كتاب The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume II
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume II

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The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume II
Operations and Practices
Michael D. Tusiani

كتاب The Petroleum Shipping Industry - Volume II  T_p_s_10
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi
1. SHIPBROKERAGE 1
Offer and counter-offer 9
Transparency and opaqueness 11
Organization of shipbrokers 12
Research and consulting services 13
Ship and cargo brokerage 14
2. S&P AND PROJECT BROKERAGE 17
S&P of newbuildings 17
S&P for existing vessels 22
Standard forms 24
Project brokerage 27
3. SINGLE VOYAGE CHARTERS 35
Standard form contracts 37
Preamble and Part I of ASBATANKVOY Charter 38
Safe port 39
Calculating freight 40
Cargo retention clauses 43
Commission and legal jurisdiction 44
Laytime and demurrage 45
Owner warranties 47
Bill of lading 47
Letter of indemnity 48
Failure to provide bill of lading 48
Clause paramount in the bill of lading 49
Due diligence 50
Freight and deadfreight 50
Naming of ports 51
Cargo transfer 51
General exceptions clause 52
vii
C O N T E N T SGeneral average 52
Both to blame 54
War risk 54
Deviation and salvage 55
Arbitration 57
Other matters 59
Sampling of charterers’ clauses 60
The charterers’ questionnaire 67
Charterers’ terminal regulations 68
Life is not simple 69
Voyage charter variants 69
4. TIMECHARTERS 73
Description and condition of vessel 73
Shipboard personnel 74
Duty to maintain 75
Period trading and laydays 75
Owner and charter to provide 76
Hire and payment of hire 76
Charterer’s use of vessel 77
Bills of lading 78
Final voyage 78
Loss of vessel and off-hire 78
Periodic drydocking and vessel inspection 79
Vessel performance 80
Salvage and liens 80
Injurious cargoes and export restrictions 80
Lay-up 80
Requisition and outbreak of war 81
Clauses similar to the voyage charter party 81
Charterer’s clauses 81
Trip timecharters and bareboat charters 83
viii5. SHIP OPERATION AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATION 87
First-class operators 88
Less-than-first-class operators 90
Beginnings of international regulation 92
International Maritime Organization 93
Load lines convention 96
International rules of the road 97
IMO and advances in technology 98
Standards of training, certification, and watchkeeping 100
International Safety Management Code 104
Search and rescue 107
6. OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE 111
Segregated ballast tanks 112
Crude oil washing and inert gas systems 115
Load-on-top procedures 118
Ship operator initiatives to ensure quality 120
ISO codes 120
International Ship Managers Association 122
The burden of record keeping 124
Single-tier market and quality management 127
7. INITIATIVES BY CLASSIFICATION SOCIETIES, OWNERS,
AND OIL COMPANIES 131
International Association of Classification Societies 134
Enhanced survey program 136
International Chamber of Shipping 138
International Shipping Federation 139
Oil Companies International Marine Forum 141
ixx
8. FLAG AND PORT STATE CONTROL 145
Port state control 154
