كتاب The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume I
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 كتاب The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume I

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume I  Empty
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أحضرت لكم كتاب
The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume I
Operations and Practices-Pennwell Corp
ANontechnical Overview
Michael D. Tusiani

كتاب The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume I  T_p_s_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi
l. OIL: AN INTRODUCTION TO SHIPPING 1
1973 oil crisis and the war on oil 3
Renewable energy sources 3
Nonrenewable energy sources 8
Government energy policies 12
Energy conservation 13
Developing technologies 18
Unconventional sources of oil 18
Severing the link between economic activity and energy 19
The verdict 23
2. WHY TANKER OWNERS? 25
Advantages of chartering 26
Long-term rate setting mechanism 31
Short-term rate setting mechanism 33
Worldscale rates 37
3. PRE-ONASSIS ERA 41
Early history of oil and tankers 41
Paving the way for shipping fortunes 50
4. ONASSIS ERA 55
Siting of oil refineries 55
Growth of an energy-intensive economy 57
The dethroning of "King Coal" 58
The United States becomes energy dependent 59
Economy of scale 62
Crude carrier size classes 64
Fortuitous closing of the Suez Canal 68
The invention of the VLCC 72
Climax of an era 74
vii5. POST-ONASSIS ERA (CREATING THE SURPLUS) 83
Aftermath of the crisis 87
Loss of large crude carrier demand in North America and Europe 93
Loss of large crude carrier demand in Europe 99
Gain of large crude carrier demand in the Far East 112
6. POST-ONASSIS ERA (DEALING WITH THE SURPLUS) 117
Scrapping 117
Structural shifts in large crude carrier ownership
between the 1970s and 1990s 124
Organizational structure of tanker-owning companies 134
Strategic alliances 136
7. REFINERY OPERATION AND TANKER DEMAND 139
White products l40
Black products l41
Refiner's margin 142
Refinery operations determines tanker demand 143
Product carrier employment l49
8. TANKER DESIGN AND EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS 163
Tank cleaning 165
Tank coating 167
Product carrier rates and employment patterns 168
Aframax and Suezmax tankers 173
VLCCs 181
9. FORECASTING TANKER RATES 193
Necessity to forecast 194
The logical approach to freight rate forecasting 196
Product carrier demand forecast 197
Elements of a VLCC supply-demand forecast 198
Naive, predestined, and chaotic approaches 212
vIIi10. OIL POLLUTION LIABILITY
International conventions
Civil liability convention
Fund convention
TOVALOP and CRISTAL
Oil spill claims
Oil Pollution Act of 1990
Manning standards for foreign flag tankers
Double-hull vs. mid-deck design
Environmentalists
Oil spill prevention is better than cure
OPRC convention
11. LPG CARRIERS
Liquefied petroleum gas
Snapshot of the U. S. LPG market
Snapshot of the Japanese LPG market
World LPG demand
Impact of liquefied gas pricing on demand
Forecasting seaborne demand
LPG shipping costs
Netback values affect trading patterns
