كتاب أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية - Basic Electrical Engineering
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 كتاب أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية - Basic Electrical Engineering

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية - Basic Electrical Engineering    كتاب أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية - Basic Electrical Engineering  Emptyالخميس 10 نوفمبر 2022, 1:26 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية
Basic Electrical Engineering
For B.E./B.Tech. and Other Engineering Examinations
V. K. Mehta, Rohit Mehta

كتاب أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية - Basic Electrical Engineering  B_e_e_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Chapter Pages
1. Basic Concepts 1 - 35
Nature of Electricity - Unit of Charge - The Electron - Energy of an Electron - Valence Electrons -
Free Electrons - Electric Current - Electric Current is a Scalar Quantity - Types of Electric
Current - Mechanism of Current Conduction in Metals - Relation Between Current and Drift
Velocity - Electric Potential - Potential Difference - Maintaining Potential Difference -
Concept of E.M.F. and Potential Difference - Potential Rise and Potential Drop - Resistance -
Factors Upon Which Resistance Depends - Specific Resistance or Resistivity - Conductance -
Types of Resistors - Effect of Temperature on Resistance - Temperature Co-efficient of
Resistance - Graphical Determination of a - Temperature Co-efficient at Various Temperatures -
Summary of Temperature Co-efficient Relations - Variation of Resistivity With Temperature -
Ohm’s Law - Non-ohmic Conductors - Electric Power - Electrical Energy - Use of Power and
Energy Formulas - Power Rating of a Resistor - Non-linear Resistors - Objective Questions.
2. D.C. Circuits 36 - 105
D.C. Circuit - D.C. Series Circuit - D.C. Parallel Circuit - Main Features of Parallel Circuits -
Two Resistances in Parallel - Advantages of Parallel Circuits - Applications of Parallel
Circuits - D.C. Series-Parallel Circuits - Applications of Series-Parallel Circuits - Internal
Resistance of a Supply - Equivalent Resistance - Open Circuits - Short Circuits - Duality
Between Series and Parallel Circuits - Wheatstone Bridge - Complex Circuits - Kirchhoff’s
Laws - Sign Convention - Illustration of Kirchhoff’s Laws - Method to Solve Circuits by
Kirchhoff’s Laws - Matrix Algebra - Voltage and Current Sources - Ideal Voltage Source
or Constant-Voltage Source - Real Voltage Source - Ideal Current Source - Real Current
Source - Source Conversion - Independent Voltage and Current Sources - Dependent Voltage
and Current Sources - Circuits With Dependent-Sources - Ground - Voltage Divider Circuit -
Objective Questions.
3. D.C. Network Theorems 106 - 238
Network Terminology - Network Theorems and Techniques - Important Points About Network
Analysis - Maxwell’s Mesh Current Method - Shortcut Procedure for Network Analysis by
Mesh Currents - Nodal Analysis - Nodal Analysis with Two Independent Nodes - Shortcut
Method for Nodal Analysis - Superposition Theorem - Thevenin’s Theorem - Procedure
for Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit - Thevenin Equivalent Circuit - Advantages
of Thevenin’s Theorem - Norton’s Theorem - Procedure for Finding Norton Equivalent
Circuit - Norton Equivalent Circuit - Maximum Power Transfer Theorem - Proof of
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem - Applications of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem -
Reciprocity Theorem - Millman’s Theorem - Compensation Theorem - Delta/Star and Star/
Delta Transformation - Delta/Star Transformation - Star/Delta Transformation - Tellegen’s
Theorem - Objective Questions.
4. Units - Work, Power and Energy 239 - 259
International System of Units - Important Physical Quantities - Units of Work or Energy -
Some Cases of Mechanical Work or Energy - Electrical Energy - Thermal Energy - Units
of Power - Efficiency of Electric Device - Harmful Effects of Poor Efficiency - Heating
Effect of Electric Current - Heat Produced in a Conductor by Electric Current - Mechanical
Equivalent of Heat (J) - Objective Questions.