Charterers ultimately responsibility for quality 156
The green tanker 157
Will regulations improve safety at sea? 158
9. VOYAGE COSTS: PORT CHARGES 163
Port charges and canal dues 164
Port agents 167
10. VOYAGE COSTS: BUNKERS 175
Bunker market 181
Bunker decisions 182
Bunker quality 186
Monitoring bunker quality 187
Environmental considerations 189
11. OPERATING COSTS: MANNING,
SUPPLIES, AND MAINTENANCE 193
Manning 194
Stores and equipment 200
Maintenance and repair (M&R) 204
12. OPERATING COSTS: MARINE INSURANCE 209
Protection and Indemnity (P&I) insurance 219
13. OPERATING COSTS: THE SHORE-BASED ORGANIZATION 223
Operations 224
Engineering 225
Legal 227
Financial 228
Commercial 229xi
Planning 229
Organization of shoreside activities 230
14. OWNER’S INVESTMENT ANALYSIS OF A VESSEL 237
Capital structure 238
Other people’s money 241
Investment Analysis 244
Investment analysis for leveraged investments 251
15. BANKER’S CREDIT ANALYSIS OF A VESSEL 257
Credit evaluation 260
Loan conditions 263
Legal jurisdiction 266
Between a loan proposal and loan enactment 268
Loan covenants 269
Swaps and paper ship derivatives 270
16. MEZZANINE, LEASE, AND EQUITY FINANCING 277
Lease financing 278
Securitization of shipping loans 280
Loan syndication 284
General corporate credits 285
Publicly traded shipping companies 287
Return to equity financing 290
Nordic American tanker shipping deal 291
Advantages to British Petroleum 292
Advantages for the shareholders 293
Could this be a win-win transaction? 293
INDEX
A
AFRA 37
AMVER 107-109
ARPA 98, 157
ASBA 37-38, 73
ASBATANKVOY 38-60
AWES Form 17-18
Achille Lauro 107-108
Act of God/force majeure 27, 49, 52, 84
American Tanker Rate Schedule 37
Amoco Cadiz 56, 154
Andria Dorea 216
arbitration 44, 56-59, 81 ,83, 227
arrest 267
arrival at port 5, 45-46, 62, 169-170
automation 195-196
B
BIFFEX/BFI 271-272
BIMCO 24-25, 37-38, 46, 73, 189
ballast water 64, 112-113, 116-119
Baltic Exchange 6-7
banks/bankers 84, 241-243, 251-252, 257-274, 280-287
bareboat charters 35-36, 84-85, 229, 278-279
berth time 61
bill of lading 43-44, 47-50, 65, 78, 82, 170-171
Bona Shipholding 290-294
Both to Blame clause 54, 81
British Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers 6
British Institute Warranty Limits 75-76
British Petroleum 291-294
297
I N D E Xbrokers, see shipbrokerage
Brussels Conferences 92-93
bunkers 38, 62, 74, 78, 164, 175-190, 203
C
CAAM 154-155
CAP 157, 225-227
CMI 92-93, 95
COLREG 97-98
COW 42, 64, 74, 82, 111, 115-118
canal transits/dues 74, 164, 172
cancelling date 10, 39
cargo brokerage 14-15
cargo handling 51-52, 61, 65, 68-69, 74, 82, 88, 112, 115-119, 133,
163-164, 195
cargo heating 62-63, 82
cargo measurement/losses 40-44
cargo retention 43-44, 82
cargo transfer 51-52
Carriage of Goods at Sea 49-50, 95
charter party 10, 35, 37, 64, 75, 77, 83-85
charterers/chartering managers 3, 8-11, 35-36, 38, 43, 46, 51, 54, 59-68,
73-85, 90-91, 127-128, 156-157, 171, 180-181, 229, 259-260, 263,
272-274, 292-293
China 20, 81, 196-197, 209-210
Churchill, W. 176
classification society 19, 26, 73, 122, 131-138, 142-143, 153, 157, 168,
205, 218, 226-227
Coast Guard 60, 93, 107-109, 146
