كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2009
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2009

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2009  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2009    كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2009  Emptyالخميس 25 فبراير 2021, 1:49 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2009
Chairman
Frank T. Lauinger
President and CEO
Robert F. Biolchini
Senior Vice-President, Finance and Administration, CFO
Mark Wilmoth
Senior Vice-President, Audience Development & Book Publishing
Gloria S. Adams
Director
Mary McGee
Managing Editor
Marla Patterson
Editor
Joseph Hilyard
Production Manager
Sheila Brock
Art Director
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كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2009  I_p_e_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Guest Essay .iv
Chronology 2008 ix
Encyclopedia & Atlas
World Energy Markets:
The Big Picture 1
North America
United States 10
Gulf of Mexico . 56
Alaska . 67
Canada 75
Latin America
Argentina 98
Belize 103
Bolivia 103
Brazil 104
Chile 114
Colombia .115
Cuba 118
Ecuador . 120
Guatemala . 123
Jamaica 123
Mexico . 124
Nicaragua . 131
Peru . 132
Trinidad & Tobago . 135
Venezuela . 137
Europe
Albania . 144
Austria . 146
Belgium . 146
Bulgaria . 148
Croatia . 148
Czech Republic . 150
Denmark 152
Finland . 153
France . 154
Germany 156
Greece . 156
Hungary 158
Republic of Ireland . 158
Italy 159
Malta 165
Netherlands 166
Norway . 167
Poland .174
Portugal 175
Romania 176
Slovakia 177
Spain 177
Sweden . 179
Turkey 179
United Kingdom . 181
Middle East
Bahrain . 190
Iran 192
Iraq 198
Israel . 204
Jordan . 205
Kuwait 206
Oman 207
Qatar 208
Saudi Arabia . 209
Syria . 211
United Arab Emirates . 212
Yemen 215International Petroleum Encyclopedia iii
Africa
Algeria 218
Angola 224
Cameroon 226
Chad 227
Congo (Brazzaville) 228
Congo (Former Zaire) 229
Egypt 229
Equatorial Guinea 233
Gabon 234
Ghana 235
Ivory Coast 237
Libya 237
Madagascar 240
Mali 241
Mauritania 241
Morocco 242
Mozambique 242
Nigeria 243
South Africa 250
Sudan 250
Tanzania 252
Tunisia 252
Uganda 253
Former Soviet Union
Armenia 258
Azerbaijan 261
Georgia 263
Kazakhstan 265
Kyrgyzstan 270
Lithuania 271
Russia 272
Tajikistan 279
Turkmenistan 280
Ukraine 280
Uzbekistan 281
China 284
Asia-Pacific
Afghanistan 300
Australia 301
Bangladesh 312
Brunei 313
India 314
Indonesia 321
Japan 326
Malaysia 330
Myanmar 331
New Zealand 332
Pakistan 335
Papua New Guinea 339
Philippines 340
Singapore 341
South Korea 342
Taiwan 343
Thailand 344
Vietnam 345
Key Stats & Tables
Key Stats
Future energy supply 349
Reserves and production 360
Drilling and exploration 367
Investment and markets 376
Trade and tankers 381
LNG—Industry outlook 386
LNG—Liquefaction and receiving 390
LNG—Carrier fleet 393
LNG—Risks and opportunities 394
Refining and products 395
Gas processing and products 407
Petrochemicals outlook 411
Pipelines 422
Climate change issues 425
Statistical Tables
World reserves and production 429
Oil consumption, production, reserves,
and trade
World oil consumption 431
World petroleum product
consumption 433
World oil production 435
Historical oil reserves 439
World oil imports and exports 440
World oil trade movements 441
World oil balance 442
Oil refining
Summary of operating refineries
worldwide 444
World refining capacity 446
World refinery throughput 450
World refining margins 450
Natural gas consumption, production, and trade
World natural gas consumption 451
World natural gas production 452
