Applications
. Propellant Feed System of LREs
. Liquid Propellants
. Monopropellant
. Bipropellant
. Fundamental Relations
. Pump-Fed System
. Rocket Pumps
. Introduction
. Centrifugal Pumps
. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps
. Multistage Axial Pumps
. Performance of Centrifugal Pumps
. Pump Performance Parameters
. Pump Specific Speed (Ns)
. Features of Modules of the Space Shuttle Main Engine
(SSME)
. Axial Pumps
. Parallel and Series Connections
. Pump Materials and Fabrication Processes
. Axial Turbines
. . Single-Stage Impulse Turbine
. . Multispool Impulse Turbines
. . Reaction Turbines
. Hybrid Propulsion
. . Introduction . . Mathematical Modeling
. . Advantages and Disadvantages of Hybrid Engines
. Nuclear Rocket Propulsion
. . Introduction
. . Solid-Core Reactors
. . Gas-Core Reactor
. Electric Rocket Propulsion
. . Introduction
. . Electrostatic Propulsion
. . Introduction
. . Mathematical Modeling
. . Multiply Charged Ion Species
. . Total Efficiency
. . Electrical Efficiency
. . Electrothermal
. . Introduction
. . Resistojets
. . Arcjets
. . Electromagnetic Engines
Problems
References
Appendix A: Glossary
Appendix B: Turbofan
Appendix C: Samples of Gas Turbines (Representative Manufacturers)
Index
Index
A
AAI RQ- Shadow, –
A- Albatros aircraft, – ,
Acoustic jet engine, Valveless pulsejet engine
Acoustics model theory, –
Activity factor (AF), –
Actuator disk theory
assumptions and definitions,
axial inflow factor,
pressure and velocity distribution, –
propulsive efficiency, –
slipstream factor, –
thrust, –
Adaptive Engine Technology Development Program,
Adaptive versatile engine technology (ADVENT) engine, –
Adour Mk. afterburning engine,
Advanced supersonic transport (AST),
Advanced Technology Fan Integrator (AFTI), –
Advisory Council for Aeronautical Research in Europe (ACARE),
Aeolipile, –
Aerion company,
Aeroderivative engine, –
Aeroengines; Jet engines
aerospace engines, classifications of, –
evolution of,
historical events, –
pre–jet engines, history of, –
propulsion system and flight speeds,
reductions in
emissions,
fuel burn, –
fuel consumption, noise levels, –
sustainable biofuels, –
Aero piston engine
classification,
compression-ignition engine,
definition,
piston-powered aircraft and helicopters, –
reciprocating engines
horizontally opposed engine, –
H-type engine,
in-line engine, –
radial type engine, –
V-type engines,
X-type engines,
rotary engine
conventional types,
Wankel engine, –
spark-ignition engine,
supercharging and turbocharging, –
Aerospace engines, classifications of, –
Aft-engine, Fuselage installation
Afterburning nozzles,
Afterburning turbojet engine,
single-spool engine,
ideal cycle, –
operative vs. inoperative afterburner, –
real cycle, ,
statistical analysis, –
supersonic, –
thrust augmentation
pressure loss, –
thrust-specific fuel consumption, –
two-spool engine,
examples for, –
layout of,
stations and cycle for, –
thermodynamic analysis, – Afterburning two-spool turbofan engine, –
Aft-fan turbofan engines, , , – , –
AGM- ALCM, –
AGT gas turbine,
AI- ,
Air bleed, –
Airbreathing engines, – , –
Airbus A , ,
Airbus A M aircraft,
Aircraft-derivative gas turbines,
Aircraft fuels; Biofuels
combustion chamber requirements,
fuel system requirements,
operation requirements, –
safety fuels,
Aircraft propellers
axial momentum/actuator disk theory
assumptions and definitions,
axial inflow factor,
pressure and velocity distribution, –
propulsive efficiency, –
slipstream factor, –
thrust, –
blade element theory
dimensionless radius,
geometric pitch,
propulsive efficiency, –
three-bladed propeller, –
thrust and torque, –
velocity and force components, –
classifications
blades, number of,
contra-rotating propellers, –
direction of rotation,
fixed pitch, –
material, –
output shaft, propulsion method, –
source of power, –
variable pitch,
cross-sections, –
definitions,
dimensionless parameters
activity factor, –
advance ratio,
four-bladed propeller, –
Mach number,
power coefficient, –
power loading,
Reynolds number,
speed power coefficient, –
thrust coefficient, –
torque coefficient,
history,
installation, –
modified momentum/simple vortex model, –
performance
four-bladed propeller, –
NACA, –
power coefficient vs. advance ratio, –
propeller efficiency vs. advance ratio, –
speed-power coefficient, –
thrust coefficient vs. advance ratio, –
Aircraft range, –
Air defense rockets,
Airframe noise,
Airscrew turbine engine, Turboprop engines
Airship, ,
Air-standard analysis,
Air-standard diesel cycle, –
Air-to-air missile (AAM),
Air to fuel ratios (AFRs),
Air-to-surface missile (ASM),
Al- engine, Algae,
Allied Signal turbofan engines,
Allied Signal turbofan engines,
Allison -K engine,
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, ,

AN- aircraft,
AN- aircraft,
Anglo-French aircraft
BAe-Aerospatiale AST,
Concorde, –
Annular combustion chambers, –
Annular nozzles, –
radial inflow nozzles,
radial out-flow nozzles, –
Annulus loss,
Anti-ballistic missiles (ABM),
Antonov
An- , , ,
AN- , , ,
An- ,
An- - aircraft, –
Archytas,
Arcjets,
