كتاب Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics

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عدد المساهمات : 18864
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics    كتاب Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics  Emptyالسبت 22 يناير 2022, 7:44 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
(2nd Edition)
V. Babu
Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology

كتاب Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics  F_o_g_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface iii
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Compressibility of Fluids . 1
1.2 Compressible and Incompressible Flows . 2
1.3 Perfect Gas Equation of State . 4
1.3.1 Continuum Hypothesis . 5
1.4 Calorically Perfect Gas 7
2. One Dimensional Flows - Basics 11
2.1 Governing Equations . 11
2.2 Acoustic Wave Propagation Speed 13
2.2.1 Mach Number 16
2.3 Reference States . 16
2.3.1 Sonic State 17
2.3.2 Stagnation State . 17
2.4 T-s and P-v Diagrams in Compressible Flows 23
Exercises . 28
3. Normal Shock Waves 31
3.1 Governing Equations . 31
3.2 Mathematical Derivation of the Normal Shock Solution . 33
3.3 Illustration of the Normal Shock Solution on T-s and P-v
diagrams . 36
vvi Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
3.4 Further Insights into the Normal Shock Wave Solution . 41
Exercises . 45
4. Flow with Heat Addition- Rayleigh Flow 49
4.1 Governing Equations . 49
4.2 Illustration on T-s and P-v diagrams . 50
4.3 Thermal Choking and Its Consequences . 60
4.4 Calculation Procedure 64
Exercises . 67
5. Flow with Friction - Fanno Flow 69
5.1 Governing Equations . 69
5.2 Illustration on T-s diagram 70
5.3 Friction Choking and Its Consequences . 75
5.4 Calculation Procedure 75
Exercises . 81
6. Quasi One Dimensional Flows 83
6.1 Governing Equations . 84
6.1.1 Impulse Function and Thrust 84
6.2 Area Velocity Relation 86
6.3 Geometric Choking 88
6.4 Area Mach number Relation for Choked Flow 90
6.5 Mass Flow Rate for Choked Flow 92
6.6 Flow Through A Convergent Nozzle . 93
6.7 Flow Through A Convergent Divergent Nozzle . 97
6.8 Interaction between Nozzle Flow and Fanno, Rayleigh
Flows . 111
Exercises . 122
7. Oblique Shock Waves 127
7.1 Governing Equations . 129
7.2 θ-β-M curve . 131
7.3 Illustration of the Weak Oblique Shock Solution on a T-s
diagram 134
7.4 Detached Shocks . 141Contents vii
7.5 Reflected Shocks . 143
7.5.1 Reflection from a Wall 143
Exercises . 146
8. Prandtl Meyer Flow 149
8.1 Propagation of Sound Waves and the Mach Wave 149
8.2 Prandtl Meyer Flow Around Concave and Convex Corners 153
8.3 Prandtl Meyer Solution 155
8.4 Reflection of Oblique Shock From a Constant Pressure
Boundary . 160
Exercises . 163
9. Flow of Steam through Nozzles 165
9.1 T-s diagram of liquid water-water vapor mixture . 165
9.2 Isentropic expansion of steam 168
9.3 Flow of steam through nozzles 171
9.3.1 Choking in steam nozzles 173
9.4 Supersaturation and the condensation shock . 179
Exercises . 188
Suggested Reading 191
Table A. Isentropic table for γ = 1.4 193
Table B. Normal shock properties for γ = 1.4 203
Table C. Rayleigh flow properties for γ = 1.4 211
Table D. Fanno flow properties for γ = 1.4 221
Table E. Oblique shock wave angle β in degrees for γ = 1.4 231
Table F. Mach angle and Prandtl Meyer angle for γ = 1.4 237
Table G. Thermodynamic properties of steam, temperature table 243
Table H. Thermodynamic properties of steam, pressure table 247
Table I. Thermodynamic properties of superheated steam 251viii Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