International LPG trading pattern
LPG carriers
12. LNG CARRIERS
Nature of LNG projects
Volume II - A Look At Practices And Operations
INDEX
A
AFRA rates 64-66
API degree 145, 254
Abadan refinery 49, 56
acid rain 8-9, 142
Adam Smith 34, 37, 182-183
Aframax tanker 27, 64-68, 92 , 101,172-175,177-178,186,194,210
air draft 156
Algeria 10, 158, 273, 283, 293 , 295
Amoco Cadiz 225-227
Arab Israeli War 2, 71
Aswan dam 7
B
barges 155
Bergesen 74, 125,281,284
biomass 3-5
black products 16, 141 , 166
Brazil 4, 6, 16, 158-159, 186-187, 189,273
British Petroleum 49, 56
brokers 34
bunkers l4, 31,58, l41, 147
c
CAFE 16-17
CERCLA 230
CLC 222-223, 229-230, 251
COFR 235-238
COW 166-167
CRISTAL 224-225
303THE PETROLEUM SHIPPIN6 INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
cabotage 96-99
Canada 5-7, 9, 12, 19,260
canal dues 31, 188
cargo handling 163-165, 258, 275-276
cargo preference 97, 99
centerline bulkhead 42,49-50, 165
chartering 25-32,84-85, 121,201
chartering managers 25-27, 29, 31, 83-84, 86, 189
ChernobylU-12
Chevron 112, 150
China 6-7, 13, 18,23,31,42, 123, 150-151, 175
Churchill, Winston 49
Clarkson Research 199-200
classification society 119, 279
clean products see white products
Coast Guard 237-238, 244-245, 280
coaI4,8-11, 18,21,47,55,58,90,153,208
cogeneration 16
Colombia 19, 178, 184
combination carriers U8, 175-177, 180-181, 186-187
conservation 3, 13-18,20-21,90,96
cost containment 25-26
crude carrier 63, 92-93, 167-168, 170, 194
crude oil, sweet and sour 145,197
cubing out 62, 165
cycles 212-214
D
deadweight ton 62,67
design draft 164
diesel engines 50, 64
diesel fuel 16, 40, 154
dirty products, see black products
distillation 16, 42, 139-140
3016diversion costs 188-189
Double Eagle tanker 164-168
double hulls 199, 242-243
Drake, Edwin 41-42
dry bulk carriers 34
E
economic activity 1-2, 19-20,57-58,206-207
economic risk 28-29
economy of scale 62-64, 66-68
electricity 5-9, 11-12, 15-16,58, 145, 153, 161,208
energy 1, 19-23,57-59
energy dependence 55, 59-62, 90
energy efficiency 14-16, 21, 29, 50, 90,177-178,280
energy policies 2, 10, 12
environment 5-9,18,42,142,147,166,256
environmentalists 11,95-96, 197,245-246
Exxon (Esso) 49
Exxon Valdez 93,227-229
F
FOB/CIF 281
FPSO 10, 118, 198
Fairplay 201-202
Finland 7, 12
flags 48, 51,96-97,202
floating storage 120-121, 183,269,280
forecasting 8,83-85, 151, 193-216,259-261,265-269
France 4, 11-12,20, 158, 160
fuel consumption 67
fuel oil 16,47-48, 58,141,147,153,166
Fund Convention 223-224,229-230,251
INDEX
305THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
G
gasoline 4,16-18,140,153-154,166
gasoline taxes 4, 16-17
geothermal energy 5, 16,208
Germany 11-12, 18,20, 158
global warming 8-9
Gluckauf 43-44
goldplating 30-31
government policies 3-4, 12-13, 16, 18,94-96,99,220-222,246-247
gross tons 202
Gulf Oil 48, 74
H
hire 67-68, 107
history (tankers) 41-52
hydro power 3,5-7,21,90,208
hydrogasification 18
I
lEA 9, 12,207-209
IPe pipeline 63, 75-76
independent tanker owners 25-26, 124-128
India 37, 42, 124
Indonesia 5, 273, 292-293, 296
insurance 31,63, 119,235-238
integrated oil company 25-26, 31-32