Ariane rocket, –
Armstrong Siddeley double Mamba,
Armstrong Siddeley Mamba,
Armstrong Siddeley Python,
Army rockets,
Assisted ignition engines,
Atlantik Solar UAV,
ATREX turboramjet engine, , –
Auxiliary power units (APUs), ,
Auxiliary rockets, –
Aviadvigatel D- KPV turbofan engines,
Axial-flow compressors and fans,
air angle determination at mean sectionfirst stage, –
last stage, –
stages from ( ) to (n − ), –
air angle variation, –
vs. axial turbines, – , –
blade design
airfoil type,
casecade measurements, –
stage performance, –
vs. centrifugal compressors, –
complete design process, –
compressibility effects, –
design parameters
centrifugal stress, –
degree of reaction, –
flow coefficient,
fluid deflection, –
stage loading,
tip Mach number, , –
erosion, , –
layout of,
mean flow (two-dimensional approach)
enthalpy velocity variations, –
tangential plane,
velocity triangle types, –
performance
compressor map, –
multistage compressor,
single stage, –
stall and surge, –
surge controls methods, –
rotational speed and annulus dimensions, –
seven-stage axial compressor
blades and stresses, ,
flow details, in stage number , –
layout, ,
mean section data, variations from hub to tip, –
stage determinations, –
three-dimensional flow, –
axisymmetric flow, –
free vortex method, –
general design procedure, –
simplified radial equilibrium equation, –
Axial rocket pumps, –
Axial rocket turbines,
multispool impulse turbines,
reaction turbines, –
single-stage impulse turbine, –
Axial turbines,
vs. axial-flow compressors, –
design point, case study, –
blade material selection,
blade numbers for nozzle and rotor, –
chord length, –
loss coefficients,
mean line flow,
stresses on rotor blades,
three-dimensional variations, – , –
turbine efficiency,
preliminary design
aerodynamic design, –
blade profile selection, , –
design steps,
loss and efficiency, –
mathematical modeling, –
mechanical and structural designs, –
turbine cooling, , –
three dimensional analysis
constant nozzle angle design, –
constant specific mass flow stage, –
free vortex design,
general case, –
simplified radial equilibrium equation, vortex blading,
three-stage, –
turbine map, –
two-dimensional flow, aerodynamics and thermodynamics
Euler’s equation, –
loss coefficient, –
nondimensional quantities, –
pressure ratio,
remarks, –
stage efficiency, – ,
velocity tirangles, –
B
BAe-Aerospatiale AST,
B- aircraft, –
Balanced-beam nozzle,
Balloon (aeronautics), –
Barber, John,
Barber’s gas turbine, –
Bell nozzles, –
Biofuels
aviation economic viability, –
commercial and demonstration flights, –
first-generation, –
second-generation,
types,
Bipropellant rocket, –
Blade element theory
dimensionless radius,
geometric pitch,
propulsive efficiency, –
three-bladed propeller, –
thrust and torque, –
velocity and force components, –
Blade material selection,
Blade numbers for nozzle and rotor, – Blade profile selection, , –
Bleriot, Louis, –
Boeing - / , –
Boeing - ,
Boeing aircraft, –
Boeing CH- Chinook, –
Boeing Dreamliner, –
Boeing Pelican ULTRA,
Boeing X- A,
Bombardier CSeries,
Bottom dead center (BDC), ,
Boundary-layer infrared suppression system (BLISS),
BPR, Bypass ratio
Brake mean effective pressure (BMEP),
Brake power, –
Brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC),
Branca’s stamping mill, –
Breguet’s equation, –
Bristol , –
Bristol ,
Bristol Theseus,
British Aircraft Corporation (BAC),
Buckingham’s theory,
Buried wing installation, –
Burning rate, solid propellants, –
Bypass jet engines,
Bypass ratio (BPR), , – , – ,
C
Camelina,
Casing,
Cayley, Sir George,
Center-engine installation,
Central plug, nozzle,
Centrifugal bending stress,
Centrifugal compressors, – , ; Radial inflow turbinesaxial-centrifugal compressor,
characteristic performance of, –
classification of
dual-entry/double-face entry, –
impeller vanes,
inducers types,
shrouded/unshrouded impeller,
single-entry/single-face entry, –
single/multiple stages, –
discharge system, –
erosion
brittle mode erosion,
compressor–pressure ratio and efficiency,
constants,
continuum approach,
discrete approach,
ductile mode erosion,
engine performance,
particle trajectories,
particulate flows, –
problems,
rate,
sand/dust particles,
target material,
theoretical estimation, –
turbomachines,
two-stage mechanism,
volcanic ash,
governing equations
continuity equation,
energy equation/first law of thermodynamics, –
impeller types, –
Mach number,
momentum equation/Euler’s equation, –
prewhirl, –
radial impeller, –
slip factor, – thermodynamics and velocities, –
T–S diagram, ,
velocity triangles,
layout of
bell casing,
diffuser, –
double-sided centrifugal compressor,
exit-guide vanes,
horizontally/vertically split casing,
IGVs,
impeller, – ,
inducer duct,
nomenclature,
scroll/manifold,
scroll/volute, –
PT turboprop engine,
vaned diffuser
channel diffuser, –
conical diffuser, –
isentropic vaned diffuser, –
performance maps, –
vs. vaneless diffuser, –
vaneless diffuser
compressible flow, –
incompressible flow, –
Centrifugal rocket pumps, –
Centrifugal stress, – ,
on blades, –
on disks
