كتاب Structural Modeling and Experimental Techniques
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 كتاب Structural Modeling and Experimental Techniques

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كتاب Structural Modeling and Experimental Techniques  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Structural Modeling and Experimental Techniques    كتاب Structural Modeling and Experimental Techniques  Emptyالأربعاء 13 يوليو 2022, 11:39 pm

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Structural Modeling and Experimental Techniques
Harry G. Harris
Drexel University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
and
Gajanan M. Sabnis
Howard University
Washington, D.C.

كتاب Structural Modeling and Experimental Techniques  S_m_a_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Modeling in Structural Engineering
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Structural Models — Definitions and Classifications
1.3 A Brief Historical Perspective on Modeling
1.4 Structural Models and Codes of Practice
1.5 Physical Modeling and the New Engineering Curriculum I
1.6 Choice of Geometric Scale '
1.7 The Modeling Process 1'
1.8 Advantages and Limitations of Model Analysis 1
1.9 Accuracy of Structural Models 1
1.10 Model Laboratories 1
1.11 Modeling Case Studies 1
1.12 Summary 3
Problems 3
References 3
Chapter 2 The Theory of Structural Models
2.1 Introduction -
2.2 Dimensions and Dimensional Homogeneity L
2.3 Dimensional Analysis ‘
2.4 Structural Models '
2.5 Similitude Requirements <
2.6 Summary '
Problems '
References I
Chapter 3 Elastic Models- Materials and Techniques
3.1 Introduction 1
3.2 Materials for Elastic Models !
3.3 Plastics :
3.4 Time Effects in Plastics — Evaluation and Compensation 1
3.5 Effects of Loading Rate, Temperature, and the Environment L
3.6 Special Problems Related to Plastic Models I1
3.7 Wood and Paper Products I1
3.8 Elastic Models — Design and Research Applications 1
3.9 Determination of Influence Lines and Influence Surfaces Using Indirect
Models — Muller-Breslau Principle 1
3.10 Summary . 1
Problems 1
References 1Chapter 4 Inelastic Models: Materials for Concrete and Concrete I
Masonry Structures
4.1 General
130
4.2 Prototype and Model Concretes 130
4.3 Engineering Properties of Concrete 131
4.4 Unconfined Compressive Strength and Stress-Strain Relationship 133
4.5 Tensile Strength of Concrete
, 142
4.6 Flexural Behavior of Prototype and Model Concrete 146
4.7 Behavior in Indirect Tension and Shear 148
4.8 Design Mixes for Model Concrete 153
4.9 Summary of Model Concrete Mixes Used by Various Investigators 159
4.10 Gypsum Mortars 165
4.11 Modeling of Concrete Masonry Structures ....170
4.12 Strength of Model Block Masonry Assemblages 188 I
4.13 Summary 202
Problems
202
References
205
Chapter 5 Inelastic Models: Structural Steel and Reinforcing Bars
5.1 Introduction
210
5.2 Steel
210
5.3 Structural Steel Models 214 I
5.4 Reinforcement for Small-Scale Concrete Models 230
5.5 Model Prestressing Reinforcement and Techniques 252 |
5.6 FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Models 255 I
5.8 5.7 Bond Bond Characteristics Similitude of Model Steel 259 |
5.9 Cracking Similitude and General Deformation Similitude in Reinforced 266 ;:
Concrete Elements
267 I
5.10 Summary 272
Problems
272 i
References
274
Chapter 6 Model FabricationTechniques
6.1 Introduction
280
6.2 Basic Cutting, Shaping, and Machining Operations 281
6.3 Basic Fastening and Gluing Techniques 283
6.4 Construction of Structural Steel Models 287
6.5 Construction of Plastic Models
288
6.6 Construction of Wood and Paper Models 296
6.7 Fabrication of Concrete Models 299
6.8 Fabrication of Concrete Masonry Models 309
6.9 Summary 312
Problems
312
References
315
Chapter 7 Instrumentation — Principles and Applications
7.1 General „320
7.2 Quantities to be Measured 320
7.3 Strain Measurements 322
7.4 Displacement Measurements 348
7.5 Full-Field Strain Measurements and Crack Detection Methods 351
7.6 Stress and Force Measurement 353
7.7 Temperature Measurements 361
7.8 Creep and Shrinkage Characteristics and Moisture Measurements 362
7.9 Data Acquisition and Reduction 364
7.10 Fiber Optics and Smart Structures 367
7.11 Summary 377
Problems . 377
References 381
Chapter 8 Loading Systems and Laboratory Techniques
8.1 Introduction 383
8.2 Types of Loads and Loading Systems 384
8.3 Discrete vs. Distributed Loads 389
8.4 Loadings for Shell and Other Models 390
8.5 Loading Techniques for Buckling Studies and For Structures Subject to Sway 400
8.6 Miscellaneous Loading Devices 404
8.7 Summary . 407
Problems 407
References 409
Chapter 9 Size Effects, Accuracy, and Reliability in Materials Systems and Models
9.1 General 412
9.2 What Is a Size Effect? 414
9.3 Factors Influencing Size Effects 414
9.4 Theoretical Studies of Size Effects 415
9.5 Size Effects in Plain Concrete
—Experimental Work 420
9.6 Size Effects in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete 431
9.7 Size Effects in Metals and Reinforcements 433
9.8 Size Effects in Masonry Mortars 434
9.9 Size Effects and Design Codes 435
9.10 Errors in Structural Model Studies 437
9.11 Types of Errors 439
9.12 Statistics of Measurements 441
9.13 Propagation of Random Errors 444
9.14 Accuracy in (Concrete) Models 450
9.15 Overall Reliability of Model Results 457
9.16 Influence of Cost and Time on Accuracy of Models 458
9.17 Summary 458
Problems 459
References 460Chapter 10 Model Applications and Case Studies
10.1 Introduction 466
10.2 Modeling Applications 466
10.3 Case Studies
- 529
10.4 Summary 572
Problems 573
References 579
Chapter 11 Structural Models for Dynamic Loads
11.1 Introduction 586
11.2 Similitude Requirements 587
11.3 Materials for Dynamic Models .....588
11.4 Loading Systems for Dynamic Model Testing 593
11.5 Examples of Dynamic Models 604
11.6 Case Studies 649
11.7 Summary 673
Problems 673
References 675
Chapter 12 Educational Models for Civil and Architectural Engineering
12.1 Introduction 680
12.2 Historical Perspective 681
12.3 Linearly Elastic Structural Behavior 681
12.4 Nonlinear and Inelastic Structural Behavior 694
12.5 Structural Dynamics Concepts 712
12.6 Experimentation and the New Engineering Curriculum 725
12.7 Case Studies and Student Projects 729
12.8 Summary 751
Problems 752
References 753
Appendix A Dimensional Dependence and Independence
