كتاب English Grammar - A University Course
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب English Grammar - A University Course

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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أحضرت لكم كتاب
English Grammar - A University Course
Third Edition
Angela Downing

كتاب English Grammar - A University Course  E_g_a_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
List of figures ix
Preface to the third edition xi
Acknowledgements xii
Introduction to the third edition xiv
Table of notational symbols xviii
1 Basic concepts 1
Unit 1 Language and meaning 3
Unit 2 Linguistic forms and syntactic functions 9
Unit 3 Negation and expansion 21
Exercises 28
2 The skeleton of the message: introduction to
clause structure 31
Unit 4 Syntactic elements and structures of the clause 33
Unit 5 Subject and Predicator 40
Unit 6 Direct, Indirect and Prepositional Objects 47
Unit 7 Subject and Object Complements 60
Unit 8 Adjuncts 65
Further reading 72
Exercises 72
3 The development of the message: complementation
of the verb 77
Introduction: Major complementation patterns and valency 79
Unit 9 Intransitive and copular patterns 81
Unit10 Transitive patterns 85
Unit 11 Complementation by finite clauses 94
Unit 12 Complementation by non-finite clauses 101
Summary of major verb complementation patterns 107
Further reading 108
Exercises 108v i E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
4 Interaction between speaker and hearer: linking
speech acts and grammar 111
Unit 13 Speech acts and clause types 113
Unit 14 The declarative and interrogative clause types 117
Unit 15 The exclamative and imperative clause types 126
Unit 16 Indirect speech acts, clause types and discourse functions 133
Unit 17 Questions, clause types and discourse functions 137
Unit 18 Directives: getting people to carry out actions 141
Further reading 148
Exercises 149
5 Conceptualising patterns of experience: processes,
participants, circumstances 153
Unit 19 Conceptualising experiences expressed as situation types 155
Unit 20 Material processes of doing and happening 160
Unit 21 Causative processes 164
Unit 22 Processes of transfer 169
Unit 23 Conceptualising what we think, perceive and feel 171
Unit 24 Relational processes of being and becoming 176
Unit 25 Processes of saying, behaving and existing 182
Unit 26 Expressing attendant circumstances 186
Unit 27 Conceptualising experiences from a different angle:
Nominalisation and grammatical metaphor 190
Further reading 197
Exercises 197
6 Organising the message: thematic and information
structures of the clause 203
Unit 28 Theme: the point of departure of the message 205
Unit 29 The distribution and focus of information 220
Unit 30 The interplay of Theme–Rheme and Given–New 227
Further reading 242
Exercises 243
7 Combining clauses into sentences 247
Unit 31 Clause combining: the complex sentence 249
Unit 32 Relationships of equivalence between clauses 253
Unit 33 Relationships of non-equivalence between clauses 258
Unit 34 Subordination and subordinators 261
Unit 35 Discourse functions of conjunctions 267
Unit 36 Reporting speech and thought 271
Further reading 279
Exercises 280C O N T E N T S v i i
8 Talking about events: the Verbal Group 285
Unit 37 Expressing our experience of events 287
Unit 38 Basic structures of the Verbal Group 293
Unit 39 Organising our experience of events 300
Unit 40 The semantics of phrasal verbs 303
Further reading 310
Exercises 311
9 Viewpoints on events: tense, aspect and modality 315
Unit 41 Expressing location in time through the verb: tense 317
Unit 42 Past events and present time connected: Present Perfect
and Past Perfect 326
Unit 43 Situation types and the Progressive aspect 334
Unit 44 Expressing attitudes towards the event: modality 343
Further reading 355
Exercises 356
10 Talking about people and things: the Nominal Group 359
Unit 45 Expressing our experience of people and things 361
Unit 46 Referring to people and things as definite, indefinite, generic 375
Unit 47 Selecting and particularising the referent: the determiner 381
Unit 48 Describing and classifying the referent: the pre-modifier 392
Unit 49 Identifying and elaborating the referent: the post-modifier 401
Unit 50 Noun complement clauses 410
Further reading 414
Exercises 414
11 Describing persons, things and circumstances:
adjectival and adverbial groups 419
Unit 51 Adjectives and the adjectival group 421
Unit 52 Degrees of comparison and intensification 428
Unit 53 Complementation of the adjective 437
Unit 54 Adverbs and the adverbial group 443
Unit 55 Syntactic functions of adverbs and adverbial groups 448
Unit 56 Modification and complementation in the adverbial group 455
Further reading 459
Exercises 459
12 Spatial, temporal and other relationships: the
Prepositional Phrase 465
Unit 57 Prepositions and the Prepositional Phrase 467
Unit 58 Syntactic functions of the Prepositional Phrase 475v i i i E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
Unit 59 Semantic features of the Prepositional Phrase 479
Further reading 487
Exercises 487
Answer Key 491
Select Bibliography 509
Index 51
INDEX
a(n) 375, 376, 378, 379
abbreviated clauses 15, 117, 120–1, 126
ability 353
was able 354
about 439, 485
aboutness 209
above 483
abroad 451
Absolute Theme 214–15
Accompaniment 187
Accomplishments 336
acronyms 398–9
across 451, 482
across from 483
active voice 8
active–passive alternative 232–3
choosing to be informative 234–5
get-passive 236–7
making smooth transitions 236
passives without an Agent 235
promoting one participant, demoting
another 233–4
Activities 336
actualised participants 159
additive connectives 255
adjectival complementation 437
degree complements 440–2
by finite clauses 437–8
by non-finite clauses 438–9
prepositional phrase complements 439–40
Adjectival Groups (AdjG) 421
adjectival NG head 45
as post-modifiers 407–8
structure and uses 422
syntactic functions 426–7
adjectives 422–3
affective meanings 438
appreciative adjectives 394
attitudinal adjectives 394
attributive adjectives 427
central adjectives 427, 428
classifiers 395–6, 425–6
comparative and superlative degrees
428–32
compound adjectives 435