inner rim,
outer rim, –
segment,
CFM - C mixed high-BPR turbofan engine, –
CF turbofan engine,
Chang Zheng (CZ- ) rocket,
Chemical rocket engines, , –
Child-Langmuir’s law, Chimney jack,
Chinese fire arrows, –
Clamshell door system, –
Clearance volume,
Clustered rocket, –
Colloidal propellants,
Combat rockets,
Combustion chamber
aerodynamics
conical diffusers, –
diffuser, shapes of,
flow patterns,
ideal diffuser, ,
straight core annular diffuser, –
components, –
performance
combustion efficiency, –
combustion intensity, –
combustion stability,
convection-film cooling,
effective cooling, –
film cooling, –
impingement-film cooling, –
louver cooling,
pressure loss,
splash cooling, –
transpiration cooling,
subsonic combustion chambers
annular combustion chambers, –
tubo-annular combustion chambers, –
tubular/multiple combustion chambers, –
supersonic combustion chamber,
Combustion systems
afterburner, –
aircraft fuels, –
chemistry of, –
Arrhenius equation, combustion equation,
fuel–air ratio, –
gravimetric analysis,
reaction rate, –
stoichiometric ratio,
first law analysis of, –
materials,
pollutant formation
NO
x emissions, –
SO emissions, –
process, –
requirements, –
supersonic combustion system, –
Commercial supersonic technology (CST), –
Composite modified double-based propellants,
Composite propellants,
Compression-ignition (CI) engine, – ,
Compression ratio,
Compressor map, –
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD),
Computational fluid mechanics (CFD),
Concorde aircraft, , , – ,
Congreve, William,
Conical nose, missiles, –
Conical nozzle, –
Conservation of energy, ,
Conservation of mass, , , , ,
Constant nozzle angle design, –
Constant specific mass flow stage, –
Continuous turbine burners (CTBs),
Contra-rotating aft propfan,
Contra-rotating forward propfan,
Convair BJ- , –
Convection cooling, – , –
Convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzle, – , – , –
adiabatic efficiency, –
behavior of, – exit Mach number,
exit velocity,
mass flow rate,
pressure ratio,
T–S diagram,
velocity and static pressure distribution,
Convergent nozzles, , – , , –
chocked nozzle, variations of
flow, aerodynamic and thermodynamic properties of,
Mach number,
static density,
static pressure,
static ratios,
static temperature,
static total pressure,
total density,
design steps, –
efficiency,
pressure ratio,
temperature ratio,
Conway engine,
Cooling technique, –
Counterrotating advanced ducted fan, –
Critical point (CP), –
Cruise, switch-in deflector system,
afterburner,
combustion chamber,
compressor,
fan, –
HPT,
intake,
LPT,
mixing process, –
nozzle,
thrust force,
Cs- engine,
CST, Commercial supersonic technologyCTBs, Continuous turbine burners
Cylindrical grain, definition,
D
D- , –
da Vinci, Leonardo,
Dawn spacecraft,
DC- aircraft,
Degree of reaction, – , –
DeHaviland Comet ,
Desert Hawk UAV,
Diffuser efficiency, , , – ,
Divergent nozzle
expansion Mach number,
expansion waves inside nozzle, drawing procedure,
expansion zone,
graphical design,
Mach angles distribution, –
minimum length divergent nozzle, design procedure, –
nozzle contours
analytical determination of, –
and expansion waves,
parallel flow, –
sharp corner nozzle,
straightening section, –
Double-shaft gas turbine engine
free-power turbine, – , – , –
regenerative cycle, –
thermal efficiency of gas, –
two-discrete shafts (spools)
combustion chamber,
high-pressure spool,
HPT,
low-pressure spool, –
LPT, –
Double-throat ramjet (DTR) engine, Down-pitch thrust vectoring, –
Dual annular combustor (DAC),
Dual-mode ramjet (DRM), Dual ram-scramjet engine
Dual ram-scramjet engine
aero-thermodynamics, –
configuration and station, –
isolator, –
T–S diagram of, –
Du Temple, Felix,
Dynamic compressors,
E
ecoDemonstrator flight test airplane,
Ejector nozzle, –
Electrical generator,
Electric engines, –
Electromagnetic rocket engines, , –
Electron Beam (EB)-welded rotor, –
Electrostatic rocket propulsion, –
charged ions, –
electrical efficiency, –
mathematical model, –
total efficiency,
Electrostatic thrusters,
Electrothermal rockets, ,
arcjets,
electromagnetic engines, –
resistojets, –
Elevators, –
Endurance factor (EF), –
Enthalpy of combustion,
Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST)
program,
Equal time point (ETP), Critical point (CP)
Equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (EBSFC),
Equivalent shaft horsepower (ESHP), – Equivalent shaft power (ESP),
Equivalent thrust power (ETP),
Erosion, , –
brittle mode erosion,
compressor–pressure ratio and efficiency,
constants,
continuum approach,
discrete approach,
ductile mode erosion,
engine performance,
particle trajectories,
particulate flows, –
problems,
rate,
sand/dust particles,
target material,
theoretical estimation, –
turbomachines,
two-stage mechanism,
volcanic ash,
ETV, External-thrust vectoring
Eulerian solution technique,
Euler’s equation, – , – ,
European classified UAV (EUROUVS),
European hypersonic transport vehicle (EHTV),
Exhaust system
for afterburning engines, ,
for low BPR afterburning turbofans, ,
noise, , –
nozzles