international conventions 220-222, 229-230
Intertanko 201, 219-220, 232
Iran 134
Iran-Iraq War 99, 278
Iraq 75,77, 109-111
Iraq-Turkey pipeline 110-112, 178, 184
306Ireland 7, 12
Islamic Revolution 2
Itaipu Dam 6-7
Italy 5, 10, 12,20, 151-153, 158-161, 187
J
JAMRI 202-203
Japan 5, 12, 16,20, 123, 150,261-263,291,293
jet fuel 16, 140, 166
Jones Act 96-99
K
KPC 32, 172, 189
kerosene 5, 16,42-44,49,56
kerogen 18-19
Korea 12, 16, 123, 150,202,208,262,291
Kuwait 32,77,109, III
Kuwait War 99, 109-ll0, 120, 170, 183,266
L
LOOP 104-106, 187, 199,243
LNG 261, 266, 287-288
LNG carriers 16, 288-293
LNG projects 294-299
LPG 253-268
LPG carriers 253, 273-284
latent heat 15, 276
lay-up 26-27, ll8-120, 198
Libya 76, 78, 158-160,283
light displacement 123
lightering 105-106, 175,243
link (energy/economy) 3, 19-23,57-58,208
Lloyd's Maritime Services 150-151,268-269
INDEX
307THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
logistics 1,27-28,44,47,56-58,99, 172, 186-189
long-term charters 28, 71,84, 135
long-term rates 31-33
longitudinel bulkheads 49-50, 181,274
Ludwig, D.K. 50-52,69,74,87, 125
M
MARPOL Regulations 189, 199,203,243
maintenance 31, 50, 63-64
manning 29,31,63-64,96-97,241-242,280
maritime regulation 51-52
Marshall Plan 57-58
medium-term charters 28,7 1, 135
merchant refiner 143-148
methane 4, 18, 140,254
Mexico 9, 27, 94, 101, 149, 187-189,207,216,273
Middle East 3, 12,23,2 7,42,49,55,62,70-72,84,86,90-91, 100-101,
105, Ill, 120, 149, 159, 172, 178, 181-189, 194,259,265-267,
271,273,280,283,291
mortgages 69, 86, 119-120
N
NAFTA 9,
Naess, E. 83
Nasser 70
national oil companies 32, 132
natural gas 8-11, 16, 18,21,58,90,94-95, 100,208,253-254,261,287
nautical mile 60
netback values 271-272
Netherlands 2, 5, 10, 12, 79, 85
New Zealand 5-6, 12
Niarchos, S. 70, 72, 87
Nigeria 158-159, 179,295-296
Nobel brothers 47-49
308nonrenewable energy 8-11
North Sea 9-10, 100-101, 113, 178, 184-186, 194,271,284
Norway 6, 10, 12
Norwegian Guarantee Institute 87
nuclear power 7, 11-12,21,23,90, 100, 153,208
a
OCIMF 106
OECD 1, 12-13
OPEC 1, 78
OPA 90 199,220,229-247
OPRC Convention 248-250
oil 1, 8, 21-23, 55, 58,145-146
oil crisis (1973) 2-3, 20, 23, 35, 55, 62, 85-89, 135
oil pollution liability 32,201,219-251
oil prices 1-3, 13,20,23 ,44-45, 71 ,74,84-86,89,91-94,145-148,
153-154, 206
oil shale 18-19
oil traders 154, 160
Onassis, A. 50-52,68-72,84,87, 125
operating costs 29-31,35, 63-64, 67, 169,282
organizational structures 124-126, 134-137
Orimulsion 19
overhead 29-31
ownership, nature of 124-136
p
P&'I Clubs 222, 235-238
Panama Canal 62, 98
parcel tankers 163-164
Peter the Great 42
petroleum coke 141-142
Petroline pipeline 109-110, 184
Plimsoll marks 65
INDEX
309THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
pooling 37, 117,281-284
ports 31, 72, 104-108, 156, 169
port charges 31
preemption 231-232
product carrier 28,63,75-76,92-93, 102-103, 148-161, 163-165,
167-173, 196-197
productivity 183-184, 210-211
Q
Quebec Hydro 6
R
rates ofreturn 30-32,34-35,67,211
rationalization, see pooling
Reagen, R. 97
refiner's margin 142-145
refinery operations 27-28, 42,55-57,98, 102-103, 139-149, 157-158,
