رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Development and Optimization of the Tufting Process for Textile Composite Reinforcement
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Development and Optimization of the Tufting Process for Textile Composite Reinforcement

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Development and Optimization of the Tufting Process for Textile Composite Reinforcement  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Development and Optimization of the Tufting Process for Textile Composite Reinforcement    رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Development and Optimization of the Tufting Process for Textile Composite Reinforcement  Emptyالخميس 21 أكتوبر 2021, 10:36 pm

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رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان
Development and Optimization of the Tufting Process for Textile Composite Reinforcement
Thèse
Présentée par :
Lingshan LIU
pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l’Université de Lille 1
Discipline : Mécanique
Soutenue le 13/06/2017 devant la commission d’examen
Jury :
Mme Nadia BAHLOULI Professeur Université de Strasbourg Présidente du jury
Examinatrice
M Artan SINOIMERI Professeur Université Haute-Alsace Rapporteur
M Zoheir ABOURA Professeur Université Technologique de Compiègne Rapporteur
M Damien SOULAT Professeur des Universités, ENSAIT, Roubaix Directeur
M Xavier LEGRAND Maître de conférences, HDR, ENSAIT, Roubaix Co-directeur
M Peng WANG Maître de conférences, ENSAIT, Roubaix Encadrant

رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Development and Optimization of the Tufting Process for Textile Composite Reinforcement  D_a_o_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
PROBLEM STATEMENT 1
THESIS OVERVIEW 3
REFERENCE OF GENERAL INTRODUCTION . 3
1 STATE OF THE ART 7
1.1 INTRODUCTION . 7
1.1.1 The composite materials . 7
1.1.2 Composition of composite materials 11
1.1.3 The process of composite manufacturing . 14
1.1.4 Textile preforms . 18
1.2 LAMINATE FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES . 19
1.3 THE 3D REINFORCEMENTS 23
1.3.1 Woven fibre reinforced composites 24
1.3.2 Knitted composites . 25
1.3.3 Braided composites 26
1.3.4 Stitched composites 28
1.3.5 Z pinned composites . 30
1.3.6 Tufted composites 30
1.4 CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 1 32
REFERENCE OF CHAPTER 1 33
2 TUFTING PROCEDURE: A METHOD TO MANUFACTURE OR ASSEMBLE
THROUGH-THICKNESS REINFORCEMENTS 40
2.1 INTRODUCTION . 40
2.1.1 Introduction of stitching process 41
2.1.2 Introduction of tufting technology 44
2.2 PARAMETERS OF TUFTING PROCESS 44
2.2.1 Tufting density 45
2.2.2 Tuft length 46
2.2.3 Other parameters 46iv
2.3 TUFTING MACHINE 48
2.3.1 Functions of the machine . 48
2.3.2 Designing of the machine . 49