degree emphasisers 426
descriptive modifiers 435–6
descriptors 393–4, 395, 425, 428
as exclamations 427
gradability 428
intensifying the attribute 431, 432–5
multiple descriptors 394
ordering of multiple adjectives 395
participial adjectives 423–5
pejorative adjectives 394
peripheral adjectives 427
predicative adjectives 427
prefixes 423
process-oriented use 426–7
quantifying modifiers 435
sub-modifying 436
suffixes 423
Adjuncts (A) 34, 65
Circumstantial Adjuncts 35, 65, 66–8, 475
Connective Adjuncts 36, 65, 70–1, 217, 476
operator-related adjuncts 66
Stance Adjuncts 35, 65, 68–70, 216, 427, 476
syntactic and semantic features 65–6
time Adjuncts 328–9
adverbial clauses 262–3, 408
adverbial complementation 458
adverbs taking direct complements 459
of comparison and excess 458–9
Adverbial Groups (AdvG) 443
as post-modifiers 408
structure and characteristics 443–4
types of meanings 446–7
adverbial particles 18, 56–8, 304, 307–9, 444
adverbs:
circumstantial adverbs 446
comparative and superlative uses 455–6
compound forms 4455 1 4 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
connective adverbs 447
degree adverbs 446, 447
deictic adverbs 275
derived forms 444–5
emotive modification 457
focusing adverbs 446, 447, 457
of frequency 66, 451
function and type 454
functions 448–9
in initial position 449–50
intensifying the adverbial meaning 456–8
-ly adverbs 435–6, 444–5, 452
of manner 450, 451–2
of modality, evidence, degree 452
modifying prepositional phrases 473–4
negative adverbs 212–13
phrasal adverbs 446
of place 450
position in the clause 449–50
prepositional adverbs 477–8
scope of reference as adjuncts 450
simple forms 444
spatial adverbs 451, 457
stance 446
sub-modifying 458
of time 450–1, 453, 457
+ verbs of motion 213–14
advise 134
Affected 5, 161, 162–3
affective processes 171, 174–5
after 476, 485
agency 162
Agent 5, 7, 160–1
alike 483–4
all 386, 387, 388
All (that) 231
all of 387
almost 434
along 482
already 24, 138, 451, 453
although 268
altogether 454
always 138, 451
among 483
anaphoric reference 372, 373, 376, 377
and 254, 268
another 389
anti-causative structure 165
any 23–4, 138–9, 384–5
any longer 24
any more 24
not . . . any 23, 386
anybody 24, 138–9, 372
anyone 24, 138–9, 372
anyplace 24, 458
anything 24, 372
anywhere 24, 138–9, 458
appellatives 217
apply + for 54
appositive nominal groups 408–9
appreciative adjectives 394
approve + of 54
approximately 434
approximation 262–3
around 483
articles 363, 375, 377–80
as 455, 484
as . . . as 441, 458
as far as 471
as well as 444
aspect 308, 326, 334–5
adjuncts 66
grammatical aspects 337, 338
habituality: past habit or state 341–2
lexical aspect 335–7, 338–9
Perfect aspect 326–33, 337
perfectivity vs imperfectivity 335
Present Perfect and Progressive combined
340–1
Progressive 337–40
summary 342
aspectual markers 308
assertive forms 24, 138, 139
assumption 345
at 439, 481, 484, 486
at all 434
not at all 435
attention 91
attenuation 434–5, 457
attitudinal adjectives 394
attitudinal markers 139–40
Attribute 4, 157, 177
attributive adjectives 427
away from 482
awfully 432
back 451
in back of 483
in phrasal verbs 307–8
backshift in reporting 275–6, 324, 332
bad, worse, worst 429
bare infinitive 12
bare-infinitive clauses 104
V + NG + bare infinitive 104
barely 435
be 83
+ lexical item + to-infinitive 289–90
be like (in quoted speech) 273–4, 322
be used to + -ing 341
have been to 330
because 267
before 268, 485
behalf: on behalf of 471
behavioural processes 158, 174, 182, 184, 196I N D E X 5 1 5
behind 483
being:
types of 176–7
verbs of 37, 83
beliefs 96
below 483
Beneficiary 51–2, 169–70
beside 483
best 429
better 429
had better 291
between 483, 485
beyond 440
biased declaratives 139–40
biased questions 138–9
bit: a bit 434
bivalency 159
both 386, 387
both of 387
bound: be bound to 345, 347
but 254
but for the fact that 260
by 439, 483, 485, 486–7
by means of 471
can 344, 348, 353, 354
can’t 351
cardinal numerals 384
Carrier 177
cataphoric reference 372, 377
catenative complements 101–2
catenative verbs 101–2, 301–2
catenatives 50
causative processes 164
analytical causatives with resulting
Attribute 166–7
anti-causative structure 165
ergative alternation (ergative pairs) 165–6
pseudo-intransitives 167–8
transitive-causative structure 164–5
Cause 187, 306
certain 389
certainty
degrees of 438
modal certainty 345–6
chaining 50, 101–2, 301–2
circumstances 4, 5–6, 157–8, 186–8
place and time 186–7
Range 188–9
Circumstantial Adjuncts 35, 65, 66–7
functioning as central clause elements 67–8
ordering in discourse 68
prepositional phrases 475
realisations 67
as Themes 211–12
circumstantial adverbs 446
circumstantial clauses 14, 269–70
circumstantial meanings
explicit markers 268
initial vs final circumstantial clauses
269–70
verb forms as circumstantial markers
268–9
circumstantial relational processes 178
clarifying connectives 255–6
classifiers 364
adjectives 395–6, 425–6
coordinated classifiers 397, 398
functions and properties 395
modified classifiers 397, 398
multiple classifiers 398–9
nouns 396–7
other classes of units 397
participles 396
words as descriptors and classifiers 397
clause classes:
dependent clauses 13–14, 94, 250
finite clauses 12, 13, 14
independent clauses 13, 249–50
non-finite clauses 12–13, 101, 218–19, 259,
268–70
supplementive units 14
clause elements: classification
ability to become the subject 37–8
determination by the verb 36–7
position 37
realisations of clausal elements 37–8
clause structure 5
active vs passive voice 8
basic syntactic structures 38–9
interaction: mood structures 6
message: thematic structures 6–7
negation 22–3
situations: transitivity structures 5–6, 170
syntactic elements 7, 17, 33–9
clause types (moods) 6, 114, 117
abbreviated clauses 15, 117, 120–1, 126
clause combinations 147–8
declarative clauses 114, 115, 117, 118–19,
207
echo questions 117, 121
exclamative clauses 114, 126, 127
freestanding subordinate clauses 126, 132,
147
imperative clauses 114, 115, 126, 127–31
indicative mood 6
in indirect speech 275, 277–8
interrogative clauses 6, 21, 114, 115, 117,
119–25
mood element: subject–finite variation 118
question tags 118
reduced clauses 126
and speech act force 113–16, 146–8