196-197,265
Reksten, H. 83-84, 86
reletting 33
renewable energy sources 3-8
rock oil 41
Rockefeller, J.D. 44-48
Roosevelt, Theodore 8, 46
Russia 10-13, 18,21-22,47-48,56, 1.11-112, 160-161, 184,283,296
5
SPM 104-105, 108, 187-189
Salvage Association 200-201
Saudi Arabia 69-70,79,85,94, 134,265-267
Saudi-Med pipeline 109-110
Samuel, Marcus 48
Scandinavia 6-7, 11
310INDEX
scantling draft 164-165
scenario planning 214-215
scrapping 117-119, 121-124, 198-200
seaborne trade 59-62, 90-93, 272-273
segregated tanks 63, 165, 170, 181,242-243
seismic exploration 9-10, 96
segregated ballast tanks 181, 199, 274
Shell Oil 48-49, 74, 214, 273, 288, 291, 297
ship operations/management 31, 69
short-term charters 28,71, 135
short-term rates 33-37, 120-121
shuttle vessels 105-106
single voyage: see spot fixtures and market
Spain 10, 12, 123, 187
special survey 198-200
spot fixtures 28, 33
spot market 33-37, 68-71, 74-79, 87, 120-121, 169-170, 182-183,273
Standard Oil 45-49
strategic alliances 136-137
Suez Canal 48, 55, 62, 66, 68-72, 74,87, 100-109, 113, 184, 187-188
Suezmax tanker 62-64,66-68, 72-74, 92, 101, 103, 173-174, 179-181, 186
Sumed pipeline 74, 77, 108-110, 184
super tanker 28-29
supplies 31, 64
synthetic crude 19
T
T-2 tanker 31, 41,50-52,57,62-64
TOVALOP 224-225
tank cleaning 165-167
tank coatings 49-50, 164, 167-168, 181,200
tank design 43-44, 163-165,273-275,278-279,287-293
Tanker Advisory Center 200-201
tanker owners 25-26
311THE PETROLEUM SHIPPIN& INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
tanker ownership 32-33, 36-37
tar sand 19
tax benefits 13, 18, 86
taxes 51-52,64-66, 69, 86, 96
techological obsolescence 28-29, 177-178
terminals 155-157, 168-169,258-259,270,275,277
Three Gorges dam 7
Three Mile Island 11
tidal energy 3, 5-6
ton-mile demand 90-93
Trans-Alaska pipeline 77, 3-96
Trans-Arabian pipeline 79, 110, 178
TransCanada pipeline 9
Trans-Israel pipeline 79, 110
trans-Mediterranean pipelines 10
trans-Panama pipeline 98
transportation 16-18, 42-44
transportation cost 31, 56, 63-64, 66-68, 269-270
transshipment 105, 150, 175, 186, 199
transverse bulkheads 43, 165, 181,274
Turkey 12,111-112
U
ULCC 64, 66, 74, 87-89, 103-104, 120-121
UK-Continent Interconnector 10
United Kingdom 10, 12,20,37, 158
United States 2,5,6-9, 11-12, 16, 18,56-62,64,79,85,93-99, 113, l49,
175,180,255-260,271,295
uranium 8, 11
v
VLCC 14,27,32,35,64,66-68,72-79,85,87-89,92,100-101,103-114,
120-121, 124-134, 174, 177, 179-189, 193-194, 199-204
VLPC 171-173, 194
312VRP 239-241
VTS 248
Venezuela 19, 175, 178, 184,273,296
vessel operating costs 67-68
vessel safety 43-44,47-50,250-251,269-270,276-278,291,297
vessel stability 43-44,49-50, 274
vessel tracking 150-151
voyage calculations 60-62,67-68, 100-101, 103-104, 106, 183-184,
187-189
voyages, piston 98, 170
voyages, triangulation 98, 170, 186-187
w
waste heat 15-16,21
whale oil 5, 42
white products 16,140,146-148
World Energy Outlook 13
Worldscale 35,37-39,68, 187-188
X-Y-Z
yards 70-71, 85, 87-88, 93, 96-97, 181, 189, 194,202-203,278-280,
291,295
Young, James 42


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