رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application
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  رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application

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 رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application     رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application  Emptyالثلاثاء 19 أكتوبر 2021, 1:19 am

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أحضرت لكم
رسالة ماجستير بعنوان
Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application
Liew Zhen Hui
(B.eng. (Hons.), Nus)
A Thesis Submitted
For the Degree of Master of Engineering
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National University of Singapore

 رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application  D_a_a_15
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Content
SUMMARY .I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . II
TABLE OF CONTENT III
LIST OF TABLES .VI
LIST OF FIGURES .X
LIST OF CHARTS .XX
LIST OF GRAPHS XXV
LIST OF EQUATIONS . XXXI
LIST OF SYMBOLS XXXII
1. PROLOGUE . 1
1.1. COMPETITION BACKGROUND 1
1.2. PROJECT BACKGROUND 1
1.3. PROJECT OBJECTIVE 2
1.4. PROJECT SCOPE . 2
2. CHASSIS OF FSAE RACE CAR . 5
2.1. FUNCTION OF CHASSIS 5
2.2. ATTRIBUTES OF CHASSIS . 5
2.3. TYPE OF CHASSIS 10
2.4. LOAD CASES OF CHASSIS 17
3. DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS 22
3.1. TYPE OF CHASSIS CONSTRUCTION 22
3.2. TYPE OF MATERIAL . 22
3.3. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 22
3.4. COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE) TOOL . 24
3.5. DESIGN METHODOLOGY . 28IV
3.6. DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS . 54
3.7. ESTIMATION OF DISCREPANCY & PREDICTION OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF
ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 154
3.8. DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATION . 160
4. DATA ACQUISITION ON OPERATION LOAD OF CHASSIS . 162
4.1. OBJECTIVE OF DATA ACQUISITION . 162
4.2. OUTLINE AND PREPARATION OF TEST RUN FOR DATA ACQUISITION 163
4.3. PRESENTATION & INTERPRETATION OF DATA . 165
4.4. DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATION . 178
5. RESEARCH ON STRESSED SKIN CONSTRUCTION FOR CHASSIS 180
5.1. STRESSED SKIN PRINCIPLE 180
5.2. PHYSICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN TUBULAR SPACEFRAME & STRESSED SKIN
CONSTRUCTION . 183
5.3. INTERPRETATION OF DATA & PRESENTATION OF RESULT . 192
5.4. DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATION . 207
6. CONCLUSION 209
REFERENCE 210
APPENDICES 1 - DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – SHAPE OF CHASSIS . 212
APPENDICES 2 - DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – ORIENTATION OF BRACE 230
APPENDICES 3 - DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – CROSS SECTION OF
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 250
APPENDICES 4 - DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS – ESTIMATION OF DISCREPANCY
& PREDICTION OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED
CONCEIVED CHASSIS . 268
APPENDICES 5 - DATA ACQUISITION ON THE OPERATION LOAD OF CHASSIS – X1-6A
ACCELEROMETER 273V
APPENDICES 6- DATA ACQUISITION ON THE OPERATION LOAD OF CHASSIS –
ACQUIRED DATA . 288
APPENDICES 7 - RESEARCH ON STRESSED SKIN CONSTRUCTION FOR CHASSIS 298
List of Tables
TABLE 1-COMPARISON OF DEFORMATION BETWEEN TRIANGULATED AND ORIGINAL PLANAR FRAME 31
TABLE 2-DYNAMIC FACTORS USED FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR . 45
TABLE 3-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FOOT WELL . 59
TABLE 4-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 61
TABLE 5-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD 63
TABLE 6-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD 65
TABLE 7-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP . 69
TABLE 8-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT . 72
TABLE 9-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 74
TABLE 10-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 76
TABLE 11-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD . 81
TABLE 12-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 84
TABLE 13-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 86
TABLE 14-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 87
TABLE 15-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 90VII
TABLE 16-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 92
TABLE 17-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 94
TABLE 18-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 96
TABLE 19-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 98
TABLE 20-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 100
TABLE 21-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 102
TABLE 22-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 104
TABLE 23-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 106
TABLE 24-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE 108
TABLE 25-WEIGHT, SECOND MOMENT OF AREA AND SPECIFIC SECOND MOMENT OF AREA OF EXTRUSION
WITH RESPECT TO CROSS SECTION OF EXTRUSION . 110
TABLE 26-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 112
TABLE 27-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 114
TABLE 28-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 117VIII
TABLE 29-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 119
TABLE 30-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 121
TABLE 31-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 123
