رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Analytical and Experimental Study of High Velocity Impact on Composite Plates
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 رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Analytical and Experimental Study of High Velocity Impact on Composite Plates

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رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Analytical and Experimental Study of High Velocity Impact on Composite Plates  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Analytical and Experimental Study of High Velocity Impact on Composite Plates    رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Analytical and Experimental Study of High Velocity Impact on Composite Plates  Emptyالخميس 01 أبريل 2021, 1:09 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم
رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان
Analytical and Experimental Study of High Velocity Impact on Composite Plates
A Thesis
Submitted to the College of Engineering
Of Nahrain University in Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in
Mechanical Engineering
by
Ali Hussain Mohammad Al Hilli
دراسة تحليلية وعملية للتصادم بسرع عالية على صفائح مرآبة
أطروحة
مقدمة الى آلية الهندسة في جامعة النهرين
وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل درجة دكتوراه فلسفة
في الهندسة الميكانيكية
من قبل
علي حســـين محمد الحلي  

رسالة دكتوراة بعنوان Analytical and Experimental Study of High Velocity Impact on Composite Plates  A_a_e_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


List of Contents
Content Page
Abstract I
Contents III
Nomenclatures VI
List of Tables X
List of Figures XI
Chapter One: General Introduction
1.1General 1
1.2 Composite Materials 1
1.2.1.1 Woven Fibrous Composites 4
1.3 Impact Problems 6
1.3.1 Definition 6
1.3.2 Impact Measurement Techniques 6
1.4 Layout of the Thesis 12
Chapter Two: Literature survey
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Low velocity impact 14
2.3 High velocity impact 17
2.4 Conclusion Remarks 20
2.5 Objectives and Approaches 21
Chapter Three: Theoretical Analysis
3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Elastic properties of lamina 23
III3.2.1Unidirectional lamina 23
3.2.2 Random oriented discontinuous fiber composite 24
3.2.3 Woven fibers composite lamina 25
3.3 Impact analysis 29
3.3.1 Introduction 29
3.3.2 Constitutive relations 29
3.3.3 Energy Balance 32
3.3.3.1- Strain energy due to deformation of plate 32
3.3.3.2 Strain energy due to deformation of delamination zone, (assumed
deformation shape formulation)
36
3.3.3.3 Energy observed due to delamination it self 38
3.3.3.4 Friction energy 44
Chapter Four : Experimental Work
4.1 Introduction 46
4.2 Fabrication of laminated plates test specimens 47
4.2.1 Background 47
4.2.2 Fiber reinforcements and matrix resins 48
(A) The fiber reinforcements 48
(B) The unsaturated matrix resin 51
(C) Fabric forms and materials used 52
4.2.3 Mould preparation 53
(A) Matrix samples 53
(B) Composite plate samples 56
4.3 Tests for mechanical properties 59
4.3.1 Tensile and compression tests: 59
4.3.2 Friction test 60
IV4.3.3 Torsion testing device 61
4.3.4 Bending testing 64
4.4 Impact Testing 65
4.4.1 The Launching Gun 68
4.4.2 Experimental Setup 69
4.4.3 Velocity measurements 69
4.4.4 The target holder 73
4.4.5 The Frame 73
4.4.6 Projectiles Material and Preparation 74
4.4.7 The Cartridges: 74
Chapter Five : Results and Discussions
5.1 Introductions 75
5.2 Mechanical properties 75
5.2.1 Matrixes 75
5.2.2 Composites 78
5.3 Results of the Theoretical Model 84
5.4 Results of the Experimental Tests 96
Chapter Six : Conclusions and Suggestions
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 Conclusions 105
6.3 Suggestions for Future Works 107
References 109
Appendix A: The Difference Expression of Equation of Motion and Boundary
Conditions
Appendix B: The derivation of Natural frequency of rectangular CCCC Plate
Appendix C: 89C51 controller Program for Velocity Measurement Device
VNomenclature
Symbols Notations
A = Area (m2)
a = Delamination radius (m)
a = Width of plate (m)
b = Length of plate (m)
E = Young modulus (MPa)
F = Friction force (N)
G = Modulus of rigidity (MPa)
h = Plate thickness (m)
J = Area moment of inertia (m4)
LG = Gauge length of tensile specimen (m)
LO = Overall length of tensile specimen (m)
m = Cosine of orientation angle
n = Sine of orientation angle
N = Normal force (N)
q = Impact force (N)