verbless clauses 15, 126, 131, 1475 1 6 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
clauses 11
adverbial clauses 262–3, 408
circumstantial clauses 14, 269–70
combining clauses 249–52
conditional clauses 263–6
content clauses 364, 410–11
coordinated clauses 218
embedding 14, 27–8, 94–5
extraposition 44, 240–1
finite dependent clauses 13, 14, 94, 261–2
non-finite supplementive clauses 259
as prepositional complements 472
sentence relative clauses 258–9
subordinate clauses 218, 250–1, 261–2, 322
syntactic relationships of equivalence
253–7
syntactic relationships of non-equivalence
258–60
as Themes 218–19
clefting 230
it-clefts 230–1
wh-clefts 230, 231–2
cognitive processes 171, 173
cognitive salience 209
coherence 373
cohesion
anaphoric reference 372, 373, 376, 377
connectives 255
discourse cohesion 269–70
semantic cohesiveness 304
commands see directives
communication
content 4–5
speech acts 3–4
verbs 96
communicative acts see speech acts
comparative clauses 14
comparatives 441
adjectives 428–32
adverbs 455–6
correlative forms 456
degree of sufficiency 431–2
-er and -er construction 431, 456
functions 430–1
nice and construction 431
suppletive forms 429
Complement (C) 17, 34–5
Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc) 36, 37,
58, 82, 93
Object Complement (Co) 35, 63–4
Subject Complement (Cs) 35, 60–3, 212
as Theme 212
complementation of the verb 79
copular complementation 79
by finite clauses 94–100
intransitive complementation 79, 81–4
by non-finite clauses 101–6
semantic valency 79–80
transitive complementation 79, 85–93
summary 107–8
compound adjectives 435
compound adverbs 445
compound nouns 396–7
compound participials 424
compound sentences 249, 250
Concession 187, 266
Condition 187, 266
conditional clauses 263
condition-concession 266
counterfactual conditional clauses 265–6
hypothetical conditional clauses 265
open conditional clauses 264–5
rhetorical conditional clauses 266
confrontation 145–6
conjoining 300–1
conjunctions 267
approximation 262–3
complex conjunctions 261–2
manner 263
and non-finite clauses 268
pragmatic conjunction 267–8
and prepositions 476–7
simple conjunctions 261
subordinating conjunctions 261–2
time 262
conjunctive groups 261
conjunctive prepositions + ing forms 259
Connective Adjuncts 36, 65, 70, 217
prepositional phrases 476
realisations 70–1
connectives 253, 255–6, 427, 447
considering 477
content clauses 364, 410–11
context 219
Continuative Themes 216
contrast 224
contrastive dependency 260
contrastive focus 230
coordinated clauses 218
coordination 26–7, 253, 254
clarifying connectives 255–6
correlative coordination 253, 254
free and fixed order of coordinates 256
intermediate coordination-subordination
256–7
listing 254
unlinked coordination 255–7
see also conjoining
coordinators: and, or, but 254, 268
copular complementation patterns 79
copular verbs 37, 60, 61, 83–4
copy tags 121, 124
correlative coordination 253, 254
’cos 267I N D E X 5 1 7
could 344, 348–9, 354, 355
countability 365
count nouns 364, 365–6
countability markers 368–9
grammatical features 365–6
non-count nouns 365, 366–9
nouns with count/non-count uses 368
counterfactual conditional clauses 265–6
cross transposition 306–7
current Attribute 177
dare 21–2, 344
deal: a great deal of 386
declarative clauses 6, 114, 115, 117, 118–19, 207
declaratives 133–5
biased declaratives 139–40
as directives 144–5
negative declaratives 135
defining relative clauses 405
definite article (the) 375, 377–8, 379
definite reference 209, 375, 376, 377–8
the 375, 377–8, 379
discourse functions 378
zero article 375, 378, 380
Degree 66, 188
adjectives as emphasisers 426
adverbs 446, 447
comparatives 428–32, 455–6
descriptive modifiers 435–6
intensification 431, 432–5
intensification of adverbial meaning 456–8
quantifying modifiers 435, 457
sub-modifying the adjective 436
sufficiency 431–2
superlatives 428–31, 455–6
degree complements 440–2
comparative degree 441
degree of equality 441
degree of excess 442
degree of sufficiency 441
discontinuous degree complements 442
superlative degree 441
deictic adverbs 275
deictic centre 318
demonstrative determinatives 275, 363, 382
demonstrative pronouns 372–3
deontic modality 343, 344, 352
dependent clauses 13–14, 94, 250
dependent exclamative clause 14
descriptors 364, 393
adjectives 393–4, 425
descriptive modifiers 395, 428, 435–6
-ly adverbs 435–6, 444–5, 452
words as descriptors and classifiers 397
desiderative processes 171, 175
detached predicatives 67, 214, 427
detached themes 214–16
determinatives 364, 381
demonstratives 275, 363, 382
ordering of determinatives 391
possessives 363, 382–3
quantifiers 363, 384–8
semi-determinatives 388–9
wh- determinatives 383
summary 389–90
determiners 363–4, 381–2
Direct Object (Od) 35, 47
non-typical direct objects 49
realisations 49–51
syntactic and semantic features 47–9
direct (‘quoted’) speech 272–3
clause type 277, 278
in conversation and written dialogue 273–4
directives 276–7
free direct speech or thought 278–9
reporting of thought 274
verbs 273–4, 276
direct speech acts 113, 115
Direction 68
directives 114, 115, 141
declaratives as 144–5
and the imperative 6, 141–3
politeness 142, 143–4
in reported speech 276–7
responding to 144
discourse 19–20
discourse connectivity and cohesion 269–70
discourse markers 70–1, 216
dislocations 215–16
distributives 363
distributors 386–8
ditransitive patterns 79, 85, 242
do 21
as dummy operator 22, 119–20
doing, processes of 160–2
Domain adjuncts 69
double detached Themes 216
double possessive 383
double (layered) subordination 250–1
doubts 96
down 482, 483, 486
downstairs 451
durative processes
no end-point 336, 338–9
sharp end-point 336
during 484
dynamic modality 344, 353
ability: can 353
could/was able as past of can 354
permission: can, may, might 353–4
possibility: can, may, might 353
propensity/tendency: can, will, would 354–5
dynamic processes 156
dynamic verbs 166, 177, 185, 319–20, 3215 1 8 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
each 386–7
each of 387
early 456
echo questions 117, 121
-ed clauses 407
either 386, 387
either of 387
elder, eldest 430
ellipsis 220, 225
nominal ellipsis 226
situational ellipsis 225–6
textual ellipsis 225
ellipted yes/no questions 140