A.1 The Form of Dimensions 757
A.2 Method I: The Numeric Method 759
A.3 Method II: The Functional Method 761
A.4 Illustrative Examples 763
References 766
Appendix B A Note on the Use of SI Units in Structural Engineering
B.l Geometry 768
B.2 Densities, Gravity Loads, Weights 768
B.3 Force, Moment, Stress, and Other Stress Resultants , 768
B.4 Miscellaneous (Angles, Temperature, Energy, Power) 768
B.5 SI System Standard Practice 769
Index 771
iIndex
A
AASHTO
Code, 539
decks, 538
Acceleration, 78
records, 654, 655
top-floor, 597
Accelerometers, 595, 617
Acetone, 292
ACI, see American Concrete Institute
Acoustic emission, 353
Acrylic plastics, 88, 291
Actuator, hand-operated, 503
Adequate model, 56
Adhesives, 286, 328, 439
Aeroelastic models, 4, 616
Aerospace vehicles, 606
Aggregate(s)
content, effect of, 138
grading curves for, 164
-gypsum ratio, 167, 169
size, 421
Airbag pressure loading system, 393
Air-cured specimen, 140
Airplane
parts, 324
propeller, torque on, 673
AISC, see American Institute of Steel Construction
Aluminum, 111
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials Code, 20
American Concrete Institute (ACI), 131
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), 211
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 89,
767
requirements, 66
standards, 91, 199
structural steel, 588
type N masonry mortar, 181
Analog-digital converter, 501
Analytical predictions, 457, 597
Anchorage systems, 253
Annealing
furnaces, 329
processes, 250
Antenna model, load-deflection characteristics of, 748
Apollo
shell, model of simplified, 609
simplified shell structure, 607
Appalachian Trail, footbridges for, 126
Apparent modulus, 96
Arch
load-deflection behavior of model, 712
model, 710
reinforced concrete, 705
width, 708
Architectural engineering, 466, 680, 692, 752
Artificial mass simulation, 223
ASCEStandards,767
ASTM, see American Society for Testing and Materials
B
Balsam fir, 116
Balsa wood, 298
advantage of using, 108
application of to model studies, 110
buckling study model, 297
joints, gluing of, 297
models, 109, 113, 296,750
modulus of elasticity of, 108
properties, 110
shapes available, 105
test,752
Bar
forces, 687
stock, milling of, 225
Base
isolation system, 723, 726, 727
shear, maximum, 654
Basswood, 116
Beam(s)
average deflection of edge, 514
behavior of, 458
bending, effect of load discretization on, 390
block geometry, 711
bonding strength of grouted bond, 562
collapse mode of, 714
-column
assemblies, results of tested, 470
771772 STRUCTURAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
effects, 63
reinforced concrete, 578
continuous, 687
j cracking patterns of failed, 533
| double-taperedglulam,729
> ductility indexes, 526, 534
| failedmodel,697
| filler,222
| flange,715
| flexuralbondstrengthforgrouted,559
floor, 467
I materials, mechanical properties of, test, 529
1 model, 227
j glulam, 728
underreinforced and overreinforced, 695
moment-curvature behavior of reinforced, 532
multiple wires in, 307
overreinforced, 432, 433
I postcracking behavior of FRP-reinforced, 524
f prismatic, 447
I series, shear reinforcement connection nonreinforced, in stress-strain model, between 454relations 148slabfor, and, 242 577
simple, 685
test(s), 219, 223,426
model, 698
results, 524, 532
two-span
continuous, 689
R/C, 701
University of Texas bond, 262
yielding in, 713
J Bed joint shear, 194
1 Beggs deformeter, 122
Bending, 682
| moment,ultimate,708
strains, 379, 381, 686
! Birch veneer plywood, 115
j Black ironwood, 106
I Blast
। attacks, threats of terroristic,488
I Block(s) geometric -making effects, chambers, loading, masonry, on effects machine, mortarless, accuracy 598 protective of Drexel high, of 556 structures, interlocking, 613 University, 612557 309, 310
g -molding machine, 312
| specimens,WHD,176
| splittingstrengthdetermination,model,170
| unit,WHD,557
J Blunders, 439, 448
1 Boat hulls, 324
I Boiling water reactors, 510
< Bond
I beam
j test, symmetrical, 263
J University of Texas, 262
similitude, 266
Boundary layer, development of over typical surfaces, 599
Braced frame specimen, 470
Bragg grating, fiber-optic, 370
Bridge(s)
cable-stayed, 737
decks, reinforced concrete, 537
double-plane cable-stayed, 739
load-deflection
characteristics of model, 740
curves of model, 572
long-span^ 14
model(s), 35, 280
extensive cracking in, 571
external post-tensioning of, 36
fatigue load test of, 36, 570
postfailure cracks in DT, 572
seismic testing of, 621
piers, earthquake-resistant, 502
prestressed wooden, 24, 542
reinforced concrete, 618
structures, 497
system
modified DT concrete girder, 33
prestressed concrete composite, 31, 568
truss, 687
vibration model, 59, 60
wooden, 26
Brittle coatings, 352
Brittleness, 420
Buckingham’s pi theorem, 49, 53
Buckling, 682
behavior
paper and wood plate girder demonstrating,
120
of thin shells, 144
capacity, predicted, 390
inelastic, 711
load, 37
elastic,575
Euler, 690
theoretical, 691
model, 401,402
program, experimental, 515
studies, 396, 400
tests, 126
Building(s)
code, 650
components, 729
concrete large-panel, 486
cross wall, 627
dynamics of shear, 722
earthquake
-resistant masonry, 473
simulation of masonry, 628
elements, precast, 732
frame, lateral load system for, 404
GLD reinforced concrete, 668
model, four-story, 723
precast concrete large panel, 622
shaking table tests on concrete, 660
structures, 466
wind effects on, 611
INDEX 773
Bundled strength theory, 415
Butt joints, failure of, 555
c
Cable tension force, 739
Calcite filler, 94
Calendars, 104
Calibration procedures, 457
Cantilever
beam, elastic stiffness of, 51
wall component assembly, 488
Capacitance gage, 326
Capillary welding, 292
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), 31, 32, 569
Carlson stress meter, 358, 359
Cassegrainian antenna, 110
Casting technique, 619
Catalpa, 106
Cellulose
acetates, 90
nitrates, 90
Cement(s)
-aggregate ratio, 132
choosing 328
heat-cured epoxy resin, 356
particles, hydration of, 131
Portland, 174
rapid-hardening, 132
Cement and Concrete Association, 265
Centrifugal force, 81
Centrifuge(s), 604
soil-structure interaction studies using, 642
swinging basket of, 647
testing, modeling for, 76
CFRP, see Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
Circuit analysis, 332, 33
Civil engineering, 466, 767
structures, 73
undergraduate course, 681
Classroom demonstration models, 681