collateral support 242-243, 251, 258, 263-266
commissions 2, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 19, 44, 76, 83
communications/computer technology 3-5, 7, 56, 66, 98-100, 107-109,
133, 136, 154, 157, 196, 202-203, 204-206, 233
Concordia Maritime 159-160, 286-287
THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME II
298conditions precedent 268-270
consecutive voyage charters 36, 69, 229
construction loan 20, 268
constructive total loss 78, 216
consulting 13-14
contract cancellation/termination 21-22, 27, 75,7 7-79, 81, 215
contracts of affreightment 36, 69-70, 229
corporate veil 264-265
cost control 90-91, 93, 127-128, 158, 188, 225
credit enhancement 281-285
creditworthiness 242, 257-266
customs 46, 67, 69, 79, 89, 168-170
D
deadfreight 50
debt 237-243, 251-254, 257-274, 277-288, 291, 294
deductibles 213, 215, 220
demurrage 5, 10, 45-46, 60-61, 63, 84
Denholm 126
design liability 18, 22
deviation 55, 79
disponent owner 35, 59, 84
double hull 112-115, 119
drugs and alcohol 63
dry cargo vessels 2, 6, 137
dry cargoes 2, 6, 37, 45, 83-84, 273
drydocking 23, 26, 75-76, 79, 83-84, 205-206, 246
due diligence 50, 52, 75-76
E
ECDIS 157
enhanced surveys 136-138, 226
environment 118-119, 157-159, 164, 177, 189-190
equity financing 238-241, 287-294
INDEX
299errors and omissions 214
exclusivity 9
Exxon 146-147
Exxon Valdez 114
F
FACS 147-148
FONASBA 38, 46
financial institutions 20-22
financial management 228, 245
firm offer 10-11
first class operations 15, 88-92, 106, 126-128, 149, 155, 158-160,
203-204, 224
flag of convenience 145-153, 193,197, 199, 223-224, 233-235, 265, 278
flag state/flag state control 19, 25, 55, 69, 74-75, 79, 82, 101, 103-105,
134, 137, 142-143, 145-152, 196-197, 205, 218, 223-224
France 7, 58, 151, 154
free market 12, 15, 143, 198-199, 239-240
freight/freight rate 10, 40, 50, 178-181, 238-241
fuel consumption 19, 158, 175-181
fuel efficiency 158, 175-181
G
GMDSS 108-109
GPSS 108-109, 157
general average 44, 52-53, 83
general corporate credits 285-287
general exceptions clause 52, 81
Germany 7, 58-59, 151, 217, 234
government aid 20-21
Greece 146, 151, 196-197
green tanker 157-158
gross tonnage 97, 135, 164, 219
Gulf Agency Co. 169-170
THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME II
300H
Hague/Hague Visby Rules 49-50, 54, 95
Hague Memorandum 154
health authorities 46, 67, 69, 79, 89,168-171
Hong Kong 7, 289
hotel load 177
hull coatings 177
hull insurance 84, 193, 209-219, 224-225, 234-235, 246, 264
hull war risk 217-218
hurdle rate 248-249
I
IACS 134-138, 226
IAPH 166
ICS 138-139
ILO 100, 139-141, 154
ILU 212-214
IMO 24, 82, 93-100, 103-104, 106, 112, 114, 118, 120, 125, 133, 136,
141, 154-155, 189, 226
IPIECA 190
IPO 289-290
ISF 139-140
ISM 104-106, 125-126, 134-139, 199, 233
ISMA 120, 122-125
IS0 120-122
ITC 214-217
ITF 83, 140-141, 149-150
ice free 59, 76, 88
independent brokers 12-13
independent tanker owners 87
inert gas 42, 64, 74, 82, 111, 115-116
information technology 14
Inchcape Shipping Services 168-169
Inchmaree 214
INDEX
301inflation 245-246
Inmarsat 98-100, 109, 196
Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers 38