TABLE 32-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 126
TABLE 33-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 128
TABLE 34-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 131
TABLE 35-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 133
TABLE 36-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 136
TABLE 37-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS . 139
TABLE 38-SAFETY FACTOR OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS IN ALL SCENARIOS . 150
TABLE 39-SAFETY FACTOR OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS IN ALL SCENARIOS . 152IX
TABLE 40-WEIGHT, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) AND SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 152
TABLE 41-TABLE OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL . 158
TABLE 42-TABLE OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF MANUFACTURED FRAME . 159
TABLE 43-COMPARISON OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BETWEEN FRAME MODEL &
MANUFACTURED FRAME . 159
TABLE 44-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE ENHANCED CONCEIVED AND MANUFACTURED
CHASSIS 160
TABLE 45-LATERAL ACCELERATION RECORDED DURING SKID PAD TEST . 171
TABLE 46-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION RECORDED DURING ACCELERATION AND BRAKE TEST . 177
TABLE 47-VERTICAL ACCELERATION RECORDED DURING TEST RUNS 177
TABLE 48-IMPROVED DYNAMIC FACTORS FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR 178
TABLE 49-SAFETY FACTOR OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS IN ALL SCENARIOS USING IMPROVED
DYNAMIC FACTORS . 178
TABLE 50-COMPARISON OF DEFORMATION BETWEEN TRIANGULATED AND STRESSED SKIN PLANAR FRAME
. 182
TABLE 51-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME . 192
TABLE 52-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME . 194
TABLE 53-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME 196
TABLE 54- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS, STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS & WEIGHT
OF THREE FRAMES . 198
TABLE 55-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME . 200
TABLE 56-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME . 202
TABLE 57-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME . 204
TABLE 58- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS, STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS & WEIGHT OF
THREE FRAMES 206X
List of Figures
FIGURE 1-LADDER CHASSIS OF A FORD STREET ROD CAR [II] . 12
FIGURE 2-TWIN TUBE CHASSIS OF LISTER JAGUAR RACE CAR [III] 13
FIGURE 3-FOUR TUBE CHASSIS OF LOTUS 21 RACE CAR [IV] . 14
FIGURE 4-BACKBONE CHASSIS OF LOTUS ELAN SPORT CAR [V] . 15
FIGURE 5-TUBULAR SPACEFRAME CHASSIS OF GALMER D-SPORT RACE CAR [VI] 16
FIGURE 6-STRESSED SKIN/MONOCOQUE CHASSIS OF USF1 RACE CAR [VII] 17
FIGURE 7-LOAD CASE OF LATERAL BENDING OF CHASSIS [VIII] 18
FIGURE 8-LOAD CASE OF HORIZONTAL LOZENGING OF CHASSIS [VIII] 19
FIGURE 9-LOAD CASE OF VERTICAL BENDING OF CHASSIS [VIII] . 19
FIGURE 10-LOAD CASE OF LONGITUDINAL TORSION OF CHASSIS [VIII] . 20
FIGURE 11-CAD & FE MODEL OF A TUBE 25
FIGURE 12-ELEMENT WITH NODES HIGHLIGHTED IN RED [XI] . 26
FIGURE 13-PLANAR FRAME 29
FIGURE 14-DEFLECTED PLANAR FRAME . 29
FIGURE 15-TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 30
FIGURE 16-DEFLECTED TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 30
FIGURE 17-SIDE VIEW OF THE CHASSIS OF SALOON CAR CARRYING LOADS [XVI] . 33
FIGURE 18-FRONT VIEW OF THE CHASSIS OF SALOON CAR CARRYING LOADS [XVI] 33
FIGURE 19-COMPARISON OF TWO DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT METHODS OF INPUTTING LOADS INTO THE
CHASSIS FROM SUSPENSION [XV] 34
FIGURE 20-MODEL OF IDEAL CHASSIS WHOSE AIM IS MERELY TO PROVIDE HIGH STRUCTURAL STIFFNESS
[I] 35
FIGURE 21-IDEALIZED MODEL OF CHASSIS AND SUSPENSIONS – REPRESENTATION OF CHASSIS AND
SUSPENSIONS AS SPRINGS [VIII] . 37
FIGURE 22-SIMPLE HOLLOW TUBE CHASSIS MODEL 40
FIGURE 23-CHASSIS MODEL OF NUS FSAE C4 RACE CAR UTILIZING THE CONCEPT OF SIMPLE TUBE
MODEL 41
FIGURE 24-CALCULATION OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS 41
FIGURE 25-LOAD CASES FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR 44XI
FIGURE 26-CHASSIS MODEL WITH ENGINE AND SUSPENSION MODEL INCORPORATED FOR MORE REALISTIC
REPRESENTATION 46
FIGURE 27-DRIVER MODEL 48
FIGURE 28- PEDAL & STEERING ASSEMBLY MODEL 48
FIGURE 29-TOOL MANIPULATION MODEL OF SPANNER 10, 13 AND 17 – VOLUME OF MOTION NEEDED TO
MANIPULATE TOOLS 49
FIGURE 30-REGULATION CHECKING MODEL OF HORIZONTAL TEMPLATE . 49
FIGURE 31-CHASSIS 1WITH FIVE BAYS . 54
FIGURE 32-CHASSIS 1 WITH SUSPENSION AND ENGINE MODEL . 54
FIGURE 33- SCENARIO OF CLOCKWISE & COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE APPLIED TO CHASSIS 1 . 56
FIGURE 34-COMPOSITION OF FOOT WELL OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND LABELED 58
FIGURE 35-VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FOOT WELL OF CHASSIS 2 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FRONT
BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE, FRONT BULKHEAD DIAGONAL BRACE AND FRONT BULKHEAD LOWER
BRACE . 59
FIGURE 36-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 3 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
FRONT BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE . 61
FIGURE 37-VARIATION OF WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 4 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
FRONT BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE, FRONT BULKHEAD DIAGONAL BRACE AND FRONT BULKHEAD