annular nozzles, –
axisymmetric nozzles,
bell nozzles, –
C-D nozzle, – , –
conical nozzles, –
convergent nozzle, , – , –
divergent nozzle, – mass flow rate, –
requirements,
variable geometry nozzles, –
supersonic aircraft, –
thrust reversal, , –
thrust vectoring, , , –
Expansion-deflection (E-D) radial outflow nozzle,
External-thrust vectoring (ETV), –
F
Fabri, Henri, –
Fan laws,
Fan-on-blade (Flade) engine,
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR),
F- engine,
F- engine,
F- engine,
Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) model, –
Fieseler Fi- Reichenberg (Fi R),
Film cooling, – , ,
Fire arrows, – ,
Fire turbine,
First-generation biofuels, –
Fixed geometry ramjets, –
Fixed pitch propellers, –
Flameholding,
Flap blowing turbofan engine, –
Flight fuel available (FFA),
F- Lightning II,
Flow coefficient, ,
definition,
vs. temperature loading and, –
Fluidic-thrust vectoring, ,
Flying bombs, , , –
F Nighthawk, Ford Trimotor, –
Foreign object damage (FOD),
Forward fan mixed-flow turbofan engine
single-spool engine, –
two-spool engine, –
CFM - C mixed high-BPR, –
energy balance, –
layout, –
mixed and unmixed types, –
with mixer, –
mixing process, –
temperature-entropy diagram, –
Forward fan unmixed turbofan engines
single-spool configuration
BPR, , –
combustion chamber,
compressor,
fan nozzle, –
forward fan,
intake,
turbine, –
turbine nozzle, –
three-spool engine, –
two-spool engines
fan and LPC on one shaft, –
fan driven by LPT and compressor driven by HPT, –
geared fan driven by LPT and compressor driven by HPT, –
Four-engine fuselage installation,
Four-stroke engines, ,
diesel cycle
air-to-fuel ratio,
CI engine, –
constant pressure exhaust stroke,
constant-pressure heat addition,
constant-volume heat rejection,
fuel injection process,
isentropic compression, , isentropic expansion,
P–v and T–S diagrams, –
thermal efficiency, ,
Otto cycle
air/fuel and fuel/air ratios, –
constant pressure exhaust stroke,
constant pressure suction,
constant-volume heat addition,
constant volume heat rejection,
isentropic compression stroke,
isentropic power/expansion stroke, –
performance parameters, –
power generation and fuel consumption, –
propulsive efficiency,
P–v and T–S diagrams,
SFC, –
thermal efficiency, – ,
vs. two-stroke engines, –
volumetric efficiency, –
terminology
compression ratio,
piston execution, –
pressure–volume diagram, –
TDC and BDC, ,
F- Raptor,
Free power turbine
and gas generator turbine,
map of,
mass flow parameter, –
matching procedure for, ,
operating line for,
parameters,
pressure ratio,
Free turbine engine, off-design of
free power turbine, –
gas generator, –
temperature–entropy diagram, – Free vortex design, – , – , ,
Friction mean effective pressure,
Front frame, –
F. / turbofan engines,
Fuel burn reductions, –
Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) system,
Fuselage installation, , –
military aircraft,
over/under turboramjet, –
G
Gas bending stress, –
Gas-core rocket,
Gas generator matching
flowchart for, –
parameters, –
Gasoline engine,
Gas turbine engines, , ; Industrial gas turbine engines
advanced ducted fan, –
Barber’s gas turbine, –
propfan engines, –
representative manufacturers, –
turbofan engine, –
turbojet engines, –
turboprop engines, –
turboshaft engines, –
Geared turbofan engines, –
advantages,
Lycoming ALF R, –
PW G, –
fuel mass flow-rate,
overall efficiency,
propulsive efficiency, , –
specific thrust, , – , –
thermal efficiency, – ,
thrust, TSFC, , , –
General Electric (GE)
ADVENT engine, –
CF engines, ,
CT ,
F -GE- ,
GE- ,
GE CF - C ,
GE CF turbofan engine,
GEnx turbofan engine,
I-A engine, –
I- engine,
J- engine,
J- engine, , –
J- engine,
J- engines,
J -GE- ,
LM , –
LM Series,
SNECMA CFM engines,
T- ,
T ,
T ,
T /CT ,
T engine,
TF- ,
variable stator concept, –
General electric unducted fan (GE UDF), –
German sänger space transportation systems,
Gliders
human-carrier glider,
Lilienthal, Otto,
triplane glider,
Wright brothers,
Gloster E / aircraft, – ,
Gnome-Monosoupape, –
Goddard, Robert, Gravesand, Jacob,
Green diesel,
H
Halophytes,
Harpoon missile, –
Harrier engine, –
Hartzell propeller, –
Hawker Siddeley Nimrod,
Hayabusa- spacecraft,
Heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG),
Heavy-duty gas turbines,
Heinkel He aircraft, – ,
Hemisphere nose, missiles, –
Hero, ,
He S- engine,
Heterogeneous propellants,
High altitude, long endurance, long range (HALE) UAVs,
High-bypass turbofan engine, ,
High-pressure compressor (HPC), , – , , – ,
High-speed civil transport (HSCT), ,
High-speed supersonic and hypersonic engines, –
hypersonic flight
commercial transports, –
history of, –
military applications,
propulsion
hybrid-cycle engine, –
multi-stage vehicle,
scramjet engine, –
supersonic aircraft
Anglo-French activities, –
Bell X- , –
Blackbird SR- , –
CST, future of, –
NACA, conceptual design of, Russian activities,
U.S. activities, –
technology challenges,
turboramjet engine, –
ATREX turboramjet engine, , –
case study, –
dual mode, –
over/under turboramjet, , –
P&W J - ,
ramjet mode,
turbojet mode, , –