CMD, see Cross machine direction
Coarse aggregate, 131
Code(s)
equations, 436
provisions, 30, 560
size factors in, 437
Collapse modes, 710
Column
interaction curve, 702
models, 215
reinforcement, 234, 241
specimens, reinforcement for, 504
stirrups, 23
strength formula, 79
Compaction density, 421
Complete set, 761
Composite action demonstration, 684
Compressibility time, 78
Compression
load cells, 354
tests, 218, 431
Compressive strength, 557
effect of size on, 424
effect of strain rate on, 141, 591
relation of tensile strength to, 154
Computer
codes, available to engineer, 86
-controlled systems, 407
as multipurpose laboratory tool, 367
Concrete(s)
arches, reinforced, 705
beam(s)
design of reinforced, 574
size sensitivity of web-reinforced, 436
underreinforced/overreinforced, 694
bridge(s)
decks, 537
model, prestressed, 386
reinforced, 618
building(s)
GLD reinforced, 668
lightly reinforced, 21
shaking table tests on, 660
three-story lightly reinforced, 23
bunkerlike facilities, 600
casting mode, 314
column(s)
eccentrically loaded, 698
model, eccentrically loaded reinforced, 700
comparison of compressive stress-strain curves for,
137
components, precast, 733
compressive strength of, 143
cracks in, 352
creep recovery of, 136
crushing, 526
deck, monitoring strain of, 376
density, 770
dynamic properties of, 590
engineering properties of, 131
frames, reinforced, 614
gypsum-based model, 573
large-panel buildings, 486
long-term properties of, 429
masonry
models, fabrication of, 309
test structure, reinforced, 484
units, 171
matrix strength, 421
mechanical properties of, 155
methods for testing, 148
model(s)
accuracy in, 450
forms for casting reinforced, 302
FRP reinforcement for, 255
plywood forms for casting reinforced, 304
reinforced, 63, 64, 266, 299, 505
modulus, 770
moisture content, 363
pavements, 204
piers, reinforced, 498
prototypes, 153774 STRUCTURAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTALTECHNIQUES
reinforcement, 236
shell, model reinforced, 453
size effects in, 420, 431
slab(s)
demonstration model of, 202
with penetrations, 517
strength of,418
stresses, 66
stress-strain
behavior of, 133
characteristics, 135
curve, 156
structures
GLD reinforced, 667
inelastic response of reinforced, 53
integration of fiber-optic sensors into, 373
T-beams, effective width of reinforced, 705
tensile strength of, 142, 426
Conjugate beam method, 688
Constant strain method,99
Construction procedure models, 5
Consulting engineers, 498
Continuous beams, 687, 689
Conversion factors, 769
Corbel stiffening, 699
Cork, 106
Crack(s)
angle, 539
behavior, 520
detection methods, 351,353
distribution of, 261
formation, 564
at interior support, 704
invisible, 268
motion, transverse, 543
pattern(s), 637, 657
ofCoH slabs, 525
of deck regions, 538
differences in, 658
of failed beams, 533
of failed specimen, 480
final, 511,512, 624
in model frame, 269
of model T-beams, 709
observed in joints, 495
path of for RCH slabs, 526
of slab, 517
for specimen, 565
reproducing, 270
under stationary pulsating load, 540
similitude, 267, 431, 432
surfaces, reversing shear movement of, 541
widths, 271
Crazing, 291
Creep, 321
characteristics, 87, 362, 438
curves, 95
strains, 125, 136
tests, 99, 430
Critical volume, 158
Cross machine direction (CMD),119
Cube-root scaling law, 74
Curing, 140, 157, 168, 423
Cyclicloading, foundationsettlement during, 648
Cyclic tests, displacement history for, 480
D
Damage
pattern, of model, 625
propagation of, 637
Dampingratio,656
DAQ, see Data acquisition
Data
acquisition (DAQ), 329, 365, 366
dead-load, 536
entry, 366
observation of trends in, 457
recording, types of, 364
reduction, 377
tensile test, 523
DCDT,see Direct current differential transformer
Dead load (DL), 387, 488
data, 536
deformations, 577
effects,573
Deadweights)
effects, 315
measurement of loads using, 456
similitude condition, 406
stresses, 404, 547
suspended, 385, 387
Deck
displacement, components of, 501
elements, welding of, 501
models, splice pattern for wood, 545
panel(s)
models, noncontinuous, 539
simply supported, 538
ratio, 569
vertical displacements, 608
Deflection
behavior, load vs. lateral, 744
curves, load vs., 704
measurements, 321
-measuring sensor, 684
predictions, full-scale, 556
Deformation
hardening, 654
requirements, 236
Delta gage configuration, 346
Delta rosette, 340, 378
Design
applications, applicability of models in, 34
code(s)
recommendations, evaluation of, 474
size effects and, 435
live load, 770
methods, 2
and operating conditions, 57
requirements, relaxation of, 60
stress, 355
INDEX
775
Diagonal tension tests, 203, 562
Dial gage, 349
Diaphragm action, 692
Diffusion effect, due to drying, 420
Dimensional accuracy, 451
Dimensional analysis, 42, 45, 52
Dimensional dependence and independence, 757-766
examples, 763-766
form of dimensions, 757-759
functional method,761-763
numeric method, 759-761
Dimensional units, fundamental, 757
Dimensionless products, 49
Direct current differential transformer (DCDT), 350
Direct models, 204, 383, 488
Direct tension test, 146
Discrete loading, 391, 400
Displacement
control loading history, 482
deformeter, 123
dial gages, 494
gages,617
history, for cyclic tests, 480
measurements, 348
model, 122
top story, 623
transducers, 18,487
Distortion, types of, 59
DL, see Dead load
Dome(s)
failure, 517, 520
model
finished precast, 736
segmented precast concrete, 735
postshot, 620
preshot, 620
Double-Tee (DT) girders, 568
Douglas fir, 106, 116
Drilling platforms, 646, 647
Drop hammers, 601, 603
Drying, 420, 422
Drystack masonry systems,556
DTgirders, see Double-Tee girders
Ductile hybrid fiber reinforced polymer, 256
Ductility indexes, for beams, 526, 527
Dummy gages, 364
Dynamic loads, structural models for, 585-678
case studies, 649-672
shaking table tests on lightly reinforced
concrete buildings, 660-672
shaking table tests on R/C frame-wall
structures, 652-660
wind tunnel tests of Toronto City Hall,
649-652
examples of dynamic models, 604-649
aeroelastic model studies of buildings and
structures, 611-612
blast effects on protective structures,
612-614
earthquake simulation of masonry
buildings, 628-641
earthquake simulation of reinforced
concrete structures, 614-625
earthquake simulation of steel buildings,
625-627
impact loading, 641-642
natural modes and frequencies, 604-610
soil-structure interaction studies using
centrifuge, 642-649