LOWER BRACE . 63
FIGURE 38-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 5 WITH VARIATION OF
LENGTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD UPPER BRACE AND FRONT ROLL HOOP BRACE 65
FIGURE 39-COMPOSITION OF FRONT SUSPENSION BAY OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND
LABELED . 67
FIGURE 40-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP OF CHASSIS 6 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
FRONT ROLL HOOP BRACE . 69
FIGURE 41-COMPOSITION OF DRIVER COCKPIT OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND
LABELED . 71
FIGURE 42-VARIATION OF LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT OF CHASSIS 7 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF SIDE
IMPACT STRUCTURE, UPPER MAIN ROLL HOOP BRACE, REAR CONNECTING ELEMENTS AND ENGINE
MOUNTING ELEMENTS . 72XII
FIGURE 43-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP OF CHASSIS 8 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF
UPPER MAIN ROLL HOOP BRACE 74
FIGURE 44-VARIATION OF WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP OF CHASSIS 9 WITH VARIATION OF LENGTH OF SIDE
IMPACT STRUCTURE, REAR CONNECTING ELEMENTS AND ENGINE MOUNTING ELEMENTS . 76
FIGURE 45-COMPOSITION OF ENGINE BAY OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND LABELED
. 78
FIGURE 46-COMPOSITION OF REAR SUSPENSION BAY OF CHASSIS WITH EACH MAIN ELEMENT NAMED AND
LABELED . 79
FIGURE 47-VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD OF CHASSIS 10 WITH NO INFLUENCE TO OTHER
ELEMENTS . 80
FIGURE 48-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER FOOT WELL (PLAN VIEW), LOWER FOOT WELL (BOTTOM VIEW)
AND SIDE FOOT WELL (SIDE VIEW) 83
FIGURE 49-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO UPPER
FOOT WELL IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 84
FIGURE 50-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO SIDE FOOT
WELL IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 85
FIGURE 51-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, “\” BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER
FOOT WELL IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 87
FIGURE 52-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, FRONT SIDE BAY (SIDE VIEW), UPPER FRONT BAY (PLAN VIEW) AND
LOWER FRONT BAY (BOTTOM VIEW) . 89
FIGURE 53-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, CHEVRON BRACE, CROSS BRACE, DIAMOND BRACE AND REVERSE
CHEVRON BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO FRONT SIDE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 89
FIGURE 54-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, LATERAL & “<” BRACE, LATERAL & “/” BRACE, LATERAL &
CROSS BRACE, LATERAL BRACE, CROSS BRACE AND “\” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO UPPER FRONT
BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 91
FIGURE 55-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, LATERAL & “<” BRACE, LATERAL & “/” BRACE, LATERAL &
CROSS BRACE, LATERAL BRACE, CROSS BRACE AND “\” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER FRONT
BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 93
FIGURE 56-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SIDE DRIVER COCKPIT (SIDE VIEW) AND LOWER DRIVER COCKPIT (PLAN
VIEW) 95XIII
FIGURE 57-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, LONGITUDINAL BRACE, LONGITUDINAL & “\” BRACE, LONGITUDINAL &
“/” BRACE AND LONGITUDINAL & CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO SIDE DRIVER COCKPIT IN
ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 96
FIGURE 58-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, CROSS BRACE, “/” BRACE, AND “\” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER
DRIVER COCKPIT IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 97
FIGURE 59-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER SIDE ENGINE BAY (SIDE VIEW), LOWER SIDE ENGINE BAY (SIDE
VIEW) AND LOWER ENGINE BAY (BOTTOM VIEW) 99
FIGURE 60-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, DOUBLE PARALLEL BRACE, DOUBLE (ENGINE) BRACE, SINGLE (ENGINE)
BRACE, SINGLE (REAR PIVOT) BRACE, DOUBLE CROSS BRACE, DOUBLE (REAR PIVOT) BRACE AND
TRIPLE BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO UPPER SIDE ENGINE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 100
FIGURE 61-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE, INTEGRATED CROSS BRACE AND CROSS BRACE,
EACH INSERTED TO LOWER SIDE ENGINE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 102
FIGURE 62-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, LATERAL BRACE, “\” BRACE, “/” BRACE, LATERAL & “\” BRACE,
LATERAL & “/” BRACE, LATERAL & CROSS BRACE AND CROSS BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER
ENGINE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE . 104
FIGURE 63-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER REAR SIDE BAY (SIDE VIEW) AND LOWER REAR SIDE BAY (SIDE
VIEW) 106
FIGURE 64-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, “/” BRACE, LONGITUDINAL BRACE, AND LONGITUDINAL & “/” BRACE,
EACH INSERTED TO UPPER REAR SIDE BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 106
FIGURE 65-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, CROSS BRACE AND “/” BRACE, EACH INSERTED TO LOWER REAR SIDE
BAY IN ALTERNATING SEQUENCE 108
FIGURE 66-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER FOOT WELL BRACE, SIDE FOOT WELL BRACE AND LOWER FOOT
WELL BRACE, OF WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED 111
