كتاب Jet Engines - Fundamentals of Theory
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Jet Engines - Fundamentals of Theory

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Jet Engines - Fundamentals of Theory    كتاب Jet Engines - Fundamentals of Theory  Emptyالأربعاء 27 أبريل 2022, 2:56 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Jet Engines - Fundamentals of Theory
Klause Hunecke

كتاب Jet Engines - Fundamentals of Theory  J_e_f_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Turbine aircraft propulsion
History
1.2 Engine classification
1.2.1 Turbojet engines
1.2.2 Turboprop engines
1.2.3 Turbofan engines
1.2.3.1 Low bypass-ratio turbofan engines
1.2.3.2 High bypass-ratio turbofan engines
1.2.4 Turboshaft engines
Engine station designation
2 Jet engine fundamentals
2.1 Gas characteristics
2.2 Engine cycle
2.3 Thrust
2.4 Basic laws in fluid dynamics
2.4.1 Types of flow
2.4.2 Streamline and streamtube
2.4.3 Conservation of matter
2.4.4 Conservation of energy
2.5 Engine performance parameters
2.6 Systems of units
3 Air intakes
3.1 Subsonic air intakes
3.2 Supersonic flows
Speed of sound and Mach number
Pressure waves in air
3.2.3 Compression shock
3.2.4 Supersonic flow over wedge and cone
3.3 Supersonic air intakes
Intake configuration and operation
3.3.2 Supersonic intakes- case studies
4 The Compressor
4.1 Compressor performance parameters
4.2 Compressor types
Centrifugal compressor
4.2.1 884.2.2 Axial compressors
4.3 Compressor stage operation
4.4 Compressor characteristics
4.5 Compressor operation
4.6 Compressor case studies
5 Combustion chamber
The combustion process
5.2 Combustion chamber characteristics
5.3 Types of combustors
5.3.1 Can-type combustion chamber
5.3.2 Annular-type combustion chamber
5.3.3 Can-annular-lype combustors
6 Turbine
Design and operation
6.1.1 Turbine nozzle
6.1.2 Constant-pressure turbine
6.1.3 Reaction turbine
6.1.4 Turbine blade design
6.2 Turbine assembly case studies
6.3 High-temperature operation
7 Exhaust nozzle
7.1 Convergent nozzle
7.2 Convergent/divergent nozzle
7.3 Reverse thrust
8 Thrust augmentation
8.1 Reheat
8.2 Water injection
Engine systems
Fuel system
9.1.1 Fuel pumps
9.1.2 Fuel control unit
9.1.3 Spray nozzles
Jet engine fuels
Lubrication system
Electric system
9.4 Starting system
Engine starting
Types of starters
9.5 Engine monitoring and operation
20310 Environmental considerations
10.1 Noise
10.2 Exhaust emissions
11 Engine/airframe integration
11.1 Subsonic transport aircraft
11.1.1 Underwing installation
11.1.2 Fuselage installation
11.1.3 Overwing installation
11.2 Combat aircraft
11.2.1 Intake installation considerations
11.2.2 Aftbody flowfield
Appendix 1 Commercial turbofan engines
Appendix 2 Military turbofan engines
Index
aft-fan engines 116-17
aftbody flowfield 230-3
afterburner 6, 110, 175-82
ducts 177
flame holders 180
fuel injection system 177
ignition 181-2
rear cones 177-80
torch igniters 181-2
air intakes 4, 44-85 see also
intake
axisymmetric 80-2, 229
subsonic 44-56
in crosswinds 46
during high speed cruising
47-8
at rest 45-6, 50
during take-off 46-7, 50
supersonic 69-85
case studies 74-85
air-turbine starters 200, 201-2
altitude 311
auxiliary power units (APU) 22
axial flow turbojets 3
cartridge starters 203
cascades 101-2, 169
centrifugal flow turbojets 2-3
combat aircraft 224-33
combustion chambers 125-35,
191-2
annular type 132, 133
can-annular-type 133-5
can-type 126,131,132-3
characteristics, 127-31
combustion efficiency 128-9
combustion process 6, 125-7,
216-8
combustion zone, primary 127
combustors, types of 132 5
compression shock 62-5
compressor 4, 6, 86-124 see also
compressors
acceleration 110
blade roots 98, 123
case studies 114
—24
turbofan engines 116-24
turbojet engines 115 16
casing 93-5
characteristics 106-10
design point 106-7, 109, 114
efficiency line 108, 109
front frame 92-3
operating line 110-11
operation 110-14
performance map 108-9
performance parameters
86-7
rear frame 99, 100-1
speed curve 107-8, 110
stage operation 101-6
bearings 100, 101, 123, 194-5