R = Deformation radius (m)
t = Time (s)
T1 = Time period for the incident screen of chronograph (s)
T2 = Time period through the impact take place (s)
T3 = Time period for the resting screen of chronograph (s)
u = Displacement in x-direction (m)
U = Energy (Joule)
V = Velocity (m/s)
v = Volume fraction
VIW = Woven Factor
w = Displacement in y-direction (deflection) (m)
x = Direction through the length of plate (m)
y = Direction through the width of plate (m)
z = Direction thought the thickness of the plate (m)
α = Shear correction factor (5/6)
β = Angle
ε = Longitudinal Strain
φ = Projectile cone angle
γ = Shear strain
κ = Curvature (m-1)
µ = Friction coefficient
ν = Poisson’s ratio
θ = Slope
ρ = Density (kg/m3)
σ = Longitudinal stress (MN/m2)
τ = Shear stress (MN/m2)
Matrix Notations
[Qij ] = Reduced stiffness matrix through coordinate axis
[A] = Axial stiffness matrix
[a] = Inverse of axial stiffness matrix
= Axial –bending stiffness matrix
[D] = Bending torsion stiffness matrix
[Q] = Reduced stiffness principle axis
VIISubscript
∞ = Infinite satin
break
= Break point for strain
c
= Contact
del
= Delamination
E
= Young modulus
F
= Fiber
F
= Friction
G
= Modulus of rigidity
i
= Layer I
L
= Longitudinal
Ld
= Large deformation
m
= Matrix
n
= Maximum available for matrix (delamination failure criteria)
p = Projectile
pi = Incident for projectile
Po
= Resting for projectile
r
= Polar coordinate an radius axis
s
= Ultimate for matrix (delamination failure criteria)
T
= Tensile
ult
= Ultimate
w
= Weave
ν
= Poisson’s ratio
θ
= Polar coordinate an angle axis
VIIIAbbreviations
3eskp = 3-end satin Kevlar polyester composite
5escp = 5-end satin carbon polyester composite
5esgp = 5-end satin E-glass polyester composite
CCA
= Composite Cylinder Assemblage
CCCC
= Rectangular plate Clamped on all Four edges
FRP
= Fiber Reinforced Plastic
NIJ
= National Institute of Justice
p1ge = Plain 2.5*2.5 E-glass epoxy composite
p1gp = Plain 2.5*2.5 E-glass polyester composite
p2gp = Plain 12.5*12.5 E-glass polyester composite
P-55
= Carbon high modulus
PAN
= Polyacrylonitrile
pcp = Plain carbon polyester composite
rangp = Random E-glass polyester composite
IXList of Tables
Table Title Page
(1-1) V-Notched Charpy and Izod impact of unidirectional composites 8
(4-1) Glass composition 49
(4-2) Inherent properties of glass fibers 50
(4-3) Mechanical properties of P-55 carbon-high modulus fiber 50
(4-4) Mechanical properties of Kevlar 49 used in the presented work 51
(4-5) Materials used in the presented tests 52
(4-6) Table of k1 and k2 values for rectangular sections in torsion 62
(5-1) The measured mechanical properties for matrixes 78
(5-2) The measured mechanical properties for the composites manufactured. 84
XList of Figures
Figure Title Page
(1-1) Some kinds of fibers. 2
(1-2) Some kinds of matrices. 3
(1-3) The specific tensile strength versus specific modulus for various
fiber-reinforced composite (65% VF) with epoxy matrix and for Steel
and Aluminum. 3
(1-4) Some kinds of Fibers Geometry. 4
(1-5) Swinging weight impact-testing methods. 7
(1-6) Drop-weight impact measuring apparatus. 8
(1-7) Typical load-time trace for drop-weight impact test on composite. 9
(1-8) A 9mm Beretta handgun mounted in a Ransom Rest with laser for
accuracy. 10
(1-9) Some applications of the impact on composite materials. 11
(3-1) The composite plate of two orthotropic unidirectional fibers is
considered as infinite-end satin woven fibers composite. 25
(3-2) Plate axis and layer details. 29
(3-3) Schematic drawing represent the impact delaminated large
deformation and penetration zone. 37
(3-4) The normal force and friction through the impact penetration load. 45
(4-1) Matrix sample produced from paste of panes rolled out at pane and
then formed the shape of tensile and bending tests. 53
(4-2) Matrix tensile specimens. 54
(4-3) Matrix compression specimens. 54
(4-4) Matrix Flexural test specimens. 55
(4-5) (a) Dimensions for torsion test specimen, (b) Photograph for pure
and reinforced epoxy torsion test specimens. 55
XI(4-6) Schematic of mold of test specimen. 56
(4-7) Some specimens use for testing the properties. 58
(4-8) Tensile Testing device and fixation mechanism. 59
(4-9) Micro Strain meter used in tensile tests. 60
(4-10) Friction testing device, the force equilibrium, and specimens. 61
(4-11) Torsion testing device. 62
(4-12) Shear stress distribution in a solid rectangular shaft. 63
(4-13) Flexural testing device. 64
(4-14) Bending test. 64