FIGURE 67-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 112
FIGURE 68-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 114XIV
FIGURE 69-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 116
FIGURE 70-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, FRONT SIDE BAY BRACE, LOWER FRONT BAY BRACE AND UPPER FRONT
BAY BRACE, OF WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED 118
FIGURE 71-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 119
FIGURE 72-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 121
FIGURE 73-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 123
FIGURE 74-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER DRIVER COCKPIT BRACE AND LOWER DRIVER COCKPIT BRACE, OF
WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED . 125
FIGURE 75-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 126
FIGURE 76-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 128
FIGURE 77-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, UPPER SIDE ENGINE BAY BRACE, LOWER SIDE ENGINE BAY BRACE AND
LOWER ENGINE BAY BRACE, OF WHICH CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IS VARIED 130
FIGURE 78-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 131
FIGURE 79-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 133XV
FIGURE 80-FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, 0.75” X 0.049” (GREEN), 1” X 0.035” (LIGHT PURPLE), 1” X 0.049”
(PURPLE), 0.375” X 0.049” (DARK RED), 0.0375” X 0.035” (PINK), 0.75” X 0.035” (LIGHT GREEN),
0.5” X 0.049” (CYAN) AND 0.5” X 0.035” (LIGHT BLUE) 135
FIGURE 81-SCENARIO OF CLOCKWISE & COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE APPLIED TO CHASSIS 34 137
FIGURE 82-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR LEFT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 148
FIGURE 83-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR RIGHT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 148
FIGURE 84-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT LEFT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 149
FIGURE 85-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT RIGHT CORNER OF CONCEIVED CHASSIS 149
FIGURE 86-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR RIGHT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS . 150
FIGURE 87-LOAD APPLICATION TO REAR LEFT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 151
FIGURE 88-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT RIGHT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 151
FIGURE 89-LOAD APPLICATION TO FRONT LEFT CORNER OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS 152
FIGURE 90-SETUP OF ANALYSIS WITH FRAME MODEL . 155
FIGURE 91-SETUP OF TEST WITH MANUFACTURED FRAME . 155
FIGURE 92-SETUP OF TORSIONAL TEST . 156
FIGURE 93-INSTALLATION DIAGRAM OF ACCELEROMETERS . 165
FIGURE 94-TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 181
FIGURE 95-STRESSED SKIN PLANAR FRAME 181
FIGURE 96-DEFLECTED TRIANGULATED PLANAR FRAME . 181
FIGURE 97-DEFLECTED STRESSED SKIN PLANAR FRAME 182
FIGURE 98-“STRESS SKIN” FRAME MODEL & MANUFACTURED FRAME 185
FIGURE 99-“SPACEFRAME” FRAME MODEL & MANUFACTURED FRAME . 185
FIGURE 100-BARE FRAME MODEL & MANUFACTURED FRAME . 186
FIGURE 101-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH BARE FRAME MODEL 186
FIGURE 102-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH MANUFACTURED BARE FRAME . 187
FIGURE 103-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH “SPACEFRAME” FRAME MODEL 187
FIGURE 104-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH MANUFACTURED “SPACEFRAME” FRAME 188
FIGURE 105-SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME MODEL 188
FIGURE 106- SETUP OF SSBT & TT WITH MANUFACTURED “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME 189
FIGURE 107-SIMPLY SUPPORT BENDING TEST SETUP 190XVI
FIGURE 108-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 1 212
FIGURE 109-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 1 212
FIGURE 110-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.2) OF CHASSIS 1 . 212
FIGURE 111-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 1 213
FIGURE 112-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.1) OF CHASSIS 1 . 213
FIGURE 113-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 2 214
FIGURE 114-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 2 214
FIGURE 115-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.3.9) OF CHASSIS 2 . 215
FIGURE 116-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.2) OF CHASSIS 2 . 215
FIGURE 117-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 217
FIGURE 118-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 217
FIGURE 119-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B.4.2) OF CHASSIS 4 . 217
FIGURE 120-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 218
FIGURE 121-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 4 218
FIGURE 122-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 4 218
FIGURE 123-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 4 219
FIGURE 124-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 5 220
FIGURE 125-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 5 220
FIGURE 126-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 5 221
FIGURE 127-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 5 221
FIGURE 128-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 6 222
FIGURE 129-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 6 222
FIGURE 130-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 6 223