Blackbird, Lockheed SR-71:
80-2, 227
bleed air, 95, 111
blow-in door ejector nozzle
162-5
boundary layer 76-80, 81
burners 191 2
bypass engines see turbofan
engines
bypass-ratio (BPR) 3-4, 10, 119238 Jet Engines
compressor ( contd)
surge tine 107, 109, 110-12
surge margin 110
types of 87 101
compressors see also compressor
axial 90-101
centrifugal 88 90
high-pressure (HPC ) 118
low-pressure (LPC) 118
multi-stage 118
single-spool 114,115-16
two-spool 117-8
Concorde, BAe/Aerospatiaie 83,
energy, conservation of 38-40
engine
airframe integration 219-33
combat aircraft 224-33
fuselage installation 222-4
ovcrwing installation 224
subsonic transport aircraft
219 24
underwing installation
219-22
buzz 73^4, 84, 112
classification 3-4
control 188 90, 205
cycle 28-32
monitoring and operation
203-5
performance 203
parameters 40-1
pressure ratio (EPR ) 189-90
starting 199-203
station designation 23,24, 25
enthalpy 30-2
entropy 30-2
environmental considerations
206-18
Eulers turbine theorem 141
exhaust emissions 215 18
exhaust nozzles 155-74, 177
exhaust velocity. 6, 20
176
cooling 146-8, 153
creep 153
DC-8, McDonnell Douglas 19
DC-10, McDonnell Douglas 17.
18
DC60 parameter 55-6, 57
deposits 131
design point 70, 106-7, 109, 114
diffuser action 47-9
diffuser buzz 73-4, 84
diffusers
conical-spike 68, 80-2
multiple shock 72-81
normal shock 70-85, 228,229
oblique shock 72-4, 79 85,
228, 229
two-dimensional 82-5
variable geometry 82-5
distortion factor 55-6, 57
dovetail blade roots 98, 123
drum rotors 97-8
Duplex burners 191 - 2
F-4 Phantom 6, 7, 83, 231
F-5: 82-3, 163
F-14 Tomcat 83-5, 166,231
F-l 6 Fighting Falcon 74-8
F-l8 Hornet (YF-17) 76, 78
F-104 Starfighter 6, 7, 68
F- l 11: 72, 68,232
FADEC units 189, 190, 205
FAR 36 regulations 207-9
fatigue, thermal 152-3
fir tree blade roots 98
flame stability 130
flow, types of 35-6
ejector nozzle slots 172-3
electric monitoring devices 197 8
electric starters 202
electric systems 197-8
electrical spark ignition 127Index 239
flow velocity 101-6
flowfield, aftbody 230-3
fluid dynamics, basic laws in
35-40
fuel/air ratio 126
fuel
CJ-610 turbojet, 114, 132
J79 turbojet 3,5. 6, 91,93, 95,
144, 178-9
T56-A-7 turboprop 8
T64 turboshaft 21
TF39 turbofan 14, 15, 52
General Electric/SNECMA
CFM56 turbofan 19-20
Gloster E28/39: 3
gun muzzles 76-7
calorific value 193-4
consumption 182
specific (SFC) 40
thrust specific (TSFC) 42
control units 188-90
corrosive action 194
monitoring 203-5
pumps 186-8
systems 185-94
types 194
fuels 191-4
full authority digital electronic
control (FADEC) units 189,
190, 205
fuselage installation 222-4
helicopters 21-2
high bypass-ratio turbofans
13-21, 119-24
high-temperature operation
151-4, see also temperature
history of jet engines 1-3
IAEV.2500 turbofan 20
ignition, electrical spark 127
ignition system 197-8, 200
inlet guide vanes (IGV) 94
inlets, slotted 54
intake see also air intakes
configuration and operation
70-4
design 54-6
figures-of-merit 54-6
flowfield 45-8
installation considerations 227
noise reduction 213-15
Galaxy, Lockheed C-5A 13. 14,
46, 52-4
Garrett AiResearch TFE 731-2
turbofan 118
gas
characteristics 26-8
density, definition of 28
generator 6, 13
pressure, definition of 27
temperature, definition of
27-8
turbine see also turbine
definition of 6
engine cycle 28-32
first 2
starters 202-3
General Electric 13-14, 17, 19,
116-17
CF6-6 turbofan 17, 120-4,
146-8, 150-1, 167-70
CF6-50 turbofan 17, 19
Junkers Jumo 004 axial flow
turbojet 3
labyrinth seals 148-50
Laval-type nozzles 159-67
Laws of Motion 1-2
low bypass-ratio turbofans 10
lube oil supply 195-6 see also oil
lube scavenge system 196
lubricating oils 197
lubrication system 194-7240 Jet Engines
Mach cone 61-2
Mach number 56 62
materials 153-4
matter, conservation of 37-8
Meteor, Gloster 1: 3
Mirage, Dassault 68, 79, 80
momentum 32-4
Motion, Laws of 1-2
Orenda 14 turbjojet 98. 99
overwing installation 224
Phantom F-4: 6, 7, 83
pollutants 215-16
Pratt & Whitney 14 -15. 17, 134
4084 turbofan 94
JT3D turbofan 186.195
JT3D-5 turbofan 182-3
JT9D turbofan 15. 16. 119.