5. Electrostatics 260 - 294
Electrostatics - Importance of Electrostatics - Methods of Charging a Capacitor - Coulomb’s Laws
of Electrostatics - Absolute and Relative Permittivity - Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form - The
(v)Superposition Principle - Electric Field - Properties of Electric Lines of Force - Electric Intensity
or Field Strength (E) - Electric Flux (ψ) - Electric Flux Density (D) - Gauss’s Theorem -
Proof of Gauss’s Law - Electric Potential Energy - Electric Potential - Electric Potential
Difference - Potential at a Point Due to a Point Charge - Potential at a Point Due to Group of
Point Charges - Behaviour of Metallic Conductors in Electric Field - Potential of a Charged
Conducting Sphere - Potential Gradient - Breakdown Voltage or Dielectric Strength - Uses of
Dielectrics - Refraction of Electric Flux - Equipotential Surface - Motion of a Charged Particle
in Uniform Electric Field - Objective Questions.
6. Capacitance and Capacitors 295 - 349
Capacitor - How does a Capacitor Store Charge ? - Capacitance - Factors Affecting Capacitance -
Dielectric Constant or Relative Permittivity - Capacitance of an Isolated Conducting Sphere -
Capacitance of Spherical Capacitor - Capacitance of Parallel-Plate Capacitor with Uniform
Medium - Parallel-Plate Capacitor with Composite Medium - Special Cases of Parallel-Plate
Capacitor - Multiplate Capacitor - Cylindrical Capacitor - Potential Gradient in a Cylindrical
Capacitor - Most Economical Conductor Size in a Cable - Capacitance Between Parallel
Wires - Insulation Resistance of a Cable Capacitor - Leakage Resistance of a Capacitor - Voltage
Rating of a Capacitor - Capacitors in Series - Capacitors in Parallel - Joining Two Charged
Capacitors - Energy Stored in a Capacitor - Energy Density of Electric Field - Force on Charged
Plates - Behaviour of Capacitor in a D.C. Circuit - Charging of a Capacitor - Time Constant -
Discharging of a Capacitor - Transients in D.C. Circuits - Transient Relations During Charging
Discharging of Capacitor - Objective Questions.
7. Magnetism and Electromagnetism 350 - 385
Poles of a Magnet - Laws of Magnetic Force - Magnetic Field - Magnetic Flux - Magnetic Flux
Density - Magnetic Intensity or Magnetising Force (H) - Magnetic Potential - Absolute and
Relative Permeability - Relation Between B and H - Important Terms - Relation Between mr
and χm - Refraction of Magnetic Flux - Molecular Theory of Magnetism - Modern View about
Magnetism - Magnetic Materials - Electromagnetism - Magnetic Effect of Electric Current -
Typical Electromagnetic Fields - Magnetising Force (H) Produced by Electric Current - Force
on Current-Carrying Conductor Placed in a Magnetic Field - Ampere’s Work Law or Ampere’s
Circuital Law - Applications of Ampere’s Work Law - Biot-Savart Law - Applications of
Biot-Savart Law - Magnetic Field at the Centre of Current-Carrying Circular Coil - Magnetic
Field Due to Straight Conductor Carrying Current - Magnetic Field on the Axis of Circular Coil
Carrying Current - Force Between Current-Carrying Parallel Conductors - Magnitude of Mutual
Force - Definition of Ampere - Objective Questions.
8. Magnetic Circuits 386 - 429
Magnetic Circuit - Analysis of Magnetic Circuit - Important Terms - Comparison Between
Magnetic and Electric Circuits - Calculation of Ampere-Turns - Series Magnetic Circuits - Air
Gaps in Magnetic Circuits - Parallel Magnetic Circuits - Magnetic Leakage and Fringing -
Solenoid - B-H Curve - Magnetic Calculations From B-H Curves - Determination of B/H or
Magnetisation Curve - B-H Curve by Ballistic Galvanometer - B-H Curve by Fluxmeter -
Magnetic Hysteresis - Hysteresis Loss - Calculation of Hysteresis Loss - Factors Affecting
the Shape and Size of Hysteresis Loop - Importance of Hysteresis Loop - Applications of
Ferromagnetic Materials - Steinmetz Hysteresis Law - Comparison of Electrostatics and
Electromagnetic Terms - Objective Questions.