else 458
embedding 14, 27–8, 94–5
emotive modification 457
emotive overlay 224
empathy hierarchy 209
emphatic imperatives 130
-en clauses 106, 219, 268, 406–7
-en forms 12
compound forms 424
participial adjectives 393, 423–4
pseudo-participial adjectives 393, 424
as supplementive 260
end-focus 223, 235
end-weight 234–5, 240
enough 431–2, 441, 455, 458
not enough 431–2
not . . . enough to-infinitive 459
entities 361, 362
episodes 208
epistemic modality 343, 344, 352
equality 441
-er 429–30
-er and -er construction 431, 456
-er than 441, 458
ergative alternation (ergative pairs) 165–6
-est 429–30, 441
even 447
even if 266
event time 318
event utterances 224–5
events see Verbal Groups (VG)
eventually 450
ever 24
hardly ever 451
every 386–7
every single one of 387
everybody 372, 387, 388
everyone 372, 387, 388
everything 372, 387
everywhere 451
Evidence 188
excepting 477
excess 431–2, 442
exclamations 114, 136, 427
exclamative clauses 100, 114, 126, 127
excluding 477
Existent 184
existential clauses
basic existentials 238
derived existential 238
extended existentials 239–40
presentative function 237–40
short existentials 238–9
there-structures as states of affairs 240
existential processes 158, 182, 184–5, 196
exophoric reference 372
Experiencer (Senser) 172
experiential meaning 66, 178, 206
explicit performatives 133–4, 135
extent in time or place 67
extraposition of clauses 44, 240–1
extremely 432
facing 483
facts 96
the fact that 44
factual meanings 24
fairly 433, 434
far from 444
fast 456
few 385
a few 385
Figure 304
finally 450
Finite 6
finite clauses 12
adjectival complements 437–8
dependent clauses 13, 14, 94, 261–2
functions 43, 49–50
that-clauses 14, 43, 44, 94–8, 240
wh-clauses 99–100
finite operator (o) 18, 21–2, 119–20, 287, 291–2
focusing adverbs 446, 447, 457
following 477
for 412, 439, 483, 484, 487
for the sake of 471
for want of 471
Force 40, 162, 164, 166
former 389
forwards 451
frame 90–1
frankly 450
freestanding subordinate clauses 126, 132, 147
frequency 66, 451
from 268, 439, 487
across from 483
away from 482
far from 444
from . . . to 481
front: in front of 483
fronting 469–70I N D E X 5 1 9
functional grammar 3
further 429
future events 318, 324
future anterior events 325
imminent events 325
intended events 325
programmed events 324
‘safe’ predictions 324
Future Perfect 325
generic reference 375, 378–80
genitive case 41, 43–4, 51, 105, 382
get-passive 236–7
given 477
Given element 222
Given–New information 222–3
see also Theme–Rheme and Given–New
global topics 208, 228–9
go:
have gone to 330
in quoted speech 273–4, 322
Goal 68, 161
see also Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc)
good, better, best 429
gotta 350
grammatical aspect 337, 338
Perfect 326–33, 337
Progressive 337–40
grammatical metaphor 190, 192
Attribute realised as entity 193–4
circumstance as entity 194
dependent situation as entity 194–5
nominalisation 192–5
process realised as entity 193
grammatical units 11
classes of groups 15–16
classes of morphemes 16
classes of units 12–16
classes of words 16
clauses 12–15
coordination 26–7
embedding 27–8
expanding linguistic units 26–8
rank-scale 11–12
subordination 27
see also unit structure
grammaticised prepositions 480, 486–7
great: a great deal of 386
Ground 304, 305
groups 11
classes 15–16
syntactic elements 17–18
habituality 106, 321, 335, 339, 341–2
happening, processes of 162–3
hardly 24, 435, 447
hardly ever 451
have:
don’t have to 351
had 331–3
had better 291
have been to 330
have gone to 330
have got to 350
have/have got + to-infinitive 290
have to 347, 350
would have 265–6
he, she 41, 369, 370–1
head see nominal heads
heaps of 386
hedges 134
her 41, 47, 382
hers 383
herself 371
high transitivity 195
him 41, 47
himself 371
his 382, 383
historic present 321–2
honestly 450
How! 127
How? 121, 457
How else? 458
Hypertheme 228–9
hypothetical conditional clauses 265
I 41, 60, 61, 369, 370
Identified 180
Identifier 180
identifying clauses 212
identity chains 209–10, 373
idiomaticity
modal idioms 291
phrasal verbs 82, 304
if 263, 264–5, 268
even if 266
illocutionary force 115, 146–8
immediately 450–1
imperative clauses 6, 114, 115, 127–8
emphatic imperatives 130
Let’s and Let us 130–1, 143
negative imperatives 130
verbs 129
vocatives 128
imperatives 126, 129, 130, 141–3
imperfectivity 334, 335
impoliteness 145–6
in 268, 439, 481, 484, 486
in the hands of 471
in view of 471
including 477
indefinite article (a(n)) 375, 376, 378, 379
indefinite pronouns 372
indefinite quantifiers 384–65 2 0 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
indefinite reference 375, 376
a(n) 375, 376, 378, 379
discourse functions 378
indefinite proper nouns 377
some 377
specific and non-specific 376–7
independent clauses 13, 249–50
indicative mood 6
indirect anaphoric reference 376
Indirect Object (Oi) 47
realisations 52
syntactic and semantic features 51–2
indirect speech 272
backshift in reporting 275–6, 324, 332
clause type 277, 278
directives 277
free indirect speech 278–9
free indirect thought 279
verbs 276
indirect speech acts 113, 115–16, 133
indirectness 145–6
inference 116, 347–8
infinitive 12
information 220
ellipsis 225–6
end-focus 223, 235
event utterances 224–5
focus of information 220, 221
Given and New information 222–3
information units 220–2
marked focus 220, 224
presupposed information 230
reporting information 322
substitution 226
unmarked focus 220, 223
information units 220–2
informativeness 234–5
-ing clause complements 104
to-infinitive and -ing clauses contrasted 106
V + -ing clause 105
V + NG + -ing 105
V + NG + -ing clause 105–6
-ing clauses 43, 94–5, 219, 268, 406–7, 472
of + -ing complement clauses 412
-ing forms 12
be used to + -ing 341
compound forms 424
with conjunctive prepositions 259
participial adjectives 423–4
participial modifiers 424
pseudo-participial adjectives 424
as supplementive 259, 260
inherent participants 158–9
innit? 125
inside 451
instead of 444
instructions see directives
intensification:
adjectives 431, 432–3
adverbial meaning 456–8
attenuation 434–5, 457
high intensification 432–3, 456
medium intensification 433–4, 456
intention 346–7
interaction 6
interpersonal meaning 4, 5, 115, 116, 206