wraparound turboramjet, –
High-thrust class turbofan engines, –
Homogeneous propellants,
Horizontally opposed engine, –
Hot-air balloon, –
HPC, High-pressure compressor
H-type engine,
Human-carrier glider,
Hybrid-cycle engine, –
Hybrid propellant rockets, –
advantages and disadvantages, –
combustion process,
empirical relation, –
fuel–oxidizer combinations,
Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP),
Hybrid Technology Options Project (HyTOP),
HYCAT- aircraft, –
Hydraulic/water turbines,
Hydravion, –
Hydrogen-filled balloon,
Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB),
Hyper-soar aircraft, –
Hypersonic aurora aircraft, ,
Hypersonic flight
commercial transports, –
history of, – military applications,
I
IC engines, Internal combustion (IC) engines
Ideal Brayton cycle
air inlet assembly,
CBT,
combustion chamber,
compressor, –
single-spool gas turbine,
temperature-entropy and pressure-specific volume diagrams,
turbine, –
Impeller
absolute velocity, , –
aerodynamic performance,
backward-leaning blades, –
forward-leaning blades,
impeller isentropic efficiency,
pressure ratio, –
radial impeller, –
shrouded/unshrouded impellers,
slip factor,
swirl velocity ratio,
temperature rise, –
Impingement cooling, – , –
Impingement-film cooling, –
Impulse-to-weight ratio,
Impulse turbine, ,
Industrial gas turbine engines, –
advantages, –
classification of, –
combined gas turbine, –
disadvantages,
double-shaft engine
free-power turbine, – , – , –
regenerative cycle, – thermal efficiency of gas, –
two-discrete shafts (spools), –
GE- B gas turbine, –
GE- H combined-cycle gas turbine, –
history of, –
marine gas turbines
additional components for, –
advantages,
examples, –
split-shaft gas-turbine engines,
micro-gas turbines
bearings, selection and design of,
compressor and turbine,
electric generation, –
manufacturing process,
power generation,
vs. typical-gas turbines,
offshore gas turbines,
single-shaft engine
combined intercooling, regeneration, and reheat, –
ideal cycle, –
intercooling, –
real cycle, –
regeneration, –
reheat, –
three-spool gas turbine
aeroderivative gas turbine, –
equal efficiencies,
free-power turbine, intercooler, regenerator and reheater, –
overall compression work,
types of, –
Inlet guide vanes (IGV), , ,
In-line engines, ,
Intercoolers
applications, – ,
design technologies,
drawbacks, effectiveness, –
Intermediate-pressure turbine (IPT),
Internal combustion (IC) engines, –
aerodynamics and thermodynamics
air-standard analysis,
four-stroke diesel engine, –
four-stroke engine, terminology, , –
four-stroke spark ignition Otto cycle, –
piston engines,
superchargers/turbochargers, –
aero piston engine
classification,
compression-ignition engine,
definition,
piston-powered aircraft and helicopters, –
reciprocating engines, –
rotary engine, –
spark-ignition engine,
supercharging and turbocharging, –
airship,
aviation statistics, –
development of,
single-cylinder gas engine,
Internal thrust vectoring (ITV), –
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA),
Inter-turbine burners (ITB)
pollutants reduction,
thermodynamic analysis, –
turbofan engine, cycle calculation for, –
Inward-flow radial (IFR),
Iris variable nozzle,
Isentropic compression, ,
Isentropic flow,
Ishikawajima Ne- ,
ITB, Inter-turbine burners
JJatropha,
Jet Bomb (JB- ),
Jet engines
advantages, –
axial compressors,
performance parameters
aircraft range, –
endurance factor, –
mission segment weight fraction, –
overall efficiency, –
propeller efficiency,
propulsive efficiency, –
range factor,
route planning, –
specific fuel consumption, –
specific impulse, –
takeoff thrust, , –
thermal efficiency, –
reaction engines,
thrust force
air mass flow rate,
airspeed, –
air temperature and pressure, –
altitude, –
control volume, –
fuel-to-air ratio,
inlet air mass flow rate,
jet nozzle,
net thrust,
outlet gas mass flow rate,
ram effect, –
thrust, lift, drag, and weight,
thrust power, –
turbojet engine, –
turboprop engines,
for two-stream engines, Joint Government/Industry Research and Development (JIRAD) program,

Joint strike fighter (JSF),
JT ,
JT ,
Jumo B turbojet engines, –
Junker Jumo turbojet engines,
Jupiter Flyer, –
K
Kirchhoff (K) equation,
Kuznetsov NK- ,
Kuznetsov NK- triple-spool afterburning mixed turbofan engine, –

L
Lagrangian approach,
Lift-to-drag ratio, –
Lilienthal, Otto,
Liquid-fuel ramjet (LFRJ),
Liquid oxygen–liquid hydrogen rocket engine, –
Liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE), –
combustion products,
liquid fuels,
oxidizers,
propellant feed system
pressure-fed engines, –
pump-fed system,
Liquid propellants
bipropellant, –
liquid oxygen–liquid hydrogen rocket engine, –
monopropellant, –
Lockheed Martin
Desert Hawk III UAV,
F- Lightning II,
F- Raptor, X- ,
X- ,
Lockheed Tristar,
LoFlyte,
Loss coefficient, , –
Louver cooling technique,
Low emissions combustor (LEC),
Low-pressure compressor (LPC), , , – ,
Low-thrust class turbofan engines,
LRE, Liquid-propellant rocket engine
Luna-Glob spacecraft,
Lycoming ALF R, , –
Lyulka AL- ,
Lyulka AL- ,
M
Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) accelerator,
Marine gas turbines
additional components for, –
advantages,
examples, –
split-shaft gas-turbine engines,
Mass ratio (MR),
MAVEN spacecraft,
Mean effective pressure (MEP), –
Mean flow (two-dimensional approach), –
enthalpy velocity variations, –
tangential plane,
velocity triangle types, –
Mechanical thrust vectoring, –
Medium altitude, long endurance, long range (MALE) UAVs,
Messerschmitt Me jet fighter,
Micro air vehicles (MAVs), ,
Micro-gas turbines
bearings, selection and design of,
compressor and turbine, electric generation, –
manufacturing process,
power generation,
vs. typical-gas turbines,
Micro turbojet engines
C missile,
cross-section of, –
data for, –
dimensions and weight,
Harpoon missile, –
Storm shadow missile, –
US Tomahawk missile,
Military rockets
auxiliary rockets, –
characteristics,
combat rockets,
launching site, location of,
target type,
Mini-unmanned air vehicles (MUAVs), –
Missiles
auxiliary components
fins, –
wings, –
external configuration,
mid-section,
nose section, –
range,
tail section, –
types of, –
warheads,
Mission segment weight fraction, –
Mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine,
single-spool engine, –
two-spool engine, –
CFM - C mixed high-BPR, –
energy balance, –
layout, – mixed and unmixed types, –
with mixer, –
mixing process, –
temperature-entropy diagram, –
Mixed turbofan with afterburner, –
Adour Mk. ,
high specific thrust engines, –
ideal cycle, –
RD- ,
real cycle,
Modified momentum model, –
Module matching
definition,
off-design operation
of free turbine engine, –
of single-shaft gas turbine, –
of turbojet engine, –
Momentum equation, –
Monopropellants, –
MQ- B Fire Scout rotor wing, –
MUAVs, Mini-unmanned air vehicles
Multiple-stage centrifugal rocket pumps, ,
Multi-spool compressor, –
Multispool impulse rocket turbines,
Multistage aircraft,
Multistage axial rocket pumps, ,
N
NACA, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Nano air vehicles (NAVs),
NASA AD- , –
NASA Helios,
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), – ,
National Aerospace Plane (NASP), –
Naval rockets,
Navier–Stokes equations, Nene turbojet engine, –
Net positive suction head (NPSH),
Neutral burning, definition, –
New Aero Engine Corp Concepts (NEWAC),
Newton, Sir Isaac, , ,
Newton’s steam wagon, –
Nimrod aircraft,
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, – , ,
Noise, – , –
acoustics model theory, –
aircraft, sources of, ,
corrugated perimeter noise suppressor,
definition,
eccentric coannular nozzle,
ejector-suppressor,
exhaust mixing and shock structure, –
FAA regulations,
jet engine,
lateral noise level, improvement in, –
lobe-tube nozzle, –
sonic boom, –
suppressor-reverser,
turbofan engines, – ,
turbojet engines, –
unit,
Non-airbreathing engines, – , , ; Rocket engines
Nonchemical rockets,
Non-nuclear turbojet engine, –
North American Aviation,
Northrop Grumman RQ- Global Hawk, –
Nose installation,
Nose-mounted turboprop engine,
Nozzles
aft-fan,
annular nozzles, –
axisymmetric nozzles,
bell nozzles, – C-D nozzle, – , –
conical nozzles, –
convergent nozzle, , – , –
mass flow rate, –
requirements,
rocket engine, –
scramjet engine, – ,
single-spool turbojet engine
ideal cycle, –
real cycle, –
switch-in deflector system
cruise,
takeoff/lift thrust,
thrust vectoring, , , ,
two-dimensional supersonic nozzle
convergent nozzle, –
divergent nozzle, –
two-spool turbojet engine, –
variable geometry nozzles
for afterburning engine,
central plug,
ejector nozzle, –
iris nozzle,
Nuclear-powered jet engines, –
Nuclear ramjet engine, , –
Nuclear rocket propulsion
gas-core reactor,
solid-core reactor, –
sources,
Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP),
Nuclear turbojet engine, –
O
Offshore gas turbines,
Ogival nose, missiles, –
Otto cycle engines, air/fuel and fuel/air ratios, –
constant pressure exhaust stroke,
constant pressure suction,
constant-volume heat addition,
constant volume heat rejection,
isentropic compression stroke,
isentropic power/expansion stroke, –
performance parameters, –
power generation and fuel consumption, –
propulsive efficiency,
P–v and T–S diagrams,
SFC, –
thermal efficiency, – ,
vs. two-stroke engines, –
volumetric efficiency, –
Overall efficiency
definition,
ramjet engines, , ,
rocket engine,
scramjet engine,
turbofan engines, –
turbojet engine,
Over-oxidized, definition,
Over/under turboramjet, ,
dual mode, –
fuselage installation, –
layout of,
ramjet mode,
T–S diagram of,
turbojet mode,
wing installation,
P
Parabolic series nose, missiles, –
Particulate matter (PM),
Pegasus booster rocket, – Pegasus engine, –
Perforation, definition,
Piaggio P- Avanti Rennes,
Piston engines, , , , –
Piston speed,
Pluto reactor,
Point of no return (PNR), –
Pollutants
NO
x emissions, –
SO emissions, –
Power Jet W., –
Power loading (PL),
Powerplant installation
airframe manufacturer,
air intakes/inlets,
intake and engine, –
propulsion-airframe integration,
subsonic aircraft
turbojet and turbofan engines, –
turboprop installation, –
subsonic intakes