9. Electromagnetic Induction 430 - 480
Electromagnetic Induction - Flux Linkages - Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Induction -
Direction of Induced E.M.F. and Current - Induced E.M.F. - Dynamically Induced E.M.F. -
Statically Induced E.M.F. - Self-inductance (L) - Magnitude of Self-induced E.M.F. - Expressions
for Self-inductance - Magnitude of Mutually Induced E.M.F. - Expressions for Mutual
Inductance - Co-efficient of Coupling - Inductors in Series - Inductors in Parallel with no Mutual
Inductance - Inductors in Parallel with Mutual Inductance - Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field -
(vi)Magnetic Energy Stored Per Unit Volume - Lifting Power of a Magnet - Closing and Breaking an
Inductive Circuit - Rise of Current in an Inductive Circuit - Time Constant - Decay of Current
in an Inductive Circuit - Eddy Current Loss - Formula for Eddy Current Power Loss - Objective
Questions.
10. Chemical Effects of Electric Current 481 - 520
Electric Behaviour of Liquids - Electrolytes - Mechanism of Ionisation - Electrolysis - Back
e.m.f. or Polarisation Potential - Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis - Relation Between E and Z -
Deduction of Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis - Practical Applications of Electrolysis - Cell - Types
of Cells - Lead-Acid Cell - Chemical Changes During Discharging - Chemical Changes During
Recharging - Formation of Plates of Lead-acid Cells - Construction of a Lead-acid Battery -
Characteristics of a Lead-acid Cell - Curves of a Lead-acid Cell - Indications of a Fully Charged
Lead-acid Cell - Load Characteristics of a Lead-acid Cell - Sulphation of Plates - Methods
of Charging Batteries - Important Points About Charging of Lead-Acid Batteries - Effects of
Overcharging - Care of Lead-acid Batteries - Applications of Lead-acid Batteries - Voltage
Control Methods - Alkaline Batteries - Nickel-Iron Cell or Edison Cell - Electrical Characteristics
of Nickel-Iron Cell - Nickel-Cadmium Cell - Comparison of Lead-acid Cell and Edison Cell -
Silver-Zinc Batteries - Solar Cells - Fuel Cells - Objective Questions.
11. A.C. Fundamentals 521 - 577
Alternating Voltage and Current - Sinusoidal Alternating Voltage and Current - Why Sine
Waveform? - Generation of Alternating Voltages and Currents - Equation of Alternating
Voltage and Current - Important A.C. Terminology - Important Relations - Different Forms
of Alternating Voltage - Values of Alternating Voltage and Current - Peak Value - Average
Value - Average Value of Sinusoidal Current - R.M.S. or Effective Value - R.M.S. Value of
Sinusoidal Current - Importance of R.M.S. Values - Form Factor and Peak Factor - Complex
Waveforms - R.M.S. Value of a Complex Wave - Phase - Phase Difference - Representation
of Alternating Voltages and Currents - Phasor Representation of Sinusoidal Quantities - Phasor
Diagram of Sine Waves of Same Frequency - Addition of Alternating Quantities - Subtraction
of Alternating Quantities - Phasor Diagrams Using R.M.S. Values - Instantaneous Power - A.C.
Circuit Containing Resistance Only - A.C. Circuit Containing Pure Inductance Only - A.C.
Circuit Containing Capacitance Only - Complex Waves and A.C. Circuit - Fundamental Power
and Harmonic Power - Objective Questions.
12. Series A.C. Circuits 578 - 633
R-L Series A.C. Circuit - Impedance Triangle - Apparent, True and Reactive Powers - Power
Factor - Significance of Power Factor - Q-factor of a Coil - Power in an Iron-Cored Choking
Coil - R-C Series A.C. Circuit - Equivalent Circuit for a Capacitor - R-L-C Series A.C.