interpersonal Themes 216–17
interrogative clauses 114, 115, 117, 119
alternative interrogatives 121
do 21, 119, 120
double interrogatives 123
finite operators 21–2, 119–20
indirect interrogatives 99
negation 22–3, 119–20
question tags 123–5
structure 6, 21
wh-interrogatives 14, 22–3, 43, 99, 121–2
yes/no interrogatives 22, 120–1, 137–9
interrogative exclamations 136
interrogative pronouns 372
interrogatives as polite directives 144
into 485
intonation 221
intransitive patterns 79, 81
subject–verb 81–2
subject–verb–adjunct 83
subject–verb–complement of the subject
83–4
subject–verb–locative complement (Cloc)
82–3
intransitive verbs 36, 37, 86, 159
irregular plurals 364–5
it 41, 369, 371
anticipatory it 49
anticipatory it + end-placed subject 44
dummy it 44
it-clefts 230–1
iterativity 338, 340, 341–2
its 382, 383
itself 371
just 447
just about 349
kind of 434
largely 434
late 456
later 454
latter 389
layered subordination 250–1
least 430, 455
left-dislocation 215
left: on the left 483I N D E X 5 2 1
less 430, 455, 458
less . . . than 441, 458
the less . . . the less 456
the more . . . the less 456
rather less 436
Let’s and Let us 130–1, 143
lexical aspect 335–7
and the progressive 338–9
lexical auxiliaries 21, 288, 289, 344
be + lexical item + to-infinitive 289–90
have/have got + to-infinitive 290
modal idioms 291
used to + infinitive 341
lexical metaphor 193
lexical prepositional meanings 480
change of location 481–2
location in space 480–1
non-locative mearnings 483–4
other spatial prepositions 482–3
lexical verbs 288
like 483
be like (in quoted speech) 273–4, 322
likely 291
listing 254
little 385
a little 385, 434
’ll 346, 347
loads of 386
local topics 208
location in place or time 67
Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc) 36, 37, 58, 82,
93
logical necessity 347
long 456
look + after 53
lot:
a lot 24, 385
a lot of 386
lots of 386
low transitivity 195
-ly adverbs 435–6, 444–5, 452
Manner 68, 187
adverbs 450, 451–2
catenative verbs 302
conjunctions 263
phrasal verbs 304–5
many 385
not many 386
markedness 207–8, 220, 223–4
mass nouns 365, 366, 368, 379, 380
masses of 386
material processes 158, 160, 196
Affected participant 161
Affected Subject 161, 162–3
Agentive Subject 160–1
causative processes 164–8
of doing 160–2
Force 40, 162, 164, 166
of happening 162–3
of transfer 169–70
transitivity structures 170
Matter 188
may 344, 348–9, 353–4
negation 351–2
me 41, 47, 60–1
mental processes 158, 171–3, 196
affective processes 171, 174–5
cognitive processes 171, 173
desiderative processes 171, 175
perception processes 171, 174
mere 426
merely 447
metaphorical realisations 191–2, 193
metonymy 378
might 344, 348–9, 353, 354, 355
mine 383
of mine 383
modal auxiliaries 288, 318, 343, 344
modal certainty 345–6
modal harmony 345
modal idioms 291
modal meanings: realisations 345
logical necessity: must, be bound to, have
to 347
modal certainty: will, must, be bound to
345–6
possibility: may, might, could 348–9
probability or reasonable inference: should,
ought 347–8
volition: willingness and intention will,
shall, ’ll 346–7
modal obligation 349
inescapable obligation and necessity: must,
have to, have got to, gotta, shall 349–50
negation of modals must and may 351–2
non-binding obligation: should, ought 350–1
summary of deontic (obligative) modal 352
summary of epistemic (predictive) modal
352
modal remoteness 265
modal verbs 21, 344
modality 66, 343, 345
deontic modality 343, 344, 352
dynamic modality 344, 353–5
epistemic modality 343, 344, 352
hypothetical uses of modals 355
meaning and functions 343–4
modalised interrogatives 144
momentary verbs 337
monotransitive patterns 79, 85, 95
monovalency 159
mood see clause types (moods)
more 455, 4585 2 2 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
any more 24
more . . . than 441, 458
the more . . . the less 456
the more . . . the more 456
morphemes 11, 16
morphs 16
most 432, 455
Motion 304
Motion Events 304
Cause 306
Figure 304
Ground 304, 305
Manner 304–5
Motion 304
Path 304, 305–6
much 24, 385, 458
not very much 385
must 344, 345, 347, 349–50
negation 351–2
my 382
myself 371
names 369
nearly 434
necessity 344, 347, 349
need 21–2, 344
needn’t 351
negation:
any 23–4, 386
clausal negation 22–3
clause structure 21–2
in interrogative clauses 22–3, 119–20
local negation 25–6
no-negation vs not-negation + any 23
scope 25
transferred negation 26, 135
negative adverbs 212–13
negative declaratives 135
negative determinative 385
negative imperatives 130
negative interrogatives 138–9
negative objects 213
neither 386, 387
neither of 387
never 23, 138, 212–13, 451
New element 222
next to 483
NICE (Negation, Inversion, Code, Emphasis) 287, 292
nice and 431
no 23, 138, 385, 386
no-one 138, 372
no place 458
nobody 23, 138, 372
nominal clauses 14
nominal ellipsis 226
Nominal Groups (NG) 361–3
appositive nominal groups 408–9
functions 17–18, 42, 49, 413
structure 363–4
nominal heads 363, 364
common nouns 364–9
pronouns 369–74, 383
proper nouns 369
nominal relatives 14, 99
nominal substitution 226
nominalisation 190, 413–14
basic and metaphorial realisations 190–2
as feature of grammatical metaphor 192–5
non-assertive forms 24, 138–9
non-count nouns 365
countability markers 368–9
grammatical features 366
plural nouns 367–8
singular nouns 366–7
non-declarative clauses 207–8
non-defining relative clauses 405–6
non-factual meanings 24
non-finite clauses 12–13, 101
adjectival complements 438–9
bare infinitive clauses 104
catenative complements 101–2
circumstantial meanings 268–9
functions 43, 50–1
-ing clauses 104–6, 219
non-finite variants 100
relative clauses 406–7
supplementive clauses 259
to-infinitive clauses 102–3, 218–19
non-finite Perfect forms 333
non-finite verb phrases 333
non-idiomatic phrasal verbs
Motion Event 304–6
substituting Manner/Path elements 307
translating Motion/Manner/Path
combinations 306–7
non-prototypicality 38
none 385
not 22, 25
not + any 23, 386
notational symbols xviii–xix, 11
nothing 23, 372
noun complement clauses 364, 410
of + -ing complement clauses 412
to-infinitive complement clauses 411–12
functions of the nominal group 413
nominalisation 413–14
prepositional complements of nouns 412–13
that-complement clause 410–11