FIGURE 131-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 6 223
FIGURE 132-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 8 224
FIGURE 133-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 8 224
FIGURE 134-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 8 225
FIGURE 135-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 8 226
FIGURE 136-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 8 226
FIGURE 137-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 8 227XVII
FIGURE 138-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 9 228
FIGURE 139-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 9 228
FIGURE 140-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 9 229
FIGURE 141-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 11 231
FIGURE 142-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 11 231
FIGURE 143-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 11 231
FIGURE 144-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 12 232
FIGURE 145-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 12 232
FIGURE 146-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 12 232
FIGURE 147-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 13 234
FIGURE 148-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 13 234
FIGURE 149-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 13 234
FIGURE 150-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 14 235
FIGURE 151-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 14 235
FIGURE 152-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 14 235
FIGURE 153-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 15 236
FIGURE 154-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 15 237
FIGURE 155-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 15 237
FIGURE 156-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 16 238
FIGURE 157-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 16 238
FIGURE 158-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 16 239
FIGURE 159-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 17 240
FIGURE 160-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 17 . 240
FIGURE 161-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 17 241
FIGURE 162-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 17 241
FIGURE 163-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 18 242
FIGURE 164-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 18 242
FIGURE 165-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 18 243
FIGURE 166-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 19 244
FIGURE 167-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 19 244XVIII
FIGURE 168-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 20 245
FIGURE 169-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 20 245
FIGURE 170-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 21 246
FIGURE 171-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 21 247
FIGURE 172-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 23 248
FIGURE 173-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 23 249
FIGURE 174-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 24 251
FIGURE 175-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 24 251
FIGURE 176-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 24 251
FIGURE 177-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 25 252
FIGURE 178-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 25 252
FIGURE 179-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 25 252
FIGURE 180-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 26 254
FIGURE 181-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 26 254
FIGURE 182-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 26 254
FIGURE 183-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 27 256
FIGURE 184-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 27 256
FIGURE 185-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 27 256
FIGURE 186-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 28 257
FIGURE 187-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 28 257
FIGURE 188-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 28 257
FIGURE 189-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.2) OF CHASSIS 29 259
FIGURE 190-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 29 259
FIGURE 191-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 29 259
FIGURE 192-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B3.9) OF CHASSIS 30 260
FIGURE 193-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 30 260
FIGURE 194-INVESTIGATION OF RULE REQUIREMENT (B4.1) OF CHASSIS 30 261
FIGURE 195-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 30 261
FIGURE 196-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 31 262
FIGURE 197-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 31 262XIX
FIGURE 198-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 32 263
FIGURE 199-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 32 264
FIGURE 200-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 33 265
FIGURE 201-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 33 265
FIGURE 202-INVESTIGATION OF DRIVER ERGONOMICS REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 34 266
FIGURE 203-INVESTIGATION OF AUXILIARY REQUIREMENT OF CHASSIS 34 267
List of Charts
CHART 1-WORK CHART OF THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE CHASSIS FOR NUS FSAE RACE CAR . 50
CHART 2- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 84
CHART 3-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 86