inlet performance, –
isentropic efficiency,
pitot intakes, –
stagnation-pressure ratio,
turbojet/turbofan engines,
turboprop inlets, , –
supersonic aircraft
civil transports,
military aircraft, –
supersonic intakes
axisymmetric and two-dimensional intakes,
diffuser design, –
examples, –
external compression intakes, –
fixed-geometry intakes,
internal compression inlet, – internal, external and mixed-compression, –
mixed compression intakes, –
normal shock waves, –
oblique shock waves, –
stratosphere adiabatic efficiency,
variable-geometry intakes, –
turbo ramjet engine
eight-oblique-shocks, , –
fighter aircraft (F- A), –
four oblique shocks, – ,
intake geometry,
Power plants, UAVs
electric engines, –
engine characteristics, –
gas turbine engines,
internal combustion engines, –
Power series nose, missiles, –
Pratt & Whitney
FT- ,
J- engine,
J -P- ,
JT D- engine,
JT D engine, –
powerplant developments, –
PT and PT A engine, – ,
PW , –
P&W JT D- As,
PW series, ,
Predator B,
Pre–jet engines
airship,
Barber’s gas turbine, –
Branca’s stamping mill, –
da Vinci’s chimney jack,
Du Temple’s airplane,
fire arrows, –
Ford Trimotor, – four-stroke engines,
glider of Otto Lilienthal,
Hero’s aeolipile, –
hot-air balloon, –
human-carrying glider,
hydravion, –
internal combustion engines, development of,
marine flying,
Newton’s steam wagon, –
reciprocating engines, –
reciprocating hot-air engine,
single-cylinder gas engine,
triplane glider,
Vickers Gunbus, –
Wan Hu’s chair, –
Wright brothers, –
XI monoplane, –
Zeppelin airships,
Pressure-fed rocket engine, –
Pressure loss factor (PLF),
Prewhirl
axial velocity,
bending stress,
curved-beam nomenclature,
IGV,
iteration procedure, –
Mach number,
radial compressors,
stress, curved beams, –
velocity triangle
constant inlet relative angle, –
constant prewhirl angle, –
inlet with slip,
no prewhirl, –
Primary combustion zone,
Profile loss, –
Progress D- engines, – Progressive burning, definition,
Propellant feed system
pressure-fed engines, –
pump-fed system,
Propellant mass fraction,
Propeller efficiency,
Propfan engines
counterrotating propfan, –
D- , –
-DX engine,
F. / ,
features of,
GE UDF, –
NASA HamStan,
NK- ,
Progress D- propfan, –
propulsive efficiency, –
single rotation, –
thermal efficiency,
vs. turboprop engines,
types,
UDF, –
-DX,
GE UDF, ,
MD- , –
UHB,
Propulsion-airframe integration, Powerplant installation
Propulsion rocket system
electrostatic, –
charged ions, –
electrical efficiency, –
mathematical model, –
total efficiency,
hybrid, –
advantages and disadvantages, –
empirical relation, –
nuclear, gas-core reactor,
solid-core reactor, –
Propulsive efficiency, , –
aircraft range,
definition,
effective jet velocity, –
external efficiency,
ramjet engines, – , , ,
rocket engine, –
scramjet, –
single and contrarotating propfan engines, –
turbofan engine, – , –
turbojet engines, –
turboprop engines, –
Prox Dynamics Picoflyer,
PT turboshaft engine,
Pulse detonation engine (PDE),
Pulsejet engines, ,
Fieseler Fi- Reichenberg,
flow parameters, pulsating nature of, –
JB- ,
Jumo ,
Ka- ,
operation, –
PJ- - ,
pulse detonation engine,
combined cycle,
example, –
hybrid PDEs, –
objective of,
pure PDEs,
specific impulse for, –
thermodynamic cycle, –
RD- /D- ,
stationary modules,
in tethered and radiocontrol model aircraft,
valved enginecombustion chamber,
cycle, –
drawback of,
examples, –
German V- missile, , –
intake/diffuser, –
one-way/check valves, –
valveless engine, – , –
Pump-fed rocket engines, , –
Pumps, rocket,
axial pumps, –
centrifugal pumps
configurations, –
elements of, –
head and flow rate,
performance, –
velocity triangles,
materials and fabrication process,
multiple-stage centrifugal pumps,
multistage axial pumps,
parallel and series, –
pump-fed system, –
specific speed, –
SSME,
R
Radial engines, , –
Radial inflow turbines
applications,
characteristics, ,
cooling techniques, –
dimensionless parameters
flow coefficient,
rotor meridional velocity ratio,
specific speed,
stage loading, history,
isentropic efficiency,
layout of, –
losses, breakdown of, –
one-dimensional design procedure, –
operating conditions,
power, –
preliminary design, –
thermodynamics
temperature–entropy diagram, –
total-to-total efficiency,
velocity triangles in, –
Ram effect, – , –
Ramjet engines, ,
advantages,
contributors,
disadvantages, ,
DTR engine,
elements,
fixed geometry, –
ideal ramjet
fuel-to-air ratio,
modules, states of, –
specific thrust, , –
thermal efficiency, –
thermodynamic cycle, –
thrust force, –
TSFC, ,
isentropic flow,
Leduc ,
liquid-fuel ramjet,
nuclear ramjet engine, , –
in operational missile programs,
performance parameters, –
pioneers,
ram effect,
Rayleigh flow, – real ramjet, – , –
shock waves
normal shock wave, – ,
oblique shock wave,
solid-fuel ramjet, , –
speed, – ,
subsonic ramjets, , , –
supersonic ramjets, – , – , –
thermal efficiency,
variable geometry, – , –
Ramp injectors,
Range factor (RF),
Rankine-Froude theory, Actuator disk theory
Rayleigh flow, –
RD- afterburning turbofan TVC engine,
RD- K booster turbojet engines, –