2.3.3 Assemblage of the machine 59
2.3.4 Operating instructions of the machine . 60
2.4 CHARACTERIZATION OF TUFTING YARN 67
2.5 CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 2 . 69
REFERENCE OF CHAPTER 2 . 70
3 INFLUENCE OF TUFT LENGTH THROUGH THE THICKNESS ON
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TUFTED COMPOSITES . 72
3.1 INTRODUCTION . 72
3.2 MATERIAL AND METHOD 73
3.3 CHARACTERISATION OF THE TUFTED PREFORM AND COMPOSITE 76
3.3.1 Preparation of the tufted composite sample . 76
3.3.2 Effective Tuft Length (ETL) 78
3.3.3 Micro-observation 81
3.4 TENSILE RESULTS . 82
3.5 DISCUSSION 86
3.6 CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 3 . 88
REFERENCES OF CHAPTER 3 . 88
4 INFLUENCE OF THE TUFTING YARNS ON FORMABILITY OF TUFTED 3D
COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT . 92
4.1 INTRODUCTION . 92
4.2 MATERIAL AND METHOD 96
4.2.1 Tufting process and tufted 3D composite reinforcement . 96
4.2.2 Hemispherical preforming 98
4.3 FORMING RESULTS 100
4.3.1 The single layer and multilayered reinforcement forming . 100
4.3.2 The tufted 3D reinforcement forming 103
4.4 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF TUFTING YARNS 106
4.4.1 Influence on the material draw-in 106
4.4.2 Influence on the inter-layer sliding 107
4.4.3 Influence on the punch force 108v
4.4.4 Influence on the forming defects 109
4.4.5 Influence of tufting yarn orientations . 110
4.5 CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 4 . 112
REFERENCE OF CHAPTER 4 . 113
5 GENERAL CONCLUSION 120
5.1 CONCLUSION 120
5.2 PERSPECTIVE 122
ABSTRACT AND RÉSUMÉ 124
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1-1 COMPARISON OF CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND
METALS 10
TABLE 1-2 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF MOST USED THERMOSETTING RESINS 12
TABLE 1-3 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME REINFORCEMENT 14
TABLE 2-1 MAIN PARAMETERS OF TUFTING EQUIPMENT. . 60
TABLE 2-2 PROPERTIES OF TORAYCA® FT300 . 67
TABLE 2-3 PROPERTIES OF 67×2TEX TENAX® CARBON THREAD . 68
TABLE 3-1 TUFTING CARBON THREAD PROPERTIES. . 75
TABLE 3-2 MAIN PROPERTIES OF THE TUFTED PREFORM AND COMPOSITE 78
TABLE 3-3 MEASUREMENT OF TUFT LENGTHS 81
TABLE 3-4 CHARACTERISATION OF TENSILE SAMPLES AFTER BREAK (PARTIALLY INSERTED
TUFT) 84
TABLE 3-5 CHARACTERISATION OF TENSILE SAMPLES AFTER BREAK (FULLY INSERTED TUFT).
. 86
TABLE 4-1 MAIN PROPERTIES OF THE TUFTED 3D FABRIC SPECIMENS 98
TABLE 4-2 THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE HEMISPHERICAL PREFORMING . 100
TABLE 4-3 INFLUENCE OF TUFTING YARNS ORIENTATION IN THE FORMING OF TUFTED 3D
PREFORMS. . 111vii
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1-1 APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS . 8
FIGURE 1-2 RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING INJECTION PROCESS . 15