CHART 4-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 88
CHART 5-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 90
CHART 6-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 92
CHART 7-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 94
CHART 8-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 96
CHART 9-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 98
CHART 10-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 101
CHART 11-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 103
CHART 12-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 105
CHART 13-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 107
CHART 14-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 108
CHART 15-SPECIFIC SECOND MOMENT OF AREA OF EXTRUSION WITH RESPECT TO CROSS SECTION OF
EXTRUSION . 110XXI
CHART 16-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 113
CHART 17-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 115
CHART 18-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 117
CHART 19-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 120
CHART 20-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 122
CHART 21-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 124
CHART 22-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 127
CHART 23-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 129
CHART 24-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 132
CHART 25-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 134
CHART 26-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 136
CHART 27-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 230
CHART 28-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 11 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 230
CHART 29-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 231
CHART 30-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 12 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 232
CHART 31-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 233XXII
CHART 32-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 13 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 233
CHART 33-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 234
CHART 34-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 14 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 235
CHART 35-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 236
CHART 36-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 15 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 236
CHART 37-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 237
CHART 38-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 16 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 238
CHART 39-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 239
CHART 40-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 17 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 240
CHART 41-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 241
CHART 42-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 18 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 242
CHART 43-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 243
CHART 44-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 19 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 243
CHART 45-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 244
CHART 46-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 20 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 245
CHART 47-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 246
CHART 48-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 21 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 246
CHART 49-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 247
CHART 50-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 22 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 247
CHART 51-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF ORIENTATION OF BRACE . 248XXIII
CHART 52-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 23 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
ORIENTATION OF BRACE 248
CHART 53-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 250
CHART 54-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 24 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 250
CHART 55-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 251
CHART 56-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 25 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 252
CHART 57-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 253
CHART 58-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 26 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 253
CHART 59-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 255
CHART 60-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 27 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 255
CHART 61-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 256
CHART 62-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 28 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 257
CHART 63-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 258
CHART 64-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 29 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 258
CHART 65-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 259
CHART 66-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 30 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 260XXIV
CHART 67-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 261