loading systems for dynamic model testing,
593-604
drophammersand impact pendulums,
601-604
shaking tables, 600-601
shock tubes and blast chambers, 598-600
vibration and resonant testing, 593-597
wind tunnel testing,597-598
materials for dynamic models, 588-593
dynamic properties of concrete, 590-593
dynamic properties of steel, 588-590
similitude requirements, 587-588
Dynamicmodels,4
examples of, 604
materials for, 588
Dynamic response, 321
E
Earthquake(s)
damage to historic buildings due to, 634
events,simulated, 639
forces,8
input, 617
loading, 467, 586, 720
modeling, 76
prototype full-intensity, 626
response, of structures, 77
-resistant bridge piers, 502
-resistant building, reinforced concrete frame-wall,
15
simulation
of masonry buildings, 628
of steel buildings, 625
simulators),20, 222
test program, 626, 652
University of California, Berkeley, 653
Earthquake Engineering Research Center, 614
Earthquake Simulator Laboratory, 606
Eastern white pine, stress-strain characteristics of, 731
Ebony, 106
Educational models,forciviland architectural engineering,
679-755
case studies and student projects, 729-751
bridge structures, 736-741
building components and systems, 729-735
special structures, 741-751
experimentation and new engineering curriculum,
725-729
historical background, 725-726
new engineering curriculum, 726-729
historical perspective, 681
linearly elastic structural behavior, 681-694
architectural engineering models, 692-694
classroom demonstration models, 681-685776 STRUCTURAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
laboratory demonstration models, 685-692
nonlinear and inelastic structural behavior,
694-712
ultimate-strength models of R/C
components, 694-710
yielding and inelastic buckling of steel
members, 710-711
structural dynamics concepts, 712-725
basic laboratory instrumentation, 712-718
dynamics of shear buildings, 722-725
vibrations of lumped-mass systems,
718-722
Elastic buckling, 105, 682
Elastic displacement, maximum, 47
Elastic models, 85-128, 534
determination of influence lines and influence
surfaces using indirect models, 121-123
effects of loading rate, temperature, and
environment, 100-103
coefficients of thermal expansion, 101-102
effects of temperature and related thermal
problems, 101
influence of relative humidity on elastic
properties, 103
influence of strain rate on mechanical
properties of plastics, 100-101
softening and demolding temperatures, 103
thermal conductivity, 102-103
materials for,87-88
plastics, 88-96
mechanical properties of polyester resin
combined with calcite filler, 94-96
tension, compression, and flexural
characteristics of, 89-92
thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics,
88-89
viscoelastic behavior of, 92-94
special problems related to plastic models, 103-104
influence of calendaring process on
modulus of elasticity, 104
modeling of creep in prototype systems,
103-104
Poisson’s ratio considerations, 104
thickness variationsin commercial shapes,
104
time effects in plastics, 96-100
determination of time-dependent modulus
of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio, 97-98
loading techniques to account for time¬
dependent effects, 98-100
wood and paper products, 104-120
balsa wood, 105-114
modeling of structural lumber, 114-115
small-scale modeling of glue-laminated
structures, 115-120
Elastic plate, free transverse vibrations of, 54
Elastic properties, influence of relative humidity on, 103
Elastic response, 3
Electrical resistance gages, disadvantages of, 325
Electromagnetic shapers, 601
Embedded strain gages, 358
Embedded stress meters, 357
End-web bonding, 192, 194
Energy dissipation, 506, 667
Engineering
curriculum
new, 725
physical modeling and new, 8
phenomena, measurements of, 442, 443
programs, undergraduate, 726
Epoxy resins, 90, 91, 111, 356
Equation
dimensionally homogeneous, 44
prediction, 57
Equivalent formulation, 48
Error
propagation, 444, 447
types of, 439, 448
Euler buckling equation, 37
Experimental design engineer, 54
Experimental error, 439
Experimental stress analysis, 34
F
Fabrication
accuracy, 451
phase, planning of,10
Failure
mechanism, 87, 658, 665
mode, 3, 176,471,513
Fastening techniques, 283
Fatigue
deck behavior, 540
loading, 570, 571
testing, 33, 570
FBGS, see Fiber Bragg grating sensor
FEM, see Finite element analysis
FE model, see Finite-element model
FFPI, see Fiber Farby-Perot interferometer
Fiber Bragg grating sensor (FBGS), 368
Fiber Farby-Perot interferometer (FFPI), 368, 369
Fiber-optic sensor(s)
earliest application of, 376
elliptic-core two-mode, 371
integration of into concrete structures, 373
intracore Bragg grating, 370
polarimetric, 371
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), 14, 130, 210
beams, moment-curvature relationships of, 524
ductile, 522
reinforcement
for concrete models, 255
nonductile, 256
stress-strain characteristics of, 257
systems, state-of-the-art linearly elastic, 528
Filler beams, 222
Fine aggregate, 131
Finite element analysis (FEM), 692, 693
Finite-element (FE) model, 559
INDEX 777
Fink roof truss geometry, 117
First-order similarity, 60
Flange cracking, 709
Flexibility matrix, determination of, 728
Flexural bond, 192
Flexural failure modes, 484
Floor
beams, 467
displacements, 632
loading system, string, 385
slabs, composite, 473
suspension mechanisms, 495
system deflection pattern, 495
Flow visualization tests, 651
Fluidelastic models, 73
Folded plate action, 684
Force
measurement, 353
-deformation relationships, 320
-displacement curves, postcracking, 637
Foundation
link between super-structure and, 560
settlement, during cyclic loading, 648
stiffness, 642
Fourier amplitude spectra, 653
Fourier number, 69
Fracture mechanics, 414, 418
Frame
action, 683
model
four-story building, 724
steel-braced, 229
test, 403
-wall structures, 15
FRP, see Fiber-reinforced polymer
Full bridge, 337
Full-field strain measurements, 351
Function generator, 596, 716
G
Gable frames, 690
Gage(s), see also specific types
capacitance, 326
circuitry, resistance strain, 332
configurations, 338
embedding, 320
factor
error, 439
value of, 334
weldable, 326
Galileo’s statement, 80
Gaseous explosions, in domestic surroundings, 75
Gaussian density function, 441
Geodesic Tri-Span, Drexel, 747, 749
Geometric distortion, 61
Geometric scale, 9
GFRP, see Glass fiber-reinforced polymer
Girder(s)
balsa wood model plate, 743
-column web joint detail, 222, 224
reactions, 577
web buckling in, 745
Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP), 569
GLD, see Gravity load design
Glue laminated (glulam)
beams, 298
double-tapered, 730
model, 118,728,730
structures, 115
Gluing techniques, 283
Glulam, see Glue laminated
Grain growth, 250
Graphical construction, 380
Gravitational acceleration, 77
Gravity deadweight stresses, 407
Gravity
forces, 587
forming, of shells, 293
load, 403, 768
design (GLD), 660, 667, 668
simulation, 58
stresses, simulation of, 395
Gross behavior observations, 457
Grout(ing)
control specimens, 193
effect of on prism compressive strength, 191
model, 185,186
prisms, failure mode of, 193
specimens, 198
strength, 187
Gypsum
Hydrostone, 174, 750
mixes, 202
mortar, 165
mixes, 136
size effects in, 430
variation pf modulus of rupture with size
for, 428
H
Half bridge, 338
Hangar structures, 529
Hardwood species, North American, 26
Hickory, 106
High-speed train, 673
Highway bridges, 8, 9
Hinge
details, 504
formation, 710
Homemade rosette, 348
Hooke’s law, 43, 92
Hoover Dam, 6
Hopkinson’s law, 74, 76
Horizontal joints, 476, 488
Hydraulic material, 131
Hydraulic tension jacks, 491778 STRUCTURAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
Hydrostone gypsum, 174, 750
I
Impact
loading, 641
pendulums, 601
Independent random variable, 446
Indirect model, 3, 87, 122
Inductance strain gage, 327
Inelastic models, materials for concrete and concrete
masonry structures^ 129-208
behavior in indirect tension and shear, 148-153
correlation of tensile splitting strength to
flexural strength, 152-153
results of model split cylinder tests,
151-152
tensile splitting strength, 149-151
tensile splitting strength vs. age, 152
design mixes for model concrete, 153-158
choice of model material scale, 153-155
important parameters influencing
mechanical properties of concrete,
155-158
properties of prototype to be modeled, 155
engineering properties of concrete, 131-133
flexural behavior of prototype and model concrete,
146-148
influence of strain gradient, 148
observed variations in modulus of rupture
with changes in dimensions, 147-148
rate of loading, 148
specimen dimensions and properties, 147
stress-strain curves, 147
gypsum mortars, 165-170
curing and sealing procedures, 168
mechanical properties, 169-170
model concrete mixes used by various
investigators, 159-165
modeling of concrete masonry structures, 170-188
model grout, 185-188
model masonry units, 171-181
model mortars, 181—185
prototype masonry units, 170-171
prototype and model concretes, 130—13J
strength of model block masonry assemblages,
188-202
axial compression, 189-192
bed joint shear, 194-196
diagonal tension strength, 202
flexural bond, 192-194
in-plane tensile strength, 196-199
out-of-plane flexural tensile strength,
199-201
tensile strength of concrete, 142-146
unconfined compressive strength and stress-strain
relationship, 133-142
comparison of prototype and model
concrete stress-strain characteristics,
135-136
creep and creep recovery of concrete,
136-138
effect of aggregate content, 138-139
effect of strain rate, 139
model concrete, 134-135
moisture loss effects, 139-140
prototype concrete, 133-134
statistical variability in compressive
strength,142
strength-age relations and curing, 140-142
Inelastic models, structural steel and reinforcing bars,
209-278
bond characteristics of model steel, 259-266
bond similitude, 266-267
cracking similitude and deformation similitude in
reinforced concrete elements, 267-272
FRP reinforcement for concrete models, 255-259
ductile hybrid fiber reinforced polymer,
256-259
nonductile FRP reinforcement, 256
model prestressing reinforcement and techniques,
252-255
anchorage systems, 253-255
model prestressing reinforcement, 252-253
model reinforcement selection, 251-252
reinforcement for small-scale concrete models,
230-252
black annealed wire as model
reinforcement, 233
commercially deformed wire as model
reinforcement, 234-239
custom-ordered model wire, 233-234
heat treatment of model reinforcement,
250-251
laboratory wire-deforming machines,
239-249
model reinforcement used by various
investigators, 230-232
wire reinforcement for small-scale models,
232-233
steel, 210-214
prestressing steels, 211-214
reinforcing steel bars, 211
structural steels, 211
structural steel models, 214-229
steel beams, 218-221
steel columns, 215-218
steel frames, 221-229
Infilled frames, 693
Influence
diagrams, 3
line, plotting of, 688
Instrument(s)
error, 439
manufacturers of, 329
Instrumentation, 319-382
creep and shrinkage characteristics and moisture
measurements, 362-363
data acquisition and reduction, 364-367
types of data recording, 364-365
various data acquisition systems,365-367
displacement measurements, 348-351
INDEX 779
linear resistance potentiometers, 350
linear variable differential transformer,
349-350
mechanical dial gages, 349
fiber optics and smart structures, 367-377
criteria and selection of fiber-optic strain
sensors, 372-373
integration of fiber-optic sensors into
concrete structures, 373-377
types of, 368-372
full-field strain measurements and crack detection
methods, 351-353
brittle coatings, 352
other crack detection methods, 353
photoelastic coatings, 352-353
quantities to be measured, 320-321
strain measurements, 322-351
electrical strain gages, 323-332
mechanical strain gages, 322-323
resistance strain gage circuitry and
applications, 332-348
stress and force measurement, 353-361
embedded stress meters and plugs, 357-360
load cells, 354-356
other measuring devices, 360-361
temperature measurements, 361-362
Interference effects, 5
Internal blast effects, 75
Ironbark, 106
Iron
-carbon system, of steels, 210
castings, malleable, 417
J
Jacobian, definition of, 762
Jet aircraft, testing, 325
Joint(s)
crack patterns observed in, 495
failure of butt, 555
gap, dry, 563
mortar, 200
openings, 489
replacement, 23
shear values, of model and prototype tests, 195
stiffness, 624
L
Laboratory
deformation technique, 240
demonstration models, 685
instrumentation, basic, 712
Lacquer, 352, 423
Laminar flow, 78
Large panel (LP)
buildings, 486, 622
construction, 284
Laser
beam from He-Ne, 372
system, copper vapor, 601
Lathe turning, 283
Lead wire resistance, temperature effect on, 337
LEFM, see Linear elastic fracture mechanics
Lifting equipment, 501
Light weight, 170
Lignum-vitae, 106
Lindberg open-tube furnace, 251
Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), 419
Linear potentiometers, 6
Linear variable differential transformers (LVDT), 6, 202,
349, 595
Lions’ Gate Bridge, 611, 615, 616
Liquid density, 78
Live oak, 106
Load(s), see also Loading
application scheme, 737
balancing of, 393
cells, 329, 356, 663
measurement of loads using, 456
types of, 354
deflections, dead and live, 738
discrete vs. distributed, 389
discretization, effect of on stress distribution in
parabolic arch, 391
indicator washer, 361
modeling, 74
rate, 87
reaction systems, 384
similitude requirements, 63
spacing, effects of, 400
tests
front truss lateral, 536
live, 28
types of, 384
Loading
beams, 491
cases, 548
comparison of stress-strain curves for, 593
conditions, critical, 574
devices, 385, 404
equipment, 11
tofailure, 550
history, 505
impact, 641
mistake in, 440
pattern, maximum moment, 549
platens, 422
rate, 100, 148
sea-wave, 646
sequence, lateral, 503
Loading systems, laboratory techniques and, 383-409
discrete vs. distributed loads, 389-390
loading for shell models, 390-400
discrete load systems, 395-400
effects of load spacings, 4G0
vacuum and pressure loadings, 392-394
loading techniques for buckling studies and for
structure subject to sway, 400-404
shell instability, 401-402780
s structures undergoing sway, 403-404
j miscellaneous loading devices, 404-407
| thermalloads,406
| self-weighteffects,406-407
| typesofloadsandloadsystems,384-389
loading devices, 384-386
। load reaction systems, 384
j pressure and vacuum loading systems,
j 386-389
1 Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD), 215
I Locust, 106
I।
Long-leaf pine, 106
3 Long-span bridges, 14
Longitudinal Ge system, 492
| LP,seeLarge-panel
LRFD, see Load and Resistance Factor Design
Lucite, 289
Lumber, modeling of structural, 114
j Lumped-mass systems, vibrations of, 718
j Lunar module, 607
I LVDT, see Linear variable differential transformers
1
M
Machine
direction (MD), 119
parts, 324
Machining operations, 281
Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), 368, 372
Mahogany, 106
Manila envelope paper models, 299
| Maple, 106
I Masonry
; anisotropic characteristicsof, 201
j assemblies, strength characterizations of, 175
> blocks, mechanical properties of model concrete,
180
buildings, 478, 482
cement-aggregate ratio, 182
failures, 196
grouted drystacked interlocking, 559
infilled, 693
model(s)
dynamic tests on unreinforced, 636
grouting of, 310
small-scale, 311
unreinforced, 638
mortars
aggregate gradation curves for, 189
size effects in, 434
reduced-scale, 486
reinforced concrete, 539
scale factors for, 68
shear walls, 475 •
specimens, grouted conventional, 558
-stiffened model, 693
structure(s)
fabrication technique for model, 313
hypothetical full-scale, 639
modeling of, 67, 170
AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
system(s)
drystack, 556
interlocking, 28
modified H-block, 29
test structures, static and dynamic response for, 488
units
dry stack interlocking block, 12
model, 171
unreinforced, 628
wall
grouted model, 205
panel, 479
Mass
density, 17, 72
simulation, artificial, 625
Material
ductility, 256
properties, 460
requirements, 17
Materials systems and models, size effects, accuracy, and
reliability in, 411-463
accuracy in concrete models, 450-457
accuracy in interpretation of test results,
456-457
accuracy in testing and measurements,
455—456
dimensional and fabrication accuracy,
451-454
material properties, 454-455
definition of size effect, 414
errors in structural model studies, 437-439
factors influencing size effects, 414-415
influence of cost and time on accuracy of models,
458
overall reliability of model results, 457-458
propagation of random errors, 444-450
size effects and design codes, 435-437
size effects in metals and reinforcements, 433-434
size effects in.masonry mortars, 434-435
size effects in plain concrete, 420-431
evaluation of experimental research,
423-426
evaluation of experimental work on tensile
strength, 429
experimental factors influencing size
effects, 420-423
experimental research on size effects, 423
size effects in gypsum mortar, 430-431
size effects in long-term properties of
concrete, 429-430
tensile and flexural strength, 426-428
size effects in reinforced and prestressed concrete,
431—433
bond characteristics, 431-432
cracking similitude, 432
ultimate strength, 432—433
statistics of measurements, 441-444
theoretical studies of size effects, 415-420
classical theory of bundled strength,
415-416
evaluation of theoretical studies, 420
fracture mechanics approach,418-420
STRUCTURAL MODELING INDEX 781
other theoretical studies, 418
weakest link theory, 416-417
types of errors, 439-441
blunders, 439-440
random errors, 440
systematic errors, 440-441
Maxwell-Betti reciprocal theorem, 121, 122
MD, see Machine direction
MDOF,see Multi-degree-of-freedom
Measurements
accuracy in, 455
statistics of, 441
Measuring
devices, 360
system, establishment of, 758
Mechanical fastening, 283
Metal(s)
cutting of, 281
size effects in, 433
Methyl methacryenlates, 90
Microconcrete, 161
cement-based, 573
mix(es)
details, 160
study to improve, 161
model, 16
during construction, 536
effects of shrinkage or creep in, 454
elevation view of, 535
rate of moisture loss in, 142
shells made of, 515
tensile strength of, 167
Microducer, 360, 361
Microstrain, 460
Microwave antenna
construction of prototype, 297
model, 746
structure, 742
Milling, 217, 282
Missile
firing of by means of air pressure, 641
surfaces, testing, 325
Missouri corkwood, 106
Model(s), see also specific types
architectural engineering, 692
bar deformations, 247
beam section, 252
block.masonry assemblages, strength of, 188
bridges, 33
for classroom demonstration, 681
column(s), 228
cross-section of model, 216
test setup for, 701
concrete(s), 130, 132, 134
casting, 314
dynamic tests on, 591
gypsum products used in, 165
mixes, 159, 160
-reinforcement interface, 265
static properties of, 590
confidence, 413, 437
cylinders, strength-age curves of, 144
deformation profiles, 512
dimensions, 244, 544
elements, tolerances of, 226
engineer, 320, 412
failures, comparison of,516 U
girder, 228
grout, 185, 186
influence of cost and time on accuracy of, 458
installations, view of,619
laboratories, 13
length, 78
load applied to three-dimensional, 494
masonry specimens, 199
material(s), 469
distorted, 62
scale, 153
strength of, 424, 426
mortar(s), 181
aggregate used for, 182
sand, 192
strength-volume relations for, 435
prestressing reinforcement, 252
reinforcement, 210, 243, 618
commercially deformed wire as, 234
deformed, 245
geometric properties of, 249
heat treatment of,50
selection, 251
steps needed for producing, 231
reliability of, 401
response of, 11
results
comparison of, 609
reliability of, 457
scaled, 412
shear
test specimen, 197
wall, 479
slab(s)
test matrix of, 521
thickness measurements, 452
specimen, basic dimensions of, 471
spline-type, 683
steel frameworks, 221
strain, measurement of, 448
studies
errors in structural, 437
reliability in, 459
tabletop, 513
test(s), 7, 321,509
application of under dynamic loading, 642
Drexel University dynamic system, 716
possible results of, 449
specimens, 468
two-mold drape forming of, 294
ultimate-strength, 459, 694
wall(s)
load-deflection characteristics of, 477
tests, 475
wire, customer-ordered, 233
Model applications, case studies and, 465-583
case studies, 529-572782 STRUCTURAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTALTECHNIQUES
extemally/internally prestressed concrete
composite bridge system, 568-572
interlocking mortarless block masonry,
556-560
pile caps, 560-568
prestressed wooden bridges, 542-556
reinforced concrete bridge decks, 537-542
TWA hangar structures, 529-537
modeling applications, 466-528
bridge structures, 497-507
building structures, 466-497
special structures, 507-529
Model fabrication techniques, 279-317
basic cutting, shaping, and machining operations,
281-283
cutting of metal, plastic, wood, and paper
products, 281
drilling and milling, 282-283
lathe turning and boring, 283
shaping and machining operations, 281-282
construction of plastic models, 288-293
capillary welding, 292
casting of plastic models, 296
drape or gravity forming and drape molding
of shell models, 293-294
fabrication considerations, 288-292
fabrication errors in thermal forming, 295
spin forming of metal shells, 296
thermal forming processes, 292-293
vacuum forming, 294-295
construction of structural steel models, 287-288
silver soldering, 287
tungsten inert gas welding, 288
construction of wood and paper models, 296-299
balsa wood models, 296-298
cartridge or manila envelope paper models,
299
glue laminated beams, 298-299
structural wood models, 298
fabrication of concrete masonry models, 309-312
building model masonry components and
assemblies, 309-311
Drexel University/NCMA block-making
machine, 309
new Drexel model block-making machine,
309
fabrication of concrete models, 299-308
forms for casting reinforced concrete
models, 302
prestressed concrete models, 302-308
reinforced concrete models, 299-302
fastening and gluing techniques, 283-287
epoxy resins, 286-287
glues and adhesives, 286
mechanical fastening, 283-284
soldering, 284-285
spot welding, 285-286
Modulus of elasticity, 50, 341, 438, 517
effect of aggregate on, 141
ratio of dynamic to static, 592
Modulus of rupture tests, 169, 431
Moisture
gages, electrical resistance, 363
loss
effects, 139
rate of in microconcrete, 142
measurements, 362
Mold box, 311
Moment
-curvature relationships, theoretical, 523
deformeter, 6
loading, 552
rotation, 713
Mortar(s)
beam dimensions, details of, 452
-block interfaces, 198
cylinders, model, 184
gypsum, 165
joint, 200
mix, model, 185
model, 181,509,515
proportions, 188
sands, 166, 192
strength-volume relations for model, 435
tensile strength of, 130
Mortarless blocks, 175, 556
Muller-Breslau principle, 121, 688, 690
Multi-degree-of-ffeedom (MDOF), 721, 723
Multispan girder, 46
Multistory buildings, elastic models of, 86
MZ1, see Mach-Zehnder interferometer
N
National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research,
(NCEER), 21, 663
National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA), 173
Natural vibration modes, 604
NCEER, see National Center for Earthquake Engineering
Research
NCMA, see National Concrete Masonry Association
Nickel-iron alloy, 328
Normal probability density function, 441
Normal weight, 170
Nuclear containment vessels, testing, 325
Nuclear reactor vessel, 8
Numerics, 761
Nusselt’s number, 69
o
Offshore structures, 8
Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code, 20, 27
Oscillators, electromagnetic, 594
Oscilloscope, 597, 718
INDEX 783
P
Panel zone shear strength, 473
Paper
models
examples of, 120
manila envelope, 299
products, 104
cutting of, 281
used for structural models, 119
Partial differentiation, chain rule of, 758
Particle friction, 78
PCA, see Portland Cement Association
PCRV, see Prestressed concrete reactor vessel
PCs, 367
Pea gravel, 10
Pedestrian walkway, elevated, 741
Perfect universal strain gage, 322
Permeability, 78
Photoelastic coatings, 352, 353
Photomechanical models, 5
Physical modeling, introduction to in structural
engineering, 1-39
accuracy of structural models, 12-13
advantages and limitations of model analysis,
11-12
choice of geometric scale, 9-10
definitions and classifications of structural models,
2-5
models classifications, 3-5
physical models in other engineering
disciplines, 5
historical perspective on modeling, 6
modeling case studies, 13-34
extemally/internally prestressed concrete
composite bridge system, 31-34
interlocking mortarless block masonry,
27-30
lightly reinforced concrete buildings, 21-24
pile foundations, 30-31
prestressed wooden bridges, 24-27
R/C frame-wall structures, 15-20
reinforced concrete bridge decks, 20-21
TWA hangar structures, 14-15
modeling process, 10-11
model laboratories, 13
physical modeling and new engineering
curriculum, 8-9
structural models and codes of practice, 7-8
Pi terms, formation of, 50
Pi theorem, 80
Pier behavior, 641
Piezoelectric principle, 327
Pile
cap, 560, 561
model, 33
truss analogy for, 567
foundations, 30
Plane angles, measurement of, 768
Plasma arc process, 246
Plaster of Paris, tensile strength of, 417
Plaster ratio, aggregate-gypsum, 169
Plastic(s)
acrylic, 291
cutting of, 281
flexural characteristics of, 89
influences of strain rateon mechanical properties
of, 100
models
casting of, 296
problems related to, 103
tests on, 91
thermal conductivity of, 102, 294
thermosetting, 98
time-dependent behavior of, 97
time effects in,96
Plate
middle surface, out-of-plane displacement of, 54
ultimate strength of, 512
Plexiglas, 289,451,454