international conventions 19, 64, 69, 82, 92-96, 205
International Ice Patrol 93, 109
international registry 153
Intertanko 38, 118, 142, 166, 188
investment analysis 244-254
J
Japan 7, 58, 128, 151, 154, 190, 196, 280, 289
Jason/New Jason clause 53, 81
Jones Act 37
K
K/S companies 279-280
Korea 20, 197, 199-200
Kuwait Petroleum 225-226
L
LIBOR 252, 259, 270
LNG projects 27-28
LOOP 82, 172, 179
language 75, 82, 101-102, 149, 151, 197
lay-up 80-81, 177
laydays 5, 10, 39
laytime 39, 45-46, 60, 63
lease financing 254, 278-280
letter of indemnity 48-49, 78, 82
leveraged investments 251-254, 277-280
Liberia 25, 126, 147, 151, 234
liens 59, 80, 266-267
THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME II
302lighterage 60-61
limit of liability 49-50, 59, 105-106, 148, 264-266
liquid gas carriers 2, 7, 28, 205, 279
Lloyd, Council of 56
Lloyd, E. 131-132
Lloydís of London 210-218
Lloydís Salvage Form 55-56
load on top 66, 111, 118-119
loadlines 38, 42, 96-97
loan conditions/covenants 268-270
loan syndication 284-285
loss of hire 220,264
Ludwig D. 242
M
MARPOL 73-78, 111-112, 118, 133, 136, 153-154
MEPC 94-95, 155, 189, 226
MII 264
MOA 23, 25-27
MRCC 108-109
MSC 94-96, 226
maintenance and repair 82, 89, 193, 203-206, 224-227, 234-235, 245-246
manning 74-75, 82, 88-89, 100-106, 123, 139-141, 147-150, 193-200,
224, 233-234
Marine Policy Form 214-215
maritime law 19, 23-25, 28, 44, 46, 52-54, 56-59, 77, 81, 83, 146, 150,
188-189, 213, 227, 241-242, 263-267
market psychology 5, 9-10, 243
measurement errors 40-42
mezzanine financing 277-278
mid-deck design 112-115
mooring 63, 74
mortgage 24,218,241-242,257-274,280-285
INDEX
303N
Naess E. 126, 146-147
Names 210-213
national flag 145-146, 149-151, 193, 197, 199, 233-235, 278
navigation 65, 82, 88, 98-100, 103, 108-109, 133, 157, 165-166, 195-196
negotiations 1, 4-5, 10-11, 18-19, 23, 29-33, 37, 85, 227, 238
net tonnage 97
Netherlands 81, 280
newbuildings 17-22, 19-22, 225
Norbulk 126-127
Nordic American Tanker 291-294
Norsk Hydro 156-157
Norway 7, 108, 146, 150-151, 189, 197, 279-280, 289
Norwegian Shipbrokers Association 25
O
OCIMF 64, 82, 141-143, 156-157, 189
OPM see debt
off-hire 75, 77, 81
Oil Pollution Act of 1990 60-61, 81-82, 112, 115
oil spill prevention 111-119
Onassis 240, 242-243
opaqueness 11-12
operating costs 36, 163, 183, 193-220, 223-235, 245
operations 5, 49, 88-92, 120, 124-127
organization 12-13, 230-233
owner 35-36, 38, 43, 46, 50-51, 54, 59-68, 73-85, 87-92, 127-128,
171, 180-182, 218, 223-235, 237-241, 250-251, 260, 263-265,
270-274, 287-294
owner’s option 38-39
P
P&I Club 44, 48, 50, 60, 81-82, 168, 198-199, 209, 219-220, 264
Panama 146-147, 151, 172, 182, 234
THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME II
304Panama Canal 74, 165, 172
paramount clause 49-50, 81, 216, 218-219
Paris Memorandum 154-156
performance guarantees 19, 22
Philips Petroleum 156-157
pilotage 164-167, 171
Plimsoll S. 92
plimsoll marks 96-97
pollution avoidance 59-60, 133
port agents 62, 83, 167-172, 224
port authorities 46, 68-69, 89, 168-170
port charges 166-167
port state control 103, 137-138, 142-143, 153-156, 205, 224
power of attorney 24, 26
predelivery costs 21, 245