FIGURE 1-3 PRINCIPLE OF RFI PROCESS. 16
FIGURE 1-4 PRINCIPLE OF LRI PROCESS. 17
FIGURE 1-5 DIFFERENT FORMS OF REINFORCEMENT: (A) UD SHEET, (B) MAT, (C) WOVEN
FABRIC, (D) THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORTHOGONAL WOVEN FABRIC . 18
FIGURE 1-6 LAMINATE MADE BY STACKING LAMINAS IN DIFFERENT ORIENTATION 20
FIGURE 1-7 LAMINA FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITE: (A) LAMINA WITH UNIDIRECTIONAL
FIBRE; (B) LAMINA WITH 2D WOVEN FABRIC. . 20
FIGURE 1-8 SPECIFIC STRENGTH IN FUNCTION OF SPECIFIC MODULUS OF FIBRE, LAMINA,
LAMINATE AND METALS. 22
FIGURE 1-9 COMPARISON OF THE IN-PLANE TENSILE MODULUS, TENSILE STRENGTH AND
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TO THAT IN THE THROUGH THICKNESS PROPERTIES FOR
LAMINATE COMPOSITE MATERIALS . 23
FIGURE 1-10 DEGRADATION OF THE IN-PLANE TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AFTER
IMPACT NORMALIZED TO THE STRENGTH BEFORE IMPACT IN FUNCTION OF THE IMPACT
ENERGY. . 23
FIGURE 1-11 TYPICAL 3D WOVEN ARCHITECTURES: (A) LAYER-TO-LAYER ANGLE INTERLOCK;
(B) THROUGH-THICKNESS ANGLE INTERLOCK; (C) ORTHOGONAL 25
FIGURE 1-12 (A) SHEMATIC OF WEFT KNITTED FABRIC; (B) SHEMATIC OF WARP KNITTED
FABRIC 26
FIGURE 1-13 (A) OVERALL VIEW OF A BRAIDING MACHINE (GEMTEX). (B) DESCRIPTION OF
THE MAIN ELEMENTS OF A BRAIDING PROCESS 27
FIGURE 1-14 (A) OUTLINE OF THE CARRIERS ON A 3D BRAIDING MACHINE; (B) DETAILED
VIEW OF THE MOTION OF A HORN-GEAR DURING A 3D BRAIDING OPERATION. 27viii
FIGURE 1-15 STITCHED COMPOSITE: STACKED 2D LAMINAS SEWED WITH MODIFIED LOCK
STITCH 29
FIGURE 1-16 SCHEMATIC OF THE Z-PINNING PROCESS OF LAMINATE COMPOSITE. . 30
FIGURE 1-17 SCHEMATICS OF (A) STITCHING AND (B) TUFTING PROCESS APPLIED TO
SANDWICH PANELS. 31
FIGURE 2-1 SCHEMA OF CONVENTIONAL LOCK STITCH (A) AND MODIFIED LOCK STITCH (B).
. 41
FIGURE 2-2 SCHEMA OF CHAIN STITCH . 42
FIGURE 2-3 ONE-SIDE STITCHING NEEDLE (A) AND SCHEMA OF OSS® TECHNOLOGY (B). [3] 43
FIGURE 2-4 TUFTING TECHNOLOGY: AEROTISS® 03S 43
FIGURE 2-5 PARAMETERS OF TUFTING PROCESS . 45
FIGURE 2-6 SCHEMATIC OF THE THREAD ARRANGEMENT IN A TUFTED PREFORM. 46
FIGURE 2-7 SCHEMATIC OF TUFTING ANGLE . 47
FIGURE 2-8 TUFTING NEEDLES WITH INCLINED HOLE (A) AND HOLLOW NEEDLE (B) . 48
FIGURE 2-9 DESIGN DRAWING OF TUFTING EQUIPMENT IN SOLIDWORKS. 50
FIGURE 2-10 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND NEEDLE 51
FIGURE 2-11 FRAME PIECE FOR CHANGING HEIGHT AND THE BRAKE 52
FIGURE 2-12 ESTIMATING OF TUFT LENGTH. 53
FIGURE 2-13 PLASTIC BOBBIN SUPPORT. 54
FIGURE 2-14 CALCULATION OF RESERVED DISTANCE OF TUFTING THREAD 55
FIGURE 2-15 FEEDING SYSTEM . 56
FIGURE 2-16 PRESSER FOOT SYSTEM 57
FIGURE 2-17 ROUND PRESSER FOOT (A); UNI-DIRECTIONAL PRESSER FOOT (B). . 58
FIGURE 2-18 THE FRAME (A) AND THE FOAM (B) 58
FIGURE 2-19 THE FRAME WITH GUIDING RAILS. . 59