CHART 68-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 31 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 262
CHART 69-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 263
CHART 70-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 32 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 263
CHART 71-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 264
CHART 72-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 33 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 265
CHART 73-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT . 266
CHART 74-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENT . 266
List of Graphs
GRAPH 1-GRAPH OF OVERALL RACE CAR STIFFNESS VERSUS STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE
CHASSIS [VIII] . 38
GRAPH 2-GRAPH OF LATERAL LOAD TRANSFER OF A RACE CAR WITH THE SUSPENSION ROLL STIFFNESS OF
5000 NM/DEG FOR 50:50 WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS [XIV] . 39
GRAPH 3-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE CHASSIS 1 (CLOCKWISE TORQUE) . 56
GRAPH 4-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF THE CHASSIS 1 (COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE) 56
GRAPH 5-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
LENGTH OF FOOT WELL . 60
GRAPH 6-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 62
GRAPH 7-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD 64
GRAPH 8-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD 66
GRAPH 9-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP . 69
GRAPH 10-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT . 73
GRAPH 11-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 75
GRAPH 12-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 77
GRAPH 13-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD . 81
GRAPH 14-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 (CLOCKWISE TORQUE) . 138
GRAPH 15-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS 34 (COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TORQUE) . 138
GRAPH 16-SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS 140
GRAPH 17-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS 141
GRAPH 18-WEIGHT OF ALL CONCEIVED CHASSIS MODELS 142XXVI
GRAPH 19-ANGULAR DEFLECTION OF CHASSIS 1 WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT LONGITUDINAL LOCATION
. 144
GRAPH 20-ANGULAR DEFLECTION OF CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT LONGITUDINAL LOCATION
. 145
GRAPH 21-ANGULAR DEFLECTION OF CHASSIS 1 & CHASSIS 34 WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT
LONGITUDINAL LOCATION 146
GRAPH 22-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS (CLOCKWISE TORQUE)
. 153
GRAPH 23-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF ENHANCED CONCEIVED CHASSIS (COUNTERCLOCKWISE TORQUE) 153
GRAPH 24-GRAPH OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL . 157
GRAPH 25-GRAPH OF STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF MANUFACTURED FRAME 158
GRAPH 26-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS
. 166
GRAPH 27-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT RIGHT UNSPRUNG
MASS . 167
GRAPH 28-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS
. 168
GRAPH 29-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS
. 169
GRAPH 30-LATERAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG)
. 170
GRAPH 31-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG
MASS . 172
GRAPH 32-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS FRONT RIGHT
UNSPRUNG MASS . 173
GRAPH 33-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG
MASS . 174
GRAPH 34-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS REAR RIGHT
UNSPRUNG MASS . 175XXVII
GRAPH 35-LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE RACE CAR AT ITS CENTER OF GRAVITY
(CG) . 176
GRAPH 36-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME . 193
GRAPH 37-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME 195
GRAPH 38-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME . 197
GRAPH 39- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS & STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF
THREE FRAMES 199
GRAPH 40-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME 201
GRAPH 41-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME 203
GRAPH 42-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME . 205
GRAPH 43-- SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS & STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF THREE
FRAMES . 206
GRAPH 44-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF FOOT WELL 213
GRAPH 45-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF THE CHASSIS 2 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
LENGTH OF FOOT WELL . 214
GRAPH 46-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD 215
GRAPH 47-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 3 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 216
GRAPH 48-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD . 216
GRAPH 49-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 4 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
WIDTH OF FRONT BULKHEAD 217
GRAPH 50-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD
. 219
GRAPH 51-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 5 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF FRONT MIDDLE BULKHEAD 220
GRAPH 52-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP 221
GRAPH 53-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 6 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF FRONT ROLL HOOP . 222