217-18
TF33-P-7A turbofan 11. 52,
Newton. Sir Isaac I -2
NIMONIC 115 alloy 153
noise 206-15
certification 207
emission 10. 13
estimation 210
fan 211 15
FAR 36 regulations 207-9
impression 206-7
reduction , jet 210-11
sources 209-10
Northrop F-5: 82-3, 163
nose suction 50
nozzle guide vanes 136-7.
138-40, 146 7
168
pressure loss, total 128-9
pressure recovery 55
pressure waves in air 60-2
propulsive efficiency 9
protective coating 154
reaction turbines 140
reheat see afterburner
reverse thrust 167-74
Rolls-Royce 3. 15. 17. 157
Dart turboprop 88, 90
M45H turbofan 56. 117.158
RB211 turbofan 13, 17. 18
rotating stall 113-14
rotor assembly 95-100
rotor blades 96-7. 140. 143
rotor disks 123
rotor, drum 97-8
nozzles
convergent 155-8
convergent/divergent 159-67
discharge 107
ejector 160-5
slot 172-3
variable flap 162
exhaust 155-74. 177
iris 166 7
Laval-type 159-67
primary 160-2
spray 190 1
turbine 137.138 9
seals, labyrinth 148 50
shrouds, mid-span 122
Simplex burners 191
slotted inlets 54
SNECMA 19-20
Solar T.62T-27 turboshaft 22
sonic boom 62
specific fuel consumption (SFC)
off-desian performance 107,
114-15
oil monitoring 203-5 see also
lube
oil seal pressurization 196-7
40
specific thrust 40- 1 , 43
speed of sound 56-62Index 241
splitter plates 76-9
spray nozzles 190-1
stable operating range 129
Starfighter. Lockheed F-104: 6.
7, 68
Starlifter. Lockheed C-141: / /.
50 -2
starters 201 3
starting 131 see also ignition
systems 199-203
stator 136-7
blades 94
—5
vanes, variable 111.115-16
steam turbines 1, 2
streamlines 36-7
streamtubes 36-7
sump ventilation 197
supersonic configuration and
operation 70-4
supersonic flows 56-69
over wedge and cone 65-9. 72.
80 2
surge, engine compressor 107,

111-12
measurement of 41-3
related to frontal area 41
reverser 167-74
specific 40-1, 43
specific fuel consumption
(TSFC) 42
total pressure loss 128-9
turbine 136-54 see also gas
turbine
assembly case studies 143-51
blade cooling 146-8. 153
blade design 142-3
conical shafts 144
constant-pressure 139^40
design and operation 136-8
disks 144
—6
nozzles 137. 138-9
reaction 140
rotor blades 140, 143
stage 139-40
turbochargers 2
turbofan
, definition of 3^L 9-21
turbojet, definition of 3-6
turboprop, definition of 4, 6, 8
turboshaft, definition of 4, 21-2
temperature 27, 111, 117. 127,
146-7, 151-4
distribution 129-31
tertiary inlet doors 162-5
thermal fatigue 152-3
thermodynamics, first law in 39
throttle lever positions 205
thrust 28, 32 5, 40 I
augmentation see afterburner
bearing 123
underwing installation 219 22
units, system of 27, 41-2
VFW/Fokker 614: 56, 224, 225-6
vibration 205
Viggen, Saab 170-4.226. 228
water injection 182-3
Whittle, Sir Frank 2, 3


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