beam, 689
forms, for casting reinforced concrete models, 303
model(s), 81, 673
measuring strains on, 380
tests on, 102
mold, 699
stress-strain curve for, 93
Plywood forms, 302
Poisson’s ratio, 50, 341, 438
considerations, 104
determination of, 97
discrepancy, 62
mechanical properties of, 94
Polyester resins, 90
Polyethylenes, 90
Polymerization, 101
Polymethyl methacrylate, 293
Polyurethane, 423
Polyvinylchloride (PVC), 88, 90, 293, 454
insulated leads, 362
plastic model, 58
stress-strain curve for, 93
Portal frame, 269
Portlandcement, 131, 186,417
Portland Cement Association (PCA), 489, 497
Postbuckling response, 472
Postcracking deflections, 261
Potentiometers, 365
Power
amplifier, 716
spectral density, frequency vs., 645
Preseismic tests, 621
Pressure loading, 388, 391, 392
Pressurized gas, use of directly against model, 386
Prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), 507
physical models of forboiling water reactors, 510
scale models, 508
Prestressing
frame, 308
system, 305
Pretensioning technique, 302
Prism(s)
compression tests, 194784
)if
STRUCTURAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
configuration of fabricated, 560
mode of failure for model, 195
prototype, 189
test(s)
parameters derived from grouted, 561
specimens, 191
Product
development, 466, 522
dimensionless, 760
Prototype
bar, stress-strain curves of, 245
beam, 321, 689
load-deflection curves for, 268
section, 252
behavior, similarity between model and, 196
bending, 60
block masonry, 198
building, beam-column joint details of, 24
column, 228
concrete, 63, 133, 203
hypothetical, 158
test results, 592
data, correlating model data with, 434
design of, 507
dimensions, 244, 544, 706
floor slabs, 227
full-intensity earthquake, 626
girder, 228
gusset plates, 117
joint openings, 493
loads, representing, 384
masonry
concrete blocks, 183
units, 170
materials, 503
mode surveys, 610
multiple, 12
piers, 500
plate, 55
prisms, 189
properties of, 155
reinforcement, 455
geometric properties of, 249
models, 248
slabs, 270
space truss members, 112
steel frame structure, 631
strains, 271, 274
stresses, systematic error in predicted, 460
structure(s)
geometry of, 118
modeling studies on, 2
systems, modeling of creep in, 103
test(s)
cylinder size, 423
data, 495
joint shear values of, 195
results, 200
truss, 110
wall strength properties, 480
Pseudodynamic tests, 658
Pullout tests 1
average bond stress vs. L/D ratio from, 264 I
concentric, 263
Punching shear failure, 21, 539, 564
PVC, see Polyvinylchloride
i
q ' i
II
Quarter bridge, 338 |
R
Radiation scaling, 69
Random errors, 444, 448
Random strength, 420
Reactor system, gas-cooled, 510
Recording equipment, 10
Recrystallization, 250
Rectangular rosette, 340, 380
Red oak, 106
References axes, 342
Reinforcement(s)
bars, commercially available, 239
bending of, 299
-concrete interface, 130
increasing horizontal, 476
layout, 485
placement, accuracy of, 300
ratio, ultimate shear strength, 566
size effects in, 433
welding of, 300
Repeatability checks, 457
Replica model, 3
Residual stresses, 215
Resonant testing, 593
Rigid models, 4
Ring loading device, 393
Rockets, testing, 325
Rocking
curves, 629
response, base acceleration vs., 630
Rod gages, functioning as mechanical gages, 547
Roof
displacements, base shear vs. roof, 474
drift, 661
structure(s)
deflection analysis of, 314
shell-and-dome, 121
system, structure of tension, 674
truss, Single-Fink, 730
Rosette(s)
assembly, 358
configuration, 347
delta, 340, 344, 378
homemade, 348
Murphy’s method for plotting strain, 348
rectangular, 340, 380
INDEX 785
I
strain, 345
three-element, 339
types of, 343
Rotation-measuring devices, 617
Rubber, synthetic, 90
s
Sand
-gravel ratio, 163
tank, 647
Sanding sealer, 115
Scaffolding, 534
Scale
factors, 9, 57, 579
model testing, 605
Screeding strips, 536
SDOF, see Single-degree-of freedom
Sealing
compounds, commercial, 168
procedures, 168
Sea-wave loading, 646
Seismic isolation, 723
Seismic test(s), 664
mode of vibration dominated in, 666
results, three-story, 665
Self-temperature-compensated (STC) gages, 335
Self-weight effects, 406
Semicontinuous recording systems, 364
Sequential phased displacement (SPD), 475
Settlement curves, 648
Shaking machine, 647
Shaking table, 223, 225, 600
classification of, 602
Cornell University, 663 -
Drexel Models Laboratory, 752
Drexel University, 735
NCEER, 22, 24
performance limits of, 719
small linear, 719
Stanford University, 631
studies, European, 628
SUNY/Buffalo Earthquake Simulation Laboratory,
669
testing
maximum response from, 670
sequence, 669
U.C. Berkeley, 18
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 639
Shaking test
comparison of damage states after, 672
severe, 671
Shape models, 4
Shear
buildings, dynamics of, 722
center, 683
loading, 551, 552
strength, 202
test specimen, model, 197
Shell(s)
geometry, 518, 520
instability, 401
model(s), 396
dimensions of, 513
drape molding of, 293
suspended dead loads on, 395
roof model, 402
stiffness, 513
structures, 512
test apparatus, 394
vacuum forming of doubly curved, 295
Shock tube(s), 598
pressure distribution in, 600
scale mode] placed in, 599
Shrinkage, 321, 429
characteristics, 362
deformations, 222
effects of in microconcrete model, 454
SI units, use of in structural engineering, 767-770
densities, gravity loads, weights, 768
force, moment, and other stress resultants, 768
geometry, 768
miscellaneous, 768
SI system standard practice, 769-770
Sieve analysis, 155
Silver soldering, 225, 287
Similarity, first-order, 60
Similitude
criteria, 498
requirements, 10, 42, 43, 62
distortion, 65
for elastic vibrations, 72
load, 63
for static elastic modeling, 86
self-weight, 663
Single-degree-of freedom (SDOF), 720
Single-Fink root truss, 730
Site welding, 498
Size
dependence, 435
effect(s)
experimental research on, 423
factors influencing, 414
theoretical studies of, 415
Slab(s)
action, two-way, 539
cracking, 517, 672
failure mode of, 527
multiple wires in, 307
pressure systems for dynamic loading of, 389
punching shear investigations of, 433
-punching strength, 575
shear connection between beam and, 577
strip method of designing, 521
text matrix of model, 521
underreinforced, 432
Small-scale model(s), 321, 454
acceleration and displacement response of, 622
fabrication techniques for, 312
power of, 751


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