Circuit - Resonance in A.C. Circuits - Resonance in Series A.C. Circuit (Series Resonance) -
Resonance Curve - Q-Factor of Series Resonant Circuit - Bandwidth of a Series Resonant
Circuit - Expressions for Half-power Frequencies - To Prove : fr = f f 1 2 - Expressions for
Bandwidth - Important Relations in R-L-C Series Circuit - Applications of Series Resonant
Circuits - Decibels - Objective Questions.
13. Phasor Algebra 634 - 665
Notation of Phasors on Rectangular Co-ordinate Axes - Significance of Operatorj - Mathematical
Representation of Phasors - Conversion from One Form to the Other - Addition and Subtraction
of Phasors - Conjugate of a Complex Number - Multiplication and Division of Phasors - Powers
and Roots of Phasors - Applications of Phasor Algebra to A.C. Circuits - R-L Series A.C.
Circuit - R-C Series A.C. Circuit - R-L-C Series A.C. Circuit - Power Determination Using
Complex Notation - Power Determination by Conjugate Method - A.C. Voltage Divider -
Objective Questions.
(vii)14. Parallel A.C. Circuits 666 - 721
Methods of Solving Parallel A.C. Circuits - By Phasor Diagram - By Phasor Algebra - Equivalent
Impedance Method - Admittance (Y) - Importance of Admittance in Parallel A.C. Circuit
Analysis - Admittance Triangle - Admittance Method for Parallel Circuit Solution - Application
of Admittance Method - Some Cases of Parallel Connected Elements - Series-Parallel A.C.
Circuits - Series-to-Parallel Conversion and Vice-Versa - Resonance in Parallel A.C. Circuits
(Parallel Resonance) - Graphical Representation of Parallel Resonance - Q-factor of a Parallel
Resonant Circuit - Bandwidth of Parallel Resonant Circuit - Key Points About Parallel
Resonance - General Case for Parallel Resonance - Comparison of Series and Parallel Resonant
Circuits - Objective Questions.
15. Polyphase Circuits 722 - 829
Polyphase System - Reasons for the Use of 3-phase System - Elementary 3-Phase Alternator -
Some Concepts in 3-Phase System - Interconnection of Three Phases - Star or Wye Connected
System - Important 3-Phase Terminology - Voltages and Currents in Balanced Y-Connected
Supply System - Checking Correct Connections for Y-connected Alternator - Delta (D) or Mesh
Connected System - Correct and Incorrect D Connections of Alternator - Voltages and Currents
in Balanced D Connected Supply System - Advantages of Star and Delta Connected Systems -
Constancy of Total Power in Balanced 3-phase System - Effects of Phase Sequence - Phase
Sequence Indicator - Y/D or D/Y Conversions for Balanced Loads - 3-phase Balanced Loads
in Parallel - Use of Single-Phase Wattmeter - Power Measurement in 3-phase Circuits - ThreeWattmeter Method - Two-Wattmeter Method - Proof for Two-Wattmeter Method - Determination
of P.F. of Load by Two-wattmeter Method (For balanced Y or D load only) - Effect of Load p.f.
on Wattmeter Readings - Leading Power Factor - How to Apply p.f. Formula ? - One-Wattmeter
Method–Balanced Load - Reactive Power with Two-Wattmeter Method - Reactive Power with
One Wattmeter - Unbalanced 3-Phase Loads - Four-Wire Star-Connected Unbalanced Load -
UnbalancedD-Connected Load - Unbalanced 3-Wire Star-Connected Load - Methods of Solving
Unbalanced 3-wire Y load - Solving Unbalanced 3-Wire Y Load by Kirchhoff’s Laws - Solving
Unbalanced 3-wire Y Load By Loop Current Method - Solving Unbalanced 3-Wire Y Load by
Y/D Conversion - Solving Unbalanced 3-Wire Y Load by Millman’s Theorem - Significance
of Power Factor - Disadvantages of Low Power Factor - Causes of Low Power Factor - Power
Factor Improvement - Power Factor Improvement Equipment - Calculations of Power Factor
Correction - Objective Questions.