World natural gas trade movements:
pipelines 454
World natural gas trade movements:
LNG 456
Petroleum prices
Crude oil prices 456
Petroleum product prices 457
Comparative energy prices 457
Price history of oil, gas,
and gasoline 458
International rig count 459
Information Sources
National oil companies and energy
ministries 461
Glossary of abbreviations
and acronyms 477
Advertiser’s index 485
Index of contents 485
Fold-out Map Legend 506A
Aaiun basin, 256
Abdullah II, king, 206
Abkatun-Pol-Chuc, 124
Abkhazia, 277
Absheron block, 261
absorbed-natural-gas
(ANG), 340
Abu Dhabi, 212
oil discoveries in, 213
project, 215
refinery in, x
Abu Dhabi Company for
Onshore Oil Operation
(ADCO), 214
Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Co., 214
Access pipeline, 92
Adamkus, Valdas, 271
Addax Petroleum Corp.,
243, 247
Adria LNG terminal, 150
Adriatic LNG terminals, 161
Adriatic Sea, 160
Afghanistan, 300
Aframax fleet development, 384
Africa, EU energy partnership
with, 224; Europe’s energy
partnership with, 149, 224;
Gazprom’s opportunities in,
223; Gazprom’s priority of,
247; maps, 219, 220; piracy
off coast of, 383; polymer
balance of, 421
Africa-European Union energy
partnership, 224
Afrodite prospect, 171
Advertisers
Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes . 96
PennEnergy . 282
Contents
Agbami field, 246
Agencia Nacional de
Hidrocarburos (ANH), 115
AGL Energy Ltd., 312
AGL Resources, 50
Ahdab oil field, 200
Aichi refinery, 329
Ain Sokhna, 233
air emissions, of refineries, 55
AJE-4 well, 248
Aker ASA, 236
Aker Clean Carbon, 174
Akpo deepwater oil field, 244
Akzhar oil fields, 267
Al Huwaila LNG vessel, 392
Al Shaheen refinery, 208
Alabama, Energen Corp. shale
plays in, 37; shale play areas
of, 36
Alakiri flow station, 244
Alaminos Canyon wells, 63
Alaska, drilling/production in,
72; environmental issues
of, 72–73; exploration/
development in, 67–70;
gas hydrates in, 68–69;
intrastate gas pipeline in,
74; lease sales in, 70–72;
LNG in, 74; map, 68–70;
transportation/pipelines
in, ix, 73–74; White Hills
blocks in, 67
Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC, 73
Alaska Gasline Inducement Act
(AGIA), 73
Alaska Gasline Port Authority
(AGPA), 42, 74
Alaska’s North Slope (ANS),
73; Denali pipeline on, xi,
73; gas hydrates on, xiv;
Kuparak formation on, 67;
natural gas pipeline, xiii;
oil/gas forecast of, 67
Alba field, 186
Albania, 144–146
Albania Petroleum Corporation
(APC), 144
Albert Basin, 241, 253
Alberta, bitumen pipelines in,
93; bitumen production
of, 90; bitumen resources
of, 91; CCS focus of, 95; oil
production of, 76; oil sands
development in, 88; oil
sands reclamation certificate
in, 93; royalty framework
in, 79
Alberta Energy and Utilities
Board (EUB), 89
Alberta Energy Research
Institute (AERI), 88
Alberta Saline Aquifer Project
(ASAP), 94
Alberta Utilities Commission
(AUC), 89
Albertine Graben, 229
Albertine Rift system, 229
Albian Sands Energy Inc., 92
algae-based bioethanol, 131
Algeria, 218–223; exploration/
development in, 218; map,
221
Alimbai fields, 267
Alliance Pipeline, 44
A-Lovech Block, 148International Petroleum Encyclopedia 486
Index
Alstom SA, 175
alternative energy, 354–355; algae-based
bioethanol, 131; in Argentina, 103;
in Brazil, 113; in China, 298; in
France, 155; in India, 320–321;
in Italy, 164; in Japan, 329;
in Nigeria, 249; oil executives
surveyed about, 425; Saudi Arabia
and, 210; in United Kingdom,
187–188; in United States, 52–53;
in Venezuela, 141
Alve field, 170
Alvheim field, xii, 173
Amazon basin, 121
America Competes Act, 53
American Clean Skies Foundation, 33