FIGURE 2-20 ASSEMBLAGE OF TUFTING MACHINE 60ix
FIGURE 2-21 MANUAL OPERATING CONSOLE OF TUFTING MACHINE . 61
FIGURE 2-22 PATH OF THREADING TUFTING YARN. 62
FIGURE 2-23 TUFTING PROCESS 63
FIGURE 2-24 HOME SCREEN OF THE PCDUINO. 64
FIGURE 2-25 LAUNCH THE INTERFACE. 64
FIGURE 2-26 THE INTERFACE OF AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLING SYSTEM 65
FIGURE 2-27 INTERFACE FOR CONTROLLING MOTOR OF X AXIS. 66
FIGURE 2-28 TORAYCA® FT300 CARBON FIBRE AND TWISTED THREAD . 68
FIGURE 3-1 THE LAMINATE OF THE PREFORM AND THE POSITION OF RELEASE FILM. 74
FIGURE 3-2 DRY TUFTED PREFORM WITH A TUFTING DENSITY OF 5MM. . 75
FIGURE 3-3 THE PRINCIPAL OF LRI. . 76
FIGURE 3-4 THE TUFTED PREFORM SAMPLE UNDER VACUUM INFUSION SYSTEM. . 77
FIGURE 3-5 THE TUFTED COMPOSITE SAMPLES . 78
FIGURE 3-6 DEFINITION OF RTL AND ETL . 79
FIGURE 3-7 RTL AND ETL PRESENTED ON A TUFTED COMPOSITE SAMPLE . 79
FIGURE 3-8 MEASUREMENT OF THE ETL (E.G. FOR A SAMPLE WITH 24.6 MM DTL) . 80
FIGURE 3-9 CROSS SECTION OF TUFTED COMPOSITE SAMPLE UNDER MICRO-OBSERVATION. 82
FIGURE 3-10 (A) TENSILE INSTRUMENT AND (B) TENSILE TEST SET-UP. 83
FIGURE 3-11 BROKEN SURFACE OF TENSILE TEST SAMPLE 83
FIGURE 3-12 INFLUENCE OF ETL ON MAXIMUM TENSILE LOAD PER TUFTING THREAD FOR
PARTIALLY INSERTED TUFT CASE 85
FIGURE 3-13 MICRO-OBSERVATION OF THE TUFTING THREADS IN TUFTED COMPOSITE IN THE
CASE OF FULLY INSERTED TUFT. . 87
FIGURE 4-1 THE SEQUENCE OF TESTED PREFORM. 97
FIGURE 4-2 THE TOP VIEW OF TUFTING PATTERN 97F x
IGURE 4-3 TOP VIEW (A) AND BOTTOM VIEW (B) OF TUFTED SAMPLE WITH A TUFTING
SPACING OF 10MM. . 98
FIGURE 4-4 THE HEMISPHERICAL PREFORMING DEVICE 99
FIGURE 4-5 THE DIMENSIONS OF THE HEMISPHERICAL PREFORMING DEVICE 100
FIGURE 4-6 DEFORMED PREFORM [0°/90°]4 AFTER HEMISPHERICAL STAMPING . 101
FIGURE 4-7 DEFORMED PREFORM: [-45°/+45°]4 AFTER HEMISPHERICAL STAMPING . 101
FIGURE 4-8 THE MAXIMUM PUNCH FORCE OF SINGLE AND MULTILAYERED E-GLASS PLAN
WEAVES FORMING. . 102
FIGURE 4-9 THE MAXIMUM DRAW-IN OF SINGLE AND MULTILAYERED E-GLASS PLAN WEAVES
FORMING. . 103
FIGURE 4-10 NON-TUFTED PREFORM AFTER PERFORMING 104
FIGURE 4-11 3D PREFORM AFTER PERFORMING WITH TUFTING SPACING OF 20MM . 104
FIGURE 4-12 3D PREFORM AFTER PERFORMING WITH TUFTING SPACING OF 10MM . 105
FIGURE 4-13 3D PREFORM AFTER PERFORMING WITH TUFTING SPACING OF 5MM . 105
FIGURE 4-14 INFLUENCE OF TUFTING DENSITY ON THE MATERIAL DRAW-IN. . 106
FIGURE 4-15 INFLUENCE OF TUFTING DENSITY ON THE INTER-LAYER SLIDING . 108
FIGURE 4-16 INFLUENCE OF TUFTING DENSITY ON THE PUNCH FORCE 109
FIGURE 4-17 WRINKLING PHENOMENA IN THE FORMING OF (A) NON-TUFTED, (B) TUFTED 1.0
AND (C) TUFTED 0.5 PREFORMS. . 110
FIGURE 4-18 HEMISPHERICAL FORMING OF TUFTED 3D PREFORMS [0°/90°]2. . 111
FIGURE 4-19 HEMISPHERICAL FORMING OF TUFTED 3D PREFORMS [-45°/45°]2 . 112


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