16. Electrical Instruments and Electrical Measurements 830 - 935
Classification of Electrical Measuring Instruments - Types of Secondary Instruments - Principles
of Operation of Electrical Instruments - Essentials of Indicating Instruments - Deflecting
Torque - Controlling Torque - Damping Torque - Ammeters and Voltmeters - Permanent-Magnet
Moving Coil (PMMC) Instruments (Ammeters and Voltmeters) - Extension of Range of PMMC
Instruments - Extension of Range of PMMC Ammeter - Extension of Range of PMMC Voltmeter -
Voltmeter Sensitivity - Dynamometer Type Instruments (Ammeters and Voltmeters) - Deflectiing
Torque (Td) of Dynamometer Type Instruments in Terms of Mutual Inductance - Range Extension
of Dynamometer Type Instruments - Moving-Iron (M.I.) Ammeters and Voltmeters - Attraction
Type M.I. Instruments - Repulsion Type M.I. Instruments - Td of M.I. Instruments in Terms of
Self-Inductance - Sources of Errors in Moving Iron Instruments - Characteristics of MovingIron Instruments - Extending Range of Moving-Iron Instruments - Comparison of Moving
Coil, Dynamometer type and Moving Iron Voltmeters and Ammeters - Hot-Wire Ammeters
and Voltmeters - Thermocouple Instruments - Electrostatic Voltmeters - Attracted Disc Type
Voltmeter - Quadrant Type Voltmeter - Multicellular Electrostatic Voltmeter - Characteristics
of Electrostatic Voltmeters - Range Extension of Electrostatic Voltmeters - Induction Type
Instruments - Induction Ammeters and Voltmeters - Characteristics of Induction Ammeters
and Voltmeters - Wattmeters - Dynamometer Wattmeter - Characteristics of Dynamometer
Wattmeters - Wattmeter Errors - Induction Wattmeters - Three-phase Wattmeter - Watthour
(viii)Meters or Energy Meters - Commutator Motor Meter - Mercury Motor Watthour Meter -
Induction Watthour Meters or Energy Meters - Single-Phase Induction Watthour Meters or
Energy Meters - Errors in Induction Watthour Meters - Three-Phase Watthour Meter - D.C.
Potentiometer - Direct Reading Potentiometers - Modern D.C. Potentiometers - Crompton D.C.
Potentiometers - Volt Ratio Box - Applications of D.C. Potentiometers - A.C. Potentiometer -
Drysdale A.C. Potentiometer - Ballistic Galvanometer - Vibration Galvanometer - Frequency
Meters - Vibrating-Reed Frequency meter - Electrodynamic Frequency Meter - Moving-Iron
Frequency Meter - Power Factor Meters - Single-Phase Electrodynamic Power Factor Meter - 3-
Phase Electrodynamic Power Factor Meter - Moving-Iron Power Factor Meter - 3-Voltmeter
Method of Determining Phase Angle - Ohmmeter - Megger - Instrument Transformers - Current
Transformer (C.T.) - Potential Transformer (P.T.) - Advantages of Instrument Transformers -
Objective Questions.
17. A.C. Network Analysis 936 - 983
A.C. Network Analysis - Kirchhoff’s Laws for A.C. Circuits - A.C. Mesh Current Analysis - A.C.
Nodal Analysis - Superposition Theorem for A.C. Circuits - Thevenin’s Theorem for A.C.
Circuits - Norton’s Theorem for A.C. Circuits - Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits -
Millman’s Theorem for A.C. Circuits - Reciprocity Theorem - Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
for A.C. Circuits - A.C. Network Transformations - Objective Questions.