wh-complement clauses 412
noun compounds 396–7
nouns 364
classifiers 396–7
count nouns 364, 365–6
descriptive modifiers 435–6I N D E X 5 2 3
mass nouns 365, 366, 368, 379, 380
non-count nouns 365, 366–9
proper nouns 369, 377
regular and irregular plurals 364–5
now 318
nowhere 458
number:
cardinal numerals 384
a number of 386
ordinal numbers 384
verbs 12
Object (O) 34–5
Direct Object (Od) 35, 47–51
Indirect Object (Oi) 35, 47, 51–2
as Theme 212
Object Complement (Co) 60
realisations 63–4
syntactic and semantic features 63
object-to-subject raising 291
obligation see modal obligation
occurrences 336
processes 336
punctual occurrences 336, 338–9
of 412–13, 440, 487
of + -ing complement clauses 412
off 486
off . . . into 481
off . . . onto 481
often 451
okay? 125
older, oldest 430
on 268, 412, 440, 481, 484, 486
on behalf of 471
on the left/right 483
on top of 471
one 361, 370
The one(s) who/that 231
substitute one/ones 374
only 447, 457
open conditional clauses 264–5
operator (o) see finite operator (o)
opposite 483
or 254, 268
orders see directives
ordinal numbers 384
other 389
ought 344, 347–8, 350–1
our 382
ours 383
ourselves 371
out: out of 481, 482, 485
over 482, 484, 485
overly (AmE) 432
paragraphs 208
parentheticals 273
participants 4, 157
actualised participants 159
inherent participants 158–9
participial adjectives:
commonly used as Verbal Groups 393,
423–4
pseudo-participial adjectives 393, 424
seldom used in Verbal Groups 424
participial compound forms 424
participial -ing clauses 219
participial modifiers 424
participles as classifiers 396
partitive reference 385
partly 434
parts of speech 16
passive clauses 161
passive voice 8, 88, 90
passivisation 37–8
past 482
past participial clauses:
V + NG + -en clause 106
Past Perfect 331–3
backshift in reporting 332
duration of states 331
modal remoteness 332
stressed had 332
Past tense 318, 319
basic meanings 322–3
vs Present Perfect 327–8
referring to future events 324–5
referring to present 323–4
Path 304, 305–6
patient 161
pejorative adjectives 394
perception 96, 178, 322
perception processes 171, 174
perfect 430
Perfect aspect 326, 337
non-finite Perfect forms 333
Past Perfect 331–3
Present Perfect 326–31
perfectivity 334, 335, 342
performatives 133–5
peripheral adjectives 427
permission 353–4
personal pronouns 275, 361, 369–71
perspective 90–1, 339
Phenomenon 172–3
phrasal adverbs 446
phrasal prepositional verbs 56, 58–9, 86
phrasal verbs 56, 303–4
basic meaning of a particle: back 307–8
fully idiomatic phrasal verbs 82, 309–10
idiomatic intransitive phrasal verbs 82
idiomaticity 304
non-idiomatic phrasal verbs 304–7
vs prepositional verbs 57–85 2 4 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
semantic cohesiveness 304
semi-idiomatic phrasal verbs 308–9
syntactic features 56–7
place 67, 186–7, 450
place-frames 211–12
plenty of 386
plurals 364–5
non-count plural nouns 367–8
polarity 119
politeness 116
clauses combinations 147–8
in directives 142, 143–4
impoliteness 145–6
requests and enquiries 324
Possessed 179
possessive determinatives 363, 382–3
double possessives 383
possessive pronouns 383
possessive relational processes 178–9
possession as Attribute 179, 180
possession as process 179
Possessor 179
possibility 344, 348–9, 353
post-modifiers (post-head modifiers) 363, 364,
401
adjectival groups 407–8
adverbial groups 408
appositive nominal groups 408–9
communicative functions 402
defining (embedded) realisations 402–3
finite relative clauses 404–6
function 401
non-defining (supplementive) realisations
402, 403
prepositional phrases 407
postponement 242
potentiality 24
pragmatic conjunction 267–8
pre-modifiers (pre-head modifiers) 363, 364, 392
adjectives as epithet 393–4
classifier function 392, 393, 395–9
descriptor function 392, 393–4
ordering of mixed pre-modifiers 399–400
ordering of multiple adjectives 395
predicate 34
predicative adjectives 427
Predicator (P) 34, 40, 45–6
prediction 324, 345–6
prefixes 423
prepositional adverbs 447–8
prepositional complements (PC) 53, 471–2
clauses as 472
of nouns 412–13
use of -ing clauses 472
prepositional meanings 479
grammaticised prepositional meanings 480
lexical prepositional meanings 480–4
Prepositional Object (PO) 53
realisations 55–6
prepositional passive 55
Prepositional Phrases (PP) 467
adjectival complements 439–40
as adjuncts in clauses 475–6
internal structure 468–9
modifiers 473–4
as modifiers and complements in groups 476
as post-modifiers 407
prepositional meanings 479–84
structural ambiguity 469
syntactic functions 18, 51, 475–6
prepositional verbs 53, 54, 86
vs phrasal verbs 57–8
stranding the preposition 54–5
types 53–4
prepositions 467
and adverbs 477–8
adverbs as 444
complex prepositions 444, 470–1
and conjunctions 476–7
free or bound 469
fronting 469–70
grammaticised prepositions 480, 486–7
metaphorical and abstract uses 485–6
and non-finite clauses 268
one-word prepositions 470
stranding 469–70
time relations 484–5
and verbs 87, 477
Present Perfect aspect 326–7
continuous Perfect 330
current relevance 329
experiential Perfect 329–30
implied meanings 330–1
vs Past tense 327–8
time Adjuncts 328–9
Present tense 318, 319
basic meanings 320
habitual present 321
historic present 321–2
instantaneous present 320
reference to past events 321–2
reporting information 322
state present 321
in subordinate clauses of time/condition
322
presupposed information 230
pretty 433–4
previously 450
primary verbs 21, 288–9
probability 347–8
probably 452
processes 4, 156, 336
behavioural processes 158, 174, 182, 184, 196
dynamic processes 156I N D E X 5 2 5
existential processes 158, 182, 184–5, 196
material processes 158, 160–70, 196
mental processes 158, 171–5, 196
relational processes 158, 176–81, 196
stative processes 156
valency 159
verbal processes 158, 182–3, 196
Progressive aspect 337
basic function 337–8
discourse functions 340
and end-point-completion verbs 339
and punctual occurrences 338–9
and states 338
and verbs with no end-point 339
prohibitions see directives
promise 134
pronouns 42, 364
discourse function 373–4
indefinite pronouns 372
interrogative pronouns 372
personal pronouns 275, 361, 369–71
possessive pronouns 383
reflexive pronouns 371
substitute one and ones 374