Index 259
About the author 263
About the book 26
Index
Acoustic wave, 13, 149
special case of normal shock
wave, 36
Afterburner, 117
Area Mach number relation, 91
Area velocity relation, 87
Bow shock, 142
Choking
friction, 75
geometric, 90
thermal, 60
Combustion wave, 61
Combustor
design issues, 57
pressure oscillations, 62
Compressibility, 1
isentropic, 3
isothermal, 2
limit, 4
Conservative form, 12
Continuum limit, 6
Convergent divergent nozzle, 97
establishment of flow in
illustration in T-s diagram,
98
Convergent nozzle
establishment of flow in, 93
illustration in T-s and P-v
diagram, 94
Corner
concave, 129, 153
convex, 155
Critical pressure
nozzle
steam, 174
Critical state, 166
Detached shock, 141
Dryness fraction
definition, 167
Enthalpy, 9
Equilibrium
metastable, 180
Expansion fan, 155
nozzle exit, 96
reflection from constant pressure
boundary, 161
260 Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
Fanno curve, 74
Fanno flow, 69
changes in properties, 74
illustration in T-s diagram, 74
interaction with nozzle flow, 111
sonic state, 76
Friction
effect of, 69
factor, 70
H-curve
Normal shock wave, 44
Rayleigh flow, 57
sonic state, 59
Heat addition, 49
Impulse function, 84
Intake
capture area, 137
critical mode, 137
supersonic, 107, 136
Internal energy
distribution, 8
modes, 7
Isentropic process, 13
illustraion in T-s and P-v
diagram, 27
relation, 20
steam, 170
Knudsen number, 6
Mach
angle, 133, 153
cone, 152
number, 3
reflection, 145
wave, 133, 152
flow across, 155
Mass flow rate
choked, 92
Normal shock, 31
entropy change, 35
illustration in P-v diagram, 44
illustration in T-s and P-v
diagram, 37
loss of stagnation pressure, 35
moving, 39
special case of oblique shock,
133
strength, 35
Oblique shock, 127
θ − β − M relation, 131
flow deflection angle, 129
from nozzle exit, 139
reflection
from constant pressure
boundary, 160
from wall, 143
Over expanded flow, 103
Perfect gas
calorically perfect, 7
Equation of state, 4
alternative forms, 5
Specific heats, 9
Prandtl Meyer
angle, 159
flow, 153Index 261
Quasi one-dimensional, 83
Ramjet engine
inlet interaction, 63
intake, 136
schematic, 29
Rankine-Hugoniot equation, 44
Rayleigh curve, 54
Rayleigh flow, 49
changes in properties, 53
illustration in P-v diagram, 57
ilustration in T-s diagram, 54
interaction with nozzle flow, 114
sonic state, 64
Rayleigh line
normal shock, 42
sonic state, 59
Reference states, 17
sonic state, 17
stagnation state, 18
Saturation
pressure, 166
temperature, 166
Scramjet engine
inlet interaction, 63
intake, 136
Second law
differential form, 12
Entropy change for a process, 13
TdS relation, 12
Shock
condensation, 183
Shock angle, 129
Shock diamond, 141
Slip line, 145, 154
Sonic state, 17, 54
Fanno flow, 76
illustration in T-s, P-v diagram,
27
nozzle
steam, 174
nozzle flow, 90
Rayleigh flow, 64
Rayleigh line, 59
Speed of sound, 15
mixture of gases, 16
Perfect gas, 16
reacting flow, 16
steam, 170
Stagnation density, 20
Stagnation pressure
changes in, 22
definition, 19
loss, 35, 57, 74, 127, 133
Stagnation state
definition, 18
illustration in T-s, P-v diagram,
27
Stagnation temperature
changes in, 21
definition, 19
Strong oblique shock, 132
Supersaturated flow
degree of supercooling, 182
degree of supersaturation, 182
Wilson line, 183
Thrust
loss of, 96
momentum, 85
pressure, 85262 Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
Under expanded flow, 62, 75, 96,
103
Velocity triangle, 129, 156
Wave angle, 129
Weak oblique shock, 132
Wilson line, 183
Wind tunnel
supersonic, 105


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