Index 985 - 989
A
Absolute permeability, 355
Absolute permittivity, 263
Absolute potential, 278
Admittance, 669
Air dielectric capacitor, 304
Air gap, 390
Alternating current, 521
- average value, 532
- effective value, 535
- peak value, 532
- voltage, 521
Ampere, 381
- turns, 386
Angular velocity, 527
Apparent Power, 581
Atom, 2
Average Power (a.c.) :
- in pure resistance, 565
- in pure inductance, 569
- in pure capacitance, 573
- in R-L series circuit, 579
- in R-C series circuit, 597
- in R-L-C series circuit, 606
- three phase circuit, 731
B
Balanced three phase, 728
Bandwidth :
- series resonant circuit, 617
Battery (Lead-Acid), 492
- care, 509
- charging, 504
- chemical action, 492
- construction, 496
- resistance, 498
- sulphation, 503
B–H curve, 404
Bridge :
- Wheatstone, 62
C
Calorie, 242
Capacitance :
- in d.c. circuit, 296
- in a.c. circuit, 571
- parallel plate, 301
Capacitive reactance, 572
Capacitor, 295
- dielectric materials, 285
- in parallel, 320
- in series, 319
Cell, 491
- alkaline, 512
- lead-acid, 492
- nickel-cadmium, 514
- solar, 516
Charge, 1
Circuit :
- d.c. series, 36
- d.c. parallel, 39
- d.c. series-parallel, 48
- a.c. series, 578
- a.c. parallel, 666
- polyphase, 722 – 829
Co-efficient :
- of coupling, 447
- temperature, 18
Compass, 352
Conductance, 669
Conventional current, 4
Cost of energy, 30
Coulomb, 1
985
Index986 Basic Electrical Engineering
Coulomb’s Laws, 350
Complex Numbers, 634 – 665
- addition and subtraction, 639
- conjugate, 641
- multiplication and division, 641
- polar form, 637
Current :
- alternating, 521
- conventional, 4
- direct, 4
- electron, 1
Cutting of flux, 431
Cycle, alternating current, 526
D
Decaying - R-L circuit, 471
Delta connection, 740
Delta-Wye transformation, 216
Dielectric :
- constant, 297
- strength, 285
Discharging :
- battery, 492
- capacitor, 338
E
Eddy current loss, 476
Effective value :
- sinusoidal, 535
Electric field, 268
- intensity, 269
- energy stored, 328
Electric force between :
- parallel plates, 332
Electric Potential, 7
- difference, 8
Electromagnetic force between :
- current carrying conductors, 380
- Current carrying conductor in magnetic
field, 364
Electromagnetic induction, 430
- Faraday’s laws, 431
Electromotive force, 431
Electrons :
- valence, 2
- free, 2
- theory, 1
Energy :
- electrical, 241
- thermal, 242
- stored in electric field, 328
- stored in magnetic field, 459
F
Farad, 297
Faraday’s laws :
- electromagnetic induction, 431
Field :
- electric, 268
- magnetic, 352
Field intensity :
- electric, 269
- magnetic, 355
Figure of merit (Q), 583
Fleming’s rule :
- left-hand, 365
- right-hand, 433
Form factor, 538
Flux :
- electric, 273
- magnetic, 352
- leakage (magnetic), 391
- linkages, 431
Flux-density :
- electric, 273
- magnetic, 353
Free electrons, 2
Free space :
- permeability, 355
- permittivity, 263
Frequency, 527Index 987
G
Generator :
- elementary a.c., 523
Graphical representation of :
- temperature co-efficient, 18
H
Henry, 440
Horse power, 243
Hydrometer, 502
Hysteresis :
- phenomenon, 417
- loss, 419
I
Impedance, 579
- triangle, 580
Inductance :
- self, 439
- mutual, 445
Instruments :
- controlling torque, 832
- damping torque, 836
- deflecting torque, 832
- dynamometer type instruments, 851
- electrostatic voltmeters, 871
- frequency meter, 919
- hot-wire instruments, 867
- induction type instruments, 878
- induction wattmeters, 893
- induction watthour meter, 902
- moving-iron instruments, 857
- permanent magnet moving-coil instruments, 838
- power factor meter, 923
- wattmeters, 882
Internal resistance :
- battery, 498
- supply, 49