predelivery payments 20
private fixtures 11-12, 15
project brokerage 1, 27-33
Q
quality assurance 120-128, 186-189
questionnaire 66-67, 156-157
R
received payment 77
reception facilities 118-119
record keeping 121, 123-125, 156-157
redelivery 78, 84-85
reinsurance 212-213
relets/sublets 6, 36, 59
repair yards 168, 205-206, 224-225
research 13-14, 136
return on investment 87, 245-254
Reuters 3-5
INDEX
305risk management 183-186, 228-230, 261-262, 270-274
rules of the road 97-98
Russia 20, 81, 109, 145, 150-151, 154, 196-197
S
S&P 1, 17-19, 238
S&P brokerage 1, 17-19
SAJ Form 17-18
SIRE 142-143, 157
SMS 105-106
SOLAS 92-93, 95-98, 104, 125, 133, 136, 153-154
STCW Convention 75, 100-104, 139, 141, 153, 199
safe port 39-40, 76
Saleform 23-27
salvage 55-57, 80
Salvage Association 56
sea trials 22
search and rescue 107-109
second registry 150-153
securitization 280-285
segregated ballast tanks 111-119
Shell Oil 73, 81
Shelltime 4, 73-85
ship to ship transfer 61-62, 76, 82
shoreside staff 88-91, 104-106, 123-124, 193, 223-235
shipbrokerage 1-34, 64, 229, 237-238
shipmanagement 125-126
Singapore 7, 97-98, 138, 151, 182, 185, 188-189, 289
single voyage charters 2, 35-70
Spain 7, 151, 197
speed clause 66, 180
spot market 9-10, 179, 229, 239-240, 260
standard forms 24-25, 37, 46, 55, 60, 81, 227, 282, 284
Statoil 7, 156-157, 225
THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME II
306stores/supplies 168, 193, 200-203, 224, 234
strategic planning 229-230
strikes and war exclusion 216-217
subsidies 20-21
sue and labor 215-216
Suez Canal 74, 172, 182
surveying/survey reports 23-24, 43, 63, 79-80, 133-138, 155, 193,
205-206, 225-227, 234
T
TOVALOP 44, 81
Taiwan 7, 20
Tanker Broker Panel 37-38, 273
tankers 2, 7, 35, 96-97, 116-117, 128, 136, 145, 151-153, 175-181,
193-195, 218, 240, 273
taxes 37, 145-148, 150, 278-279
tendering notice of readiness 39, 45-46, 60-61
terminals 39, 67-69, 169-171
time bar 65
timecharters 2, 35-36, 73-85, 181, 229
Titanic 93, 216
Torrey Canyon 94, 141
transparency 11-12, 137, 142-143
trip timecharters 83-84
two-tier market 127-128
U
ullage 41-42
United Kingdom 6-7, 37-38, 57-59, 66, 81, 96, 101, 108, 126, 135,
146, 156, 197-199, 210-213, 217, 219, 242, 266, 279-280, 289
United Nations 93-94, 126, 148, 153
United States 7, 20, 37, 53-55, 57-59, 81, 99, 107, 109, 112, 115,
121, 145-148, 154, 190, 196, 199, 217, 266, 278-280, 289
MEZZANINE, LEASE, AND EQUITY FINANCING
307V
VTIS/VTS 98, 166
Vela 225
vessel acquisition 17-24, 89, 225
vessel costs 36, 76, 158
vessel design 18, 111-113, 132-133, 157-158
vessel hire 76-79, 163, 178-180, 193
vessel safety 68-69, 87-90, 92-93, 97-100, 104-109, 115-117,
133-134, 139, 148, 155, 158-160, 195-196, 218
vessel surplus 163
voyage costs 36, 76, 163-172, 175-190
voyage surplus 163, 178-179, 182-183, 193
W
war risk 54-55, 75-76, 81, 217-218
warranties 22, 47, 61, 73-74, 80, 82
weather 38-40, 52, 65, 98-100
Wilson, W. 95
win-win 32-33, 293-294
witnesses 4
Worldscale 37, 40, 45, 178-180, 273
X - Y - Z
yard contracts 18-22
yard financing 20-21, 84, 229, 251-252
York-Antwerp Rules 53
zero-sum 32-33


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