GRAPH 54-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT 223XXVIII
GRAPH 55-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 7 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
LENGTH OF DRIVER COCKPIT . 224
GRAPH 56-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 225
GRAPH 57-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 8 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 226
GRAPH 58-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP . 227
GRAPH 59-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 9 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
WIDTH OF MAIN ROLL HOOP 228
GRAPH 60-WEIGHT OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD 229
GRAPH 61-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (STS) OF CHASSIS 10 WITH RESPECT TO VARIATION OF
HEIGHT OF REAR BULKHEAD . 229
GRAPH 62-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL IN COUNTER-CLOCKWISE LOADING
SCENARIO . 268
GRAPH 63-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS OF FRAME MODEL IN CLOCKWISE LOADING SCENARIO. 269
GRAPH 64-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 1) 269
GRAPH 65-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 2) 270
GRAPH 66-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 3) 270
GRAPH 67-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 4) 271
GRAPH 68-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 5) 271
GRAPH 69-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS MANUFACTURED FRAME (ROUND 6) 272
GRAPH 70- LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 288
GRAPH 71-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
FRONT RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 289
GRAPH 72-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 290
GRAPH 73-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
REAR RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 291
GRAPH 74-LATERAL, ASSOCIATED LONGITUDINAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
RACE CAR AT THE CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) 292XXIX
GRAPH 75-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
FRONT LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 293
GRAPH 76-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
FRONT RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 294
GRAPH 77-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
REAR LEFT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 295
GRAPH 78-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
REAR RIGHT UNSPRUNG MASS OF THE RACE CAR . 296
GRAPH 79-LONGITUDINAL, ASSOCIATED LATERAL AND VERTICAL ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED BY THE
RACE CAR AT THE CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) 297
GRAPH 80-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 1) 298
GRAPH 81-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 2) 299
GRAPH 82-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 3) 300
GRAPH 83-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 4) 301
GRAPH 84-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 5) 302
GRAPH 85-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS BARE FRAME (ROUND 6) 303
GRAPH 86-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 1) 304
GRAPH 87-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 2) 305
GRAPH 88-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 3) 306
GRAPH 89-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 4) 307
GRAPH 90-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 5) 308
GRAPH 91-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 6) 309
GRAPH 92-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 1) 310
GRAPH 93-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 2) 311
GRAPH 94-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 3) 312
GRAPH 95-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 4) 313
GRAPH 96-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 5) 314
GRAPH 97-STRUCTURAL TORSIONAL STIFFNESS “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 6) 315
GRAPH 98-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME (ROUND 1) . 316
GRAPH 99-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME (ROUND 2) . 317XXX
GRAPH 100-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF BARE FRAME (ROUND 3) . 318
GRAPH 101-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 1) . 319
GRAPH 102-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 2) . 320
GRAPH 103-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “SPACEFRAME” FRAME (ROUND 3) . 321
GRAPH 104-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 1) . 322
GRAPH 105-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 2) . 323
GRAPH 106-STRUCTURAL BENDING STIFFNESS OF “STRESSED SKIN” FRAME (ROUND 3) . 324XXXI
List of Equations
EQUATION 1-EXPRESSION USED IN DESCRIBING IDEALIZED MODEL OF CHASSIS AND SUSPENSIONS OF
FIGURE 21 AND PRODUCING GRAPH OF GRAPH 1 . 38XXXII
List of Symbols
KT = Structural torsional stiffness
KTFM = Structural torsional stiffness of frame model
KTMF = Structural torsional stiffness of manufactured frame
KB = Structural bending stiffness
F = Force applied
L = Width of measurement
Lm = Moment arm
ϴ = Angular deflection
y1 = Left vertical displacement
y2 = Right vertical disp


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رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification of Tubular Spaceframe Chassis for FSAE Application
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