this and that 372–3
propensity 353–4
proper names 369
proper nouns 369, 377
proposals 96–7
prototypicality 38
pseudo-intransitives 167–8
pseudo-participial adjectives 393, 424
punctual occurrences 336, 338–9
punctual verbs 337
Purpose 187
quantifiers 363, 384
distributors 386–8
exact numeratives 384
indefinite quantifiers 384–6
non-exact quantifiers 384–8
non-partitive quantifiers 386
partitive quantifiers 386
quantifying modifiers 435, 457
question tags 118, 123–5, 126
copy tags 121, 124
invariant tags 125
Type 1 123
Type 2 123–4
questions 114, 115, 137
biased questions 138–9
echo questions 117, 121
ellipted yes/no questions 140
as preliminaries 137–8
rhetorical questions 137
quick 456
quite 432–3
quotative alternatives 273–4, 321, 322
quoted speech see direct (‘quoted’) speech
‘raised’ subjects 291
Range 188–9
rarely 451
rather 433, 458
rather less 436
would rather 291
really 432
Reason 187
reasonable inference 347–8
recently 450
Recipient 5, 51–2, 88, 169–70, 182–3
reduced clauses 126
reference:
anaphoric reference 372, 373, 376, 377
cataphoric reference 372, 377
exophoric reference 372
generic reference 375, 378–80
partitive reference 385
see also definite reference; indefinite
reference
referential chains 209–10, 373
referential coherence 373
reflexive pronouns 371
regarding 477
regular plurals 364
relational processes 158, 176, 196
Attributive pattern 177–8
circumstantial relational processes 178
Identifying pattern 180–1
possessive relational processes 178–80
types of being 176–7
relative clauses 14
defining relative clauses 405
finite relative clauses 404–6
nominal relatives 14, 99
non-defining relative clauses 405–6
non-finite relative clauses 406–7
relativisers 404–5
relativisers 404–5
rely + on 53
reporting speech and thought 271
clause type in the reported clause 277–8
direct (‘quoted’) speech 272–4
directives 276–7
free direct speech or thought 278–9
free indirect speech 278–9
free indirect thought 279
indirect speech 272, 275–6
reporting information 322
reports 96
representational meaning 5
requests see directives
resulting Attribute 177
reversed wh-clefts 231–25 2 6 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
Rheme 7, 206, 207, 217
split rheme 229–30
rhetorical conditional clauses 266
rhetorical questions 137
right:
Right? 125
on the right 483
right-dislocation 215
Role 188
roughly 434
round 483
’s, s’:
classifying function 383
specifying function 382, 383
Said 182–3
sake: for the sake of 471
salience 209, 480
same: the same 389
say:
complementation patterns 98
reporting information 322
and tell 273
Sayer 182–3
scarcely 435
seldom 451
semantic cohesiveness 304
semantic roles/functions 4–6, 159
semantic valency 79–80
semi-determinatives 388–9
semi-idiomatic phrasal verbs 308–9
semi-modal verbs 288, 344
Senser 172
sentence relative clauses 258–9
sentences 133, 249
clausal and non-clausal material 251–2
complex sentences 249, 250–1
compound sentences 249, 250
independent and dependent clauses 249–50
as orthographic and rhetorical unit 251
simple sentences 249, 250
syntactic relationships of equivalence
253–5
syntactic relationships of non-equivalence
258–60
unlinked coordination 255–7
seriously 450
shall 318, 344, 346, 350
she 41, 369, 370–1
s/he 371
should 265, 344, 347–8, 350–1, 355
sideways 451
since 268, 476–7, 484
situation types 4, 155–6, 335–6
attributes 4
bounded vs unbounded 336
circumstances 4, 157–8, 186–8
durative processes 336, 338–9
participants 4, 157, 158–9
process 4, 156, 158
processes vs. punctual occurrences 336
states vs occurrences 336
transitivity structures 5–6, 170
situational ellipsis 225–6
slightly 434
so 268
so . . . as to-infinitive 459
some 24, 377, 384
somebody 24, 138, 372
someone 24, 138, 372
someplace 458
something 24, 372
sometimes 24, 450, 451
somewhat 434
somewhere 24, 458
soon 456
sort of 434
source 68
speaker involvement 237
speech acts 3–4, 113
basic correspondences 114
and clause types 113–16, 146–8
direct speech acts 113, 115
indirect speech acts 113, 115–16, 133
performatives 133–5
see also reporting speech and thought
speech time 318
Stance Adjuncts 35, 65, 68, 427, 446
domain adjuncts 69
epistemic stance adjuncts 69, 216
evaluative adjuncts 69, 216
evidential adjuncts 69, 216
prepositional phrases 476
realisations 69–70
style adjuncts 69
state of affairs 4
statements 114, 115
states 336, 338
stative processes 156
stative verbs 172, 173, 177, 178, 319–20, 321, 337
still 24, 451, 453
stranding 469–70
style adjuncts 69
Subject (S) 6, 7, 34, 40
cognitive features 40
realisations 41–5
semantic features 40
syntactic features 41–2
as Theme 209–10
Subject Complement (Cs) 35, 60
realisations 62–3
syntactic and semantic features 60–2
as Theme 212
subject-to-subject raising 291I N D E X 5 2 7
subjunctive in English 126, 132
subordinate clauses 218, 250
double (layered) subordination 250–1
freestanding 126, 132, 147
of time/condition 322
subordinating conjunctions 261–2
subordination 27, 261
adverbial clauses 262–3
conditional clauses 263–6
subordinators 261–2
substitution 220, 226
such 388, 389
Such! 388
sufficiency 431–2, 441
suffixes 423
superlatives 441
adjectives 428–31
adverbs 455–6
functions 430–1
suppletive forms 429
supplementives 14, 67, 214
supposedly 452
swear words 457
syntactic categories and relationships 9
relationships of equivalence 253–5
testing for constituents 9–10
tact 116
tell:
complementation patterns 98
reporting information 322
and say 273
tendency 353–4
tense 317–18, 326
finite operators 12
in indirect speech 275
Past tense 318, 319, 322–5
Present tense 318, 319, 320–2
stative and dynamic uses of verbs 319–20
see also future events; verbs
textual ellipsis 225
textual meaning 5, 206
textual Themes 217
than 441, 458
that 372–3, 382, 404–5
that-clause complements 94–5
dropping/retaining that 97–8
verb + NG + that-clause 98
verb + that-clause 96–7
that-clauses 14, 43, 240
the fact that 44
that-complement clauses 410–11
the 375, 377–8, 379
their 382
theirs 383
them 41, 47
thematic progression 227
continuous progression (constant Theme)
228
derived Themes 228–9
simple linear progression 228
split rheme 229–30
thematisation 211
Theme 6–7, 205
Absolute Theme 214–15
adverbs + verbs of motion 213–14
Circumstantial Adjuncts 211–12