K
Kilovolt-ampere, 581
Kilowatt-hour, 30
Kirchhoff’s laws :
- current, 65
- voltage, 66
L
Laminations, 476
Leakage flux, 391
Lenz’s law, 432
Line voltage, 730
Lines of force :
- electric, 269
- magnetic, 352
Loads :
- balanced Y, 728
- balanced ∆, 728
- unbalanced 4-wire Y, 787
Losses :
- eddy currents, 476
M
Magnetic circuits, 386
- series, 389
- parallel, 390
Magnetic :
- attraction, 350
- field, 352
- materials, 360
- reluctance, 387
Magnetism :
- molecular theory, 358
- residual, 418
Magnetic fields :
- long straight conductors, 361
- parallel conductors, 361
- solenoid, 362
Magnetisation curves, 404
Magneto-motive force, 387988 Basic Electrical Engineering
Maximum power transfer, 198
Microfarad, 297
Millman’s theorem, 209
N
Negative temperature co-efficient, 18
Network theorems, 106 – 238
Newton, 240
Neutral current, 731
Neutral point, 727
Neutral wire, 727
Nickel-iron cell, 512
Nickel-cadmium cell, 514
Norton’s theorem, 179
Notation :
- double subscript, 726
- symbolic, 636
Numbers, complex, 634 – 655
Nucleus, 1
O
Oersted, 360
Ohm, 10
Ohm’s law, 27
P
Parallel circuits :
- a.c., 666 – 721
- capacitors, 320
- d.c., 39
- magnetic, 390
- resistance, 39
Parallel-plate capacitors, 301
Peak factor, 539
Peak value, 532
peak, a.c., 532
Permittivity, 263
Phase, 555
- difference, 555
Phasor, 556
Phase sequence, 725
Phase voltage, 727
Pico-farad, 297
Poles, 350
Polyphase circuits, 722
Potential, 7
Potential difference, 8
Power :
- active, 581
- apparent, 581
- reactive, 582
- three phase, 731, 743
Power factor, 583
- improvement, 817
- significance, 815
Power transfer theorem, 198
Primary cell, 491
Product-over sum rule :
- capacitors in series, 319
- resistors in parallel, 41
Protons, 1
Q
Quality factor (Q) :
- parallel circuits, 707
- series circuits, 617
Quadrature component, 635
R
Reactance :
- capacitive, 572
- inductive, 569
Reactive volt-ampere, 582
Real component, 635
Reciprocity theorem, 207
Relative permeability, 355
Reluctance, 387
Residual, 418
Resistance, 10
- combination in series, 36
- parallel combinations, 39
- temperature co-efficient, 18
- variation with temperature, 18Index 989
Resistivity, 11
Right-hand rule, 360
Root mean square value, 535
- mathematical determination, 537
S
Secondary cells, 491
- charging method, 504
Self-induced voltage, 438
Self-inductance, 439
- factors affecting, 440
Series circuits :
- d.c., 36
- a.c., 578 – 633
Series-parallel circuit, d.c., 48
Sine curve, 522
Sinusoidal waveform, 522
Solar cell, 516
Star connection, 727
Storage cells, 491
- Edison type, 512
- lead-acid, 492
- nickel-cadmium, 514
Superposition theorem, 133
Susceptance, 669
Symbolic notation, 636
System of units, S.I., 239
T
Temperature co-efficient of resistance, 18
Test charge, 278
Theorems (a.c.) :
- max. power transfer, 973
- Millman’s, 969
- Notron’s, 964
- superposition, 950
- Thevenin’s, 955
Theorems (d.c.) :
- max. power transfer, 198
- Millman’s, 209
- Norton’s, 179
- reciprocity, 207
- superposition, 133
- Thevenin’s, 150
Three phase circuits, 722 – 829
- delta connection, 740
- power, 731, 743
- star connection, 727
Thumb rule, 505
Time period, a.c., 526
Triangle impedance, 580
Trigonometrical form, 636
Two-wattmeter method, 765
U
Unbalanced load, 786
Unit magnetic pole, 351
Units :
- energy, 240
- power, 242
- thermal, 242
- work, 240
V
Var, 582
Voltage, 8
Volt-ampere, 581
Voltage law (Kirchhoff), 66
W
Wattless component, 582
Watt, 30
- component, 582
- hour, 30
- second, 30
Weber, 351
Wheatstone bridge, 62
Work, 240
Wye load, 728
Y
Y-load, 728
Y-∆ transformation, 217


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