(4-15) Ballistic testing {National Institute of Justice (NIJ) standards}. 65
(4-16) Schematic representation of the ballistic rig. 66
(4-17) Photographic view of the presented impact rig. 67
(4-18) Block diagram represent the velocity measurement device. 67
(4-19) Electronic circuit of the velocity-measuring device. 71
(4-20) Time table of output for the velocity measuring device 72
(5-1) Experimental tensile Stress-Strain curves for polyester (p) and epoxy
(e) tensile test (Tensile speed = 3mm/min). 76
(5-2) Experimental compression Stress-Strain curves for polyester (p) and
epoxy (e), Compression test (Compression speed = 3mm/min). 77
(5-3) Experimental Shear Stress- Shear Strain curves for polyester (p) and
epoxy (e), Torsion test. 77
(5-4) Tensile stress-strain curves for 0-90 carbon reinforced {polyester (p)
and epoxy (e). a) 0o, b) 30o 78
(5-5) Tensile stress-strain curves for 0-90 E-glass reinforced {polyester (p)
and epoxy (e). a) 0o, b) 30 o 79
(5-6) Tensile stress-strain curves for 0-90 Kevlar reinforced {polyester (p)
and epoxy (e). a) 0o, b) 30 o 80
XII(5-7) Tensile stress-strain curves for plain-woven E-glass fiber (2.5*2.5)
reinforced {polyester (p) and epoxy (e)}. a) 0o, b) 30 o 80
(5-8) Tensile stress-strain curves for plain-woven E-glass fiber (12.5*12.5)
reinforced polyester. a) 0o, b) 30 o 81
(5-9) Tensile stress-strain curves for 5-end satin woven E-glass fiber (5*5))
reinforced polyester. a) 0o, b) 30 o 82
(5-10) Tensile stress-strain curves for random chopped E-glass fiber
reinforced polyester 82
(5-11) Tensile stress-strain curves for plain-woven carbon fiber reinforced
polyester. a) 0o, b) 30 o 83
(5-12) Tensile stress-strain curves for 5-end satin woven carbon fiber
reinforced polyester. a) 0o, b) 30 o 83
(5-13) Tensile stress-strain curves for 3-end satin Kevlar fiber reinforced
polyester. a) 0o, b) 30 o 84
(5-14) Contact force q verses plate middle deflection (wm) for the composite
used. 85
(5-15) Natural frequency verses thickness of plates for the composite
materials used. 86
(5-16) Approximate Elastic wave speed for the composite materials used. 87
(5-17) 3-D force thickness velocity for Plain 2.5*2.5 E-Glass epoxy. 88
(5-18) 3-D force thickness velocity for Plain 2.5*2.5 E-Glass Polyester.
88
(5-19) 3-D force thickness velocity for Plain 12.5*12.5 E-Glass Polyester.
88
(5-20) 3-D force thickness velocity for 5-end satin 5*5 E-Glass Polyester.
88
(5-21) 3-D force thickness velocity for Random E-Glass Polyester.
88
(5-22) 3-D force thickness velocity for Plain 7*7 Carbon Polyester.
88
(5-23) 3-D force thickness velocity for 5-end Satin 5*5 Carbon Polyester.
88
(5-24) 3-D force thickness velocity for 3-end Satin Kevlar Polyester.
88
XIII(5-25) Maximum elastic deformation of clamped two layers 3-end satin
fiber reinforced polyester plate (80*80mm) impacted by 7.5g rigid
impactor with Vi=100m/s and rp=1mm. 90
(5-26) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for Plain 2.5*2.5 EGlass epoxy. 91
(5-27) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for Plain 2.5*2.5 EGlass Polyester.
91
(5-28) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for Plain 12.5*12.5 EGlass Polyester.
91
(5-29) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for 5-end satin 5*5 EGlass Polyester.
91
(5-30) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for Random E-Glass
Polyester.
91
(5-31) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for Plain 7*7 Carbon
Polyester.
91
(5-32) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for 5-end Satin 5*5
Carbon Polyester.
91
(5-33) 3-D Contact energy (Uc)~ thickness- velocity for 3-end Satin Kevlar
Polyester.
91
(5-34) Contact force for materials used for plate with 4mm thickness for
different incident velocities. 92
(5-35) Contact force for materials used for plate for different thickness with
250m/s incident velocities. 92
(5-36) Contact energy for materials used for plate with 4mm thickness for
different incident velocities. 92
(5-37) Contact energy for materials used for plate for different thickness
with 250m/s incident velocities. 92
XIV(5-38) Delamination radius versus local projectile radius. 94
(5-39) The absorbing energies due to impacting a 60o cone angle 7.5g rigid
projectile to a (80*80) mm2 Plain-woven 2.5*2.5 E-Glass reinforced
polestar for 4mm thickness. 95
(5-40) The total Kinetic Energy of the projectile and the absorbing energy
versus the impact velocity. 9


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