Reaction engines,
Reaction rocket turbines, –
Real Brayton cycle
combustion chamber, –
compressor,
turbine, –
Rear frame,
Reciprocating engines,
examples, –
horizontally opposed engine, –
H-type engine,
in-line engine, –
radial type engine, –
V-type engines,
X-type engines,
Recuperative turboshaft engines,
Recuperators
applications, ,
drawbacks,
performance requirements,
turbofan engine, thermodynamic cycle of, – Regressive burning, definition,
Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), –
Resistojets, , –
Rocket engines; Rocket pumps
advantages,
axial turbines,
multispool impulse turbines,
reaction turbines, –
single-stage impulse turbine, –
chemical rockets, , –
classification of, –
application, based on,
energy source,
guidance systems,
launch mode,
military rockets, –
missiles, types of,
number of stages,
propulsion,
range,
warheads,
definition,
electrostatic propulsion, –
charged ions, –
electrical efficiency, –
mathematical model, –
total efficiency,
electrothermal,
arcjets,
electromagnetic engines, –
resistojets, –
history of
important events, –
recent and future plans, –
hybrid propulsion, –
advantages and disadvantages, –
combustion process, empirical relation, –
fuel–oxidizer combinations,
liquid propellants, –
bipropellant, –
liquid oxygen–liquid hydrogen rocket engine, –
monopropellant, –
missile configuration
external configuration,
factors affecting,
fins, –
mid-section,
nose section, –
tail section, –
wings, –
nonchemical rockets,
nuclear rocket propulsion
gas-core reactor,
solid-core reactor, –
sources,
performance characteristics,
performance parameters, –
characteristic velocity,
effective exhaust velocity, –
exhaust velocity, –
impulse-to-weight ratio,
mass ratio,
nozzle relations, –
overall efficiency,
propellant mass fraction,
propulsive efficiency, –
specific impulse, –
specific propellant consumption,
thermal efficiency, –
thrust coefficient, –
thrust force, –
total impulse,
pump-fed system, – solid propellants, –
advantages, –
burning rate, –
characteristics,
composition,
data for,
definitions, –
disadvantages,
features,
liquid-propellant rocket engine, –
motor, –
space flight
escape velocity, –
orbital velocity, –
staging
advantages and disadvantages,
Ariane rocket, –
multistage series rocket, –
parallel multistage rocket, –
single-stage rocket, –
three-stage rocket, –
Rocket pumps,
axial pumps, –
centrifugal pumps
configurations, –
elements of, –
head and flow rate,
performance, –
velocity triangles,
materials and fabrication process,
multiple-stage centrifugal pumps,
multistage axial pumps,
parallel and series, –
specific speed, –
SSME,
Rolls-Royce, –
AE C-Liberty, Avon and Olympus engines,
Conway engine,
DART, ,
Gem,
Industrial Trent,
MT ,
Nene engine, – ,
Pegasus, –
Proteus gas turbine engines,
RB , , ,
RB Trent,
Spey engine,
Tay engine,
Trent ,
Trent series,
Tyne,
Rolls Royce/SNECMA Olympus turbojets, , , – ,
Rosetta spacecraft, –
Rotary engines, – , ,
conventional types,
Wankel engine, –
Rotational speed (RPM) and annulus dimesnsions, –
Rotor blade, – , ,
characteristics,
hub-to-tip variations in,
material selection,
mechanical stresses,
row layouts, –
stresses on,
vibration analysis,
vibration stresses, –
Rotor meridional velocity ratio,
Rotor-wing unmanned air vehicles (RUAVs), –
Route planning, –
CP/ETP, –
PNR/PSR, –
track, Rudders, –
S
Safety fuels,
Sand-erosion tests,
Saturn V rocket, ,
SCR, Selective catalytic reduction
Scramjet engine, – ,
applications,
combustion chamber, – , –
disadvantages, –
dual-mode,
dual ram-scramjet engine
aero-thermodynamics, –
configuration and station, –
isolator, –
T–S diagram of, –
intake of, –
layout of, ,
nozzle, – ,
overall efficiency,
vs. ramjet, –
schematic representation, –
thermodynamics,
thrust force,
X- A,
Secondary flow loss,
Second-generation biofuels,
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), –
Selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), –
SFC, Specific fuel consumption
SFRJ, Solid-fuel ramjet
Shaft horsepower (SHP),
Shaft power (SP),
Shenyang J- Chinese fighter,
Shock loss model, Shock thrust-vector control,
Short takeoff and landing (STOL), Vertical/short takeoff and landing
(V/STOL)
Simple vortex model, –
Simplified radial equilibrium equation (SRE), –
Single-cylinder gas engine,
Single-expansion ramp nozzle (SERN),
Single-shaft gas turbine engine, –
combined intercooling, regeneration, and reheat, –
different loads,
intercooling, –
layout,
procedure, –
regeneration, –
reheat, –
single compressor and turbine
ideal cycle, –
real cycle, –
Single-spool turbofan engines, –
BPR, , –
combustion chamber,
compressor,
fan nozzle, –
forward fan,
intake,
turbine, –
turbine nozzle, –
Single-spool turbojet engine
at altitude of km for inoperative afterburner
afterburner fuel-to-air ratio, variations in, –
fuel-to-air ratio and propulsive efficiency, variations in, –
specific thrust and TSFC, variations in,
at altitude of km for operative afterburner
fuel-to-air ratio and afterburner fuel-to-air ratio, variations in


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