clauses as Themes 218–19
declarative clauses 207
detached predicatives 214
detached themes 214–16
dislocations 215–16
double detached Themes 216
interpersonal Themes 216–17
markedness 207–8
Multiple Themes 217–18
negative adverbs 212–13
negative objects 213
non-declarative clauses 207–8
non-experiential Themes 216–18
objects and complements 212
and Rheme 206–7, 217
textual Themes 217
Topic 208–11
Topic and Subject as Theme 209–10
Theme–Rheme and Given–New 227
active–passive alternative 232–7
clefting 230–2
extraposition of clauses 240–1
postponement 242
presentative function of existential clauses
237–40
thematic progression 227–30
themselves 371
there, unstressed 45
presentative function 237–40
states of affairs 240
these 382
they 41, 369, 371
this 372–3, 382
those 382
through 482, 486
time 67, 186–7
Adjuncts 328–9
adverbs 450–1, 453, 457
conjunctions 262
event time 318
prepositions 484–5
speech time 318
subordinate clauses 322
time-frames 211–12
timeless statements 321
to 440
to-infinitive 125 2 8 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
to-infinitive clause complements
to-infinitive and -ing clauses contrasted 106
V + NG + to-infinitive 103
V + NG + to-infinitive clause with subject
102–3
V + to-infinitive 102
to-infinitive clauses 43, 94–5, 218–19, 240, 268, 407
to-infinitive complement clauses 411–12
tone units 220, 221
tonic prominence 221
tonic syllables 220, 221
too 431–2, 442, 455
none too 435
too . . . to-infinitive 459
top: on top of 471
Topic 34, 208
cognitive features 209
introducing new potential topics 210–11
and Subject as Theme 209–10
totally 452
transfer processes 169–70
transferred negation 26, 135
transitive-causative structure 164–5
transitive patterns 79
attention 91
complex-transitive pattern 79, 85, 91–3
ditransitive patterns 79, 85, 240
frame 90–1
monotransitive patterns 79, 85, 95
perspectives 90–1
subject–verb–direct object 85–6
subject–verb–direct object–locative
complement 93
subject–verb–direct object–object
complement 91–3
subject–verb–direct object–prepositional
complement 89–90
subject–verb–indirect object–direct object
87–9
subject–verb–prepositional complement
86–7
three-place verbs 88–9, 91
verbs used transitively and intransitively 86
transitive verbs 36, 86, 159
transitivity hypothesis 190, 195
transitivity structures 5–6, 170
translating phrasal verbs 306–7
trivalency 159
typicality 38
unactualised participants 159
under 482–3, 485
unique 430
unit structure 16–17
componence, realisation and function
19–20
syntactic elements of clauses 17
syntactic elements of groups 17–18
unless 264
unlinked coordination 255–7
until 484
up 482, 483, 486
upgrading connectives 255
uphill 451
us 41, 47, 370
used:
be used to + -ing 341
used to + infinitive 341
usuality 66
usually 451
utter 426
utterances 133
valency 36, 79–80, 159
verb complementation see complementation of
the verb
Verbal Group structures
discontinuous VGs 299
experiential structure 293–4
extended non-finite structures 298
extended structures 294–5
with one grammatical auxiliary 295
relative frequency of complex VGs 298–9
simple structures 294
telescoped order of elements 297–8
with three grammatical auxiliaries
296–7
with two grammatical auxiliaries 296
Verbal Groups (VG) 287
conjoining 300–1
finite operator (o) 18, 21–2, 119–20, 287,
291–2
functions 18
lexical auxiliaries 288, 289–91
lexical verbs 288
modal auxiliaries 288
primary verbs 21, 288–9
‘raised’ subjects 291
semi-modals 288, 344
syntactic elements 18, 287–8
syntactic features of operator element
291–2
verbal processes 158, 182–3, 196
verbless clauses 15, 126, 131, 147
verbs:
of becoming 83–4
of behaviour 81
of being 37, 83
bounded-completion verbs 337, 339
catenative verbs 101–2, 301–2
as circumstantial markers 268–9
of cognition 96
of communication 96
copular verbs 37, 60, 61, 83–4
of discovery 105
ditransitive verbs 79, 85, 242I N D E X 5 2 9
‘do’ operator 21
dynamic verbs 166, 177, 185, 319–20, 321
of expectation 96
finite operator (o) 18, 21–2, 119–20, 287,
291–2
finite verbs 12
in indirect reporting 276
of intended transfer 88
intransitive verbs 36, 37, 86, 159
lexical aspect 335–7
lexical auxiliaries 21, 288–91, 344
linking verbs 84
modal auxiliaries 288, 318, 343, 344
modal verbs 21, 344
non-finite verbs 12
non-tensed forms 13
number 12
of occurrence 82
of perception 105
person 12
phrasal prepositional verbs 56, 58–9, 86
phrasal verbs 56–8, 303–10
prepositional verbs 53–5, 57–8, 86
and prepositions 87, 477
primary verbs 21, 288–9
punctual/momentary verbs 337
in quoted speech 273–4, 276
of retrospection 105–6
semantic valency 79–80
semi-modals 288, 344
stative verbs 172, 173, 177, 178, 319–20,
321, 337
three-place verbs 88–9, 91
of transfer 87
transitive verbs 36, 86, 159
unbounded-process verbs 337, 339
valency 36, 79–80, 159
of weather 81
see also tense
very 432, 458
very well 349
vocatives 128, 217
volition 346–7
warnings 125, 134, 142
way 432
we 41, 369, 370
well 349
were 265
wh-clause complements 94–5, 99
V + NG + wh-clauses 99
V + NG + wh- + to-infinitive clause 100
V + wh-clause 99
V + (NG) + what + NG or how + AdjG 100
wh-clefts 230
discourse functions 231
variants 231–2
wh-complement clauses 412
wh-determinatives 383
wh-interrogative clauses 14, 22–3, 43, 99, 121–2
wh-nominal clauses 51, 95, 240
wh-nominal relative clauses 14, 99
wh-words 363
what 372, 383, 388
What! 127, 388
What? 121
whatever 383
when 268, 405, 408
When? 121
When else? 458
where 405, 408
Where? 121
Where else? 458
whereas 260
Wherever? 122
which 372, 383, 404
whichever 383
while 260, 268
who 372, 404
Who? 121
Whoever? 122
whom 404
Whom? 121
whose 372, 383, 405
Whose? 121
why 405, 408
Why? 121
Why else? 458
Why ever? 122
will 318, 344, 345, 346, 354–5
willingness 346
with 440, 484, 486
with regard to 471
without 24, 268, 484
word classes 16
words 11
worse 429
worst 429
would 344, 346, 354–5
would have 265–6
would rather 291
yes/no interrogative clauses 22, 120–1, 137–9
yes/no questions, ellipted 140
yet 24, 451, 453
you 41, 361, 369, 370
your 382
yours 383
of yours 383
yourself 371
yourselves 371
zero anaphora 373
zero article 375, 378, 380
zero plural 365
zero relativiser 405


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