American International Group (AIG), v
American Petroleum Institute, 16
America’s Energy Coast (AEC), 61
Amoruso field, 28
Amos prospect exploration well, 188
Ana-2 appraisal well, 176
Anadarko basin, 38, 39
Anadarko E&P, 61
Anadarko Petroleum Corp., 49
Anahita refinery, 195
Anambra basin, 245, 246, 249
Anduin West prospect, 58
Angola, 224–226; drilling/production in,
225–226; exploration/development in,
224–225; gas liquefaction facility in,
226; map, 225
Anguille field, 234
Annex VI Amendments NOX, 399
anti-flaring program, natural gas, 249
Apache Corp., 84, 231, 305
APF refinery, 146
Appalachian basin, 33
appraisal well; Ana-2, 176; Banda East-1B,
241; Banda NW l, 241; Benita oil, 233
Aquila field oil discoveries, 161
Arab Gas Pipeline, 212, 232
Arabian Gulf Oil Ltd., 236
Arabs/Muslim civil war, 251
Arafura Sea block, 323
Arawak Energy Ltd., 267
Arc Energy Ltd., 312
Arctic Circle, 273; crude oil in, xii; oil/
gas potential of, 353
Arctic Islands, map, 85
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
(ANWR), 68
Arctic Ocean, 20
Arctic seafloor, 69, 78
Arctic-class shuttle tankers, 381
Ardmore basin, 38
Argentina, alternative energy in, 103;
drilling/production in, 102;
exploration/development in, 98–102;
liquid fuel exports suspension in, 102
Arkaringa basin, 305
Arkoma basin, 38
Armenia, 258–261
aromatics, Asia-Pacific’s capacity of, 417;
capacity additions of, 417; plant, 341;
production capacity for, 418
Arous Al-Bahar prospect, 237
Arthit gas field, 344
Arzew petrochemical complex, 223
Ascent Resources PLC, 158
Ashtart field, 238
Asia, diesel demand of, 398; LNG imports
in, 391; petroleum demand of, 398;
petroleum outlook of, 416; processing
capacity of, 397; refining capacity
growth in, 398; southeast map of, 303
Asia-Pacific, aromatics capacity of, 417;
ethylene capacity of, 416; LNG
demand outlook of, 389; LNG
market of, 389; map of, 304
Athabasca oil sands, 76, 90
Athabasca Wabiskaw-McMurray
(AWM), 92
Atlantic-sourced cargoes, 393
Atlas Energy Resources, 33, 34
ATP Oil & Gas Corp., 26, 57
Atwater Valley block, 67
Aurelian Oil & Gas, 177
Australia, Apache drilling in, 305;
basins of, 308; continental shelf
extended of, x, 301; drilling activity
of, 307, 308; drilling/production
in, 306; environmental issues in,
311–312; exploration/development in,
301–305; Gorgon LNG in, 309; map,
302; natural gas drilling in, 308;
offshore exploration permits of, 306;
wells planned off, 307
Australian Pacific LNG, 310
Australian Worldwide Exploration
Ltd., 312
Austria, 146
Awards in Predefined Areas (APA), 173
Ayazli gas field, 180
Ayoluengo field, 177
Azadegan oil field, 192, 193
Azerbaijan, 261–263; Caspian Sea
conference and, 261; petrochemical
project in, 262–263; pipelines in, 262
Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli field (ACG),
261, 262
Azerkimya, 262
Azulao well, 106
B
Badhra field, 336
Bahrain, 190
Baja North pipeline, 130–131
Bakassi Peninsula, 243
Baker Hughes Inc., 23, 24, 25
Bakken formation, x; oil shale in, 31;
USGS assessment units and, 32
Bakken gas pipeline, 44
Bakken oil play, 44
Baku-Supsa pipeline, 262, 264
Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline,
261, 262, 264, 265; Tengiz field
shipping via, 269
Baltic Pipeline system, 151, 279
Baltic Sea, 271
Ban Ki-moon, 205
Banc of America Securities, 377
Banda East-1B appraisal well, 241
Banda NW appraisal well, 241
Bangladesh, 312–313
Bankers Petroleum Ltd., 38
Barauni refinery, 320
Barents Sea, 351
Barnett shale wells, 23, 33
Barrancabermeja refinery, 117
Basal Lorraine, 83
Bass Lite field, 67
Batumi refinery, 267
Bay of Bengal, 313, 317, 331, 332
Bay of Campeche, 128
Bear Stearns Companies, Inc, iv
Beaufort Sea, 72, 84
Beaver River gas shale, 83–84
Bechtel Corp., 311
Beiji refinery, 203
Belchatow station, 175
Belgium, 146
Belgium Refining Co., 146
Belize, 103
Benita oil appraisal well I-5, 233
Bentek Energy LLC, 50
Bentley field, 184
Bergermeer gas reservoir, 166
Berkine basin, 218
Besbolek oil fields, 267
Beshtentak oil/gas field, 279
BG Asia Pacific Pte Ltd., 341
BG Group Ltd., 43, 312
BG Group PLC, 105
BG Norge AS, 171
Bhit gas treatment plant, 336
BHP Billiton Petroleum Inc., 62
Biden, Joseph R., 17
Big Canoe Creek field, 36
Big Foot project, 64
bilateral treaty issues, Caspian Sea, 270
Bill Barrett Corp., 40487 International Petroleum Encyclopedia
Index
biodiesel, 45; Indonesian plant for,
326; production plants, 103, 298;
project, 298
bioethanol, algae-based, 131; plant, 346
biofuels, 188, 329; EISA RFS
requirements for, 52; EU’s, 155;
global demand of, 355; greenhouse
gases from, 53; Kior Inc./Petrobras
agreement on, 355–356; production of,
52; United Kingdom’s policy on, xi
biomass energy, 298, 320
bitumen, 88; Alberta pipelines for, 93;
Alberta’s production of, 90; Alberta’s
resources of, 91; Athabasca oil sands
producing, 90; distillation, 89;
in-place estimates of, 91; in situ
projects with, 92
Black Sea, exploration, 179; as Israel oil
source, 181
Blackbeard No. 1, 56
Blackwood-1 wildcat, 348
Blind Faith field, xiv, 64
Block 4N, 208
Block 5A, 250
Block 7, 241
Block 9, 313
Block 09-3, 347
Block 11, 241
Block 15-2/01, 345
Block 15/06, 224
Block 16-1, 346
Block 17, 313
Block 18, 313
Block 26, 212
Block 31, 224–225
Block 1101, 240
Block A-6, 331
Block B, 313
Block B8/38, 344
Block BC-10, 111
Block BM-S-11, 107
block flow diagram, coal-to-liquids, 357
Block KG-DWN-2005/2, 316
Block M-2, 331
Block NCMA 2, 136
Block PM303, 330
Block PM324, 330
BlueOcean Energy, 44
Bohai Gulf, 291
Bolivia, 103–104
Bonaparte basin, 306
Bonga field, 244
Bongkot offshore concession, 344
Bonny Island, 248, 249
Bontang LNG facility, 325
Bounty exploration well, 135
Bouri oil field, 238
Bowdoin natural gas field, 31
Bowstring East prospect, 183
BP America, 56
BP Exploration Alaska Inc., 69, 72
BP PLC, 52, 207, 239; cellulosic ethanol
plans of, 52
BPMigas, 322
Bradwood Landing, 41
Brazil, 104–113; alternative energy
in, 113; crude oil production
of, 104; drilling/production in,
109–112; exploration/development
in, 105–108; gas projects of, 110;
Iran’s OPEC invitation to, 104; lease
sales in, 109; LNG in, 112; natural
gas production of, 104; oil/gas
production of, 111; oil/gas projects of,
110; pipelines in, 112–113
Bretton Woods system, viii
Brindisi thermal power station, 164
Briseis-1 exploration well, 302
British Cairn Energy PLC, 312
British Energy (BE), 188
Broadwater LNG project, 43
Brown, Gordon, 183
Browner, Carol, 18
Browse basin, 302, 306, 309, 310
Brunei, 313–314, 328
Bualuang field, xii, 344
budget cuts, 26
Buffalo oil well, 253
Buffalo-Giraffe reservoir, 253
Bukat block, 321, 331
Bulgaria, 148
bunker fuels, 399
Bureau of Land Management (BLM),
19, 70
Buru Energy Ltd., 312
Bush, George W., xiii, 40, 119
Business Monitor International Ltd, 201,
239, 350
C
C4 oil field, 292
Cabinda, map, 225; South block, 224
Cabinda Gulf Oil Co., 226
Cairngorm well, 183
Cairo India Ltd., 315
Calabria, xi
Calderón, Felipe, 130
California, 55
Cambay basin, 316
Cambridge Energy Research Associates
(CERA), 26, 354
Cameron terminal, 41
Cameroon, 226, 227
Camisea natural gas project, 132, 133
Campos Basin, 108; Block BC-10
development in, 111; map of, 105;
semisubmersible platform in, 109
Canada. CCS research of, 94; coalbed
methane in, 81; crude oil pipelines
of, 48; drilling activity of, 367;
drilling/production in, 79–81;
energy producing/exporting of, 75;
exploration/development in, 77–78;
financial crisis’ impact on, 85–86; gas
drilling of, 24; gas shale in, 81–85,
352; greenhouse gas targets of, 95;
heavy crude disposition of, 89; map
of, 75–76; natural gas in, 77; offshore
eastern, 75; oil reserves of, 75; oil
sands exports of, 47; oil sands of, 76,
85–93, 343; oil sands production
of, 86; oil/gas capital spending
of, 378–379; oil/gas wells in, 368;
Parliament suspended in, 77; pipelines
in, 93–94; production forecast of, 90;
spending plans of, 378; United States
drilling compared to, 23
Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador
Offshore Petroleum Board
(C-NLOPB), 79
Canadian Association of Petroleum
Producers (CAPP), 76, 86, 90
Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., 86
Canadian oil sands products, 47
Canadian Superior Energy Inc., 42,
238, 252
Candax Energy Inc., 240
Canning basin, 306
Cantarell oil field, xiii, 124, 130
Canterbury basin, 335
cap-and-trade program, 18, 53
Cape Farewell blocks, 151
capital costs, of coal-to-liquids, 359
Capricorn Energy Ltd., 152
Captain field, 186
capture and geo-sequestration (CCG), 310
Capuava refinery, 113
carbon capture and sequestration, 174,
182, 215
carbon capture and storage (CCS), xii,
150, 165, 175; Alberta focused on,
95; Belchatow station with, 175;
Canadian government researching,
94; carbon dioxide by-product
concentrations and, 90; federal
regulations on, 53; France’s pilot
project on, 427; pilot plant of,
164–165; technology needed for, 427
carbon dioxide, by-product concentrations
and, 90; CCS for, 90; coal’s emissions
of, 54; Conroe field injection of, 28;
Denbury Resources potential of, 374;
emissions, 426; global emissions of,
426; global stationary sources of, 426;
Permian basin availability of, 28;International Petroleum Encyclopedia 488
Index
sequestration, 54; sources of, 374;
United States emissions of, 426
carbon permits, 187
Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum
(CSLF), 312
carbon trading scheme, 311
cargo-swapping, 393–394
Carmon Creek oil sands, 86
Carna exploration prospect block, 158
Carnarvon basin, 301, 306
Carpathian Fold Belt, 177
Carpathian Resources Ltd., 151
Cartagena refinery, 179
Cascade-Chinook oil and natural gas
project, 67
Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), 207,
266, 269, 270, 278
Caspian refinery, 195
Caspian Sea, bilateral treaty issues over,
270; conference, 261; export pipeline
projects for, 268; littoral pipelines of,
268; map of, 264; oil field discoveries
in, 272; oil/gas exploration licenses of,
280; proposed division of, 261
Cassiopeia field, 160
Castello gas field, 160
Castro, Raul, 119
cathodic protection (CP) survey, 122
Caurus project, 168
cellulosic ethanol, 52
Central America map, 127
Central Asia-China (CAC) pipeline, 281
Central Depression, Armenia, 258
Central Florida Pipeline system, 45
Central Planning Area (CPA), 63
Cepu block, 323–324
Ceyhan refinery, 267
Chad, 227
Changbei field, 292, 293
Changling refinery, 296
Chattanooga, 37
Chavez, Hugo, 119, 122, 138–141, 294
Chayvo field, 275
Chaza Block, 116
Cheney, Dick, 262
Chengdu, 297
Cheniere Energy, 41
Chergui field, 253
Chermingat field, 330
Chesapeake Appalachia, 35
Chesapeake Energy Corp., 33, 38, 56;
budget cuts of, 26; Marcellus gas
production of, 35; StatoilHydro ASA
pact with, 168
Chevron Corp., 106, 113; Blind Faith
production of, 64; gas production of,
26; Total SA joint venture with, 67
Chevron Indonesia Ventures, 323
Chevron Products Co., 63
Chiba refinery, 329
Chicontepec field, 130
Chile, 114–115; exploration/development
in, 114; lease sales in, 114–115
China, 284–298; alternative energy in,
298; biomass energy targets of, 298;
Bohai Gulf of, 291; capacity additions
of, 399, 406; Changbei field in,
292; crude oil consumption of, 298;
drilling/production of, 292–293;
eastern map of, 286; economic
growth of, v–vi; energy mix of, 284;
ethylene production capacity of, 295;
exploration/development in, 291–292;
fleet expansion of, 381–382; fuel
shortages in, 296; gas fields of, xv;
gasoline import/refining in, 399;
Indonesia’s energy-related agreement
with, 322; Iran’s nuclear program
contract with, 197; Jordan’s agreement
with, 206; LNG carriers of, 392;
LNG contracts of, 389; LPG supply/
demand in, 410; major gas field of,
xv; maps, 285–286; Myanmar’s oil/
gas pipeline agreement with, 295;
natural gas use of, 287–288; oil
consumption of, 287; oil demand
in, 289; oil discovery trend of, 289;
oil import sources of, 287, 382; oil
production of, 284–287, 290–291; oil
production/consumption of, 287; oil
supply/demand outlook of, 288–289;
peak oil forecast in, 289; petchem
joint ventures of, 417; petrochemicals
in, 297–298; polymer balance of, 421;
refining expansions of, 297; refining
industry of, 288, 297; refining/
products in, 295–296; Russia’s
refinery project with, 294; shale-oil
distillation refinery in, 292; supply
demand gap of, 291; Tibet’s protests
against, 289; Venezuela’s cooperation
agreement with, 141; VLCC programs
of, 382; western map of, 285
China National Offshore Oil Corp.
(CNOOC), 284
China National Petroleum Corporation
(CNPC), 227, 284
China Petrochemical Corp., 211
China Petroleum & Chemical Corp., 284
Chinese Petroleum Corp., 343
Chiyoda Corp., 223
Chongqing biodiesel production
plant, 298
Chouech Essaida, 252
Chu, Steven, 18
Chuanhu gas pipeline, 295
Chukchi basin, 70; industry bids in, 71;
polar bears in, 71
Cienfuegos refinery, 120
Cilacap refinery, 326
Cimarex Energy Co., 38, 39
Circle Oil PLC, 242
civil conflict, 115
clean product rates, 384
Cleveland formation horizontal plays, 30
climate change, CCS and, 182; Congress
addressing, 53; EU actions on, 427;
issues of, 425–427; lawmakers
pressured on, 425; technological
actions needed in, 426
Clinton, Bill, 69
coal, carbon dioxide emissions and, 54;
reserves, 359
coal seam gas (CSG), 311, 335
coalbed methane (CBM), 77; in Canada,
81; Spectra Energy pipeline connected
to, 81
coal-to-liquids (CTL), 250, 356; balance
of, 359; block flow diagram of, 357;
capital costs of, 359; commercial
units of, 358; global liquid fuel
production from, 359; United States
projects in, 359
Coastal Impact Assistance Program
(CIAP), 72
Coastal Zone Management Act, 42
coking refinery netbacks, 402
Cold Lake Clearwater (CLC), 92
Colom, Alvaro, 123
Colombia, 115–118; exploration/
development in, 116–117; India’s
exploration agreement with, 118,
316; lease sales in, 117; map of, 116;
oil production of, 115
Colon Block, 139
Columbia basin natural gas, 21
commodity prices, v–vii, 6
company reporting, 22
Complejo Industrial RBE, 103
Comstock Resources Inc., 33
Conasauga gas shale exploratory tests, 37
Conference of the Parties (COP), 425
Congo (Brazzaville), 228
Congo (former Zaire), 229
Congress, 53
ConocoPhillips, 32, 63, 70, 139, 172,
310, 323
ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas
Corp., 74
Conroe field, 28
Considine, Tony, 188
construction costs, pipelines, 46
consumer prices, xiv
Consumers’ Cooperative Refineries
Ltd., 94
Contango Oil & Gas Co., 61
Continental Resources Inc., 29, 31, 32, 39
Continental shelf, Australia’s extended, x,
301; outer, 40489 International Petroleum Encyclopedia
Index
Cook Inlet basin, 72
Copper River basin, 74
Corinth refinery, 156
Correa, Rafael, 122
Corrib natural gas project, 159
Corridor Resources Inc., 78, 82
Costa Azul LNG, 130–131
Costa Rica, 142
Costayaco field, 116
Cote d’Albatre windfarm, 155
Cove Point LNG terminal, 41, 168
credit default swaps (CDSs), iv
Cretaceous Pearsall shale well, 35–36
Cretaceous Pierre laminated shale, 37
Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine shale, 20
Cretaceous Williams Fork formation, 26
Croatia, 148–150; energy sector investing
of, 150; Iran’s relationship with,
148–150
Crossfire area, 81
crude condensate, 15
crude oil, in Arctic Circle, xii; Brazil’s
production of, 104; Canadian pipelines
for, 48, 89; China’s consumption of,
298; distillation additions of, 405;
future’s contract prices of, 1; global
distillation capacity projection of,
404; Greece’s distillation of, 156;
greenhouse gases/oil sands and, 90;
Guatemala exporting, 123; HaldaBarauni pipeline for, 317; high-TAN,
404; Middle East’s production of, 198;
of Pakistan, 336; Peru’s production
of, 132; price impact of, 368–369;
price of, x, 3, 456; products/stocks
of, 18; Russian export reductions
of, 277; synthetic, 88, 89; United
States’ condensate production and, 15;
United States importing, 123; United
States prices of, 17; United States’
products stocks of, 18; White Rose oil
field production of, xii
Crux liquids project, 309
Cuba, 118–120; exploration/development
in, 118–119; United States Maritime
Agreement between, 119
Cuda-1X exploration well, 236
Cumarebo field, 139
Curlew C development, 185
Cuu Long basin, 345, 346
Cuyana basin, 98
cyclone Nargis, 332
Cyprus, 180
Czech Republic, 150–151
D
da Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula, 104, 123
Dabhol power plant, 319–320
Dadri-Bawana-Nangal gas pipeline, 316
Dalian refinery, 296
Dana Petroleum PLC, 185
Danakil depression, 255
Danica Resources AS, 152
Darkhan-Uul refinery, 348
De Soto Canyon block, 56
deepwater discoveries, in Gulf of Mexico,
63; offshore production of, 376
deepwater Gunashli (DWG) platform, 261
deepwater pipeline, 178
Deepwater Tano license, 236
Delaware basin, 21, 35
Delta Caribe Orientale Project, 140
Denali pipeline, xi, 73
Denbury Offshore LLC, 37
Denbury Resources, 28, 374
Denmark, 152–153; drilling/production
in, 153; exploration/development in,
152; Greenland ‘autonomous country’
of, 151; lease sales in, 153
Department of Commerce (DOC), 42
Department of Energy (DOE), 380
derivatives, global recession and, vi–vii
DESFA SA, 157
Devil’s Tower spar, 67
Devon Energy Corp., 28, 39, 234
Devonian Besa River shale, 83
Devonian Golata/Muskwa shales, 84
Devonian Huron shale, 39
Devonian Woodford shale, 35
Dhodak Deep No. 1 exploration well,
335–336
Didon North prospect, 252
Didon offshore field, 253
Diega prospect, 233
diesel, 300; Afghanistan’s diesel, 300;
Asia’s demand of, 398; gas-to-liquids
and, 360; short-term supply/demand
of, 400; ultralow-sulfur, 47
DilBit, 89
Dinaz Group KU SIA, 271
Dione prospect, 224
Directorate General of Hydrocarbons
(DGH), 316
Disouq concession, 231
al-Diwaniya refinery, 203
Doba basin fields, 227
Doina Main sand formation, 176
Dolphin Gas Project, 208
Dominion Resources, 42
Dongfang Chemical City, 293
Donggi block, 326
Dora refinery, 203
Dow Chemical, 206
Draupne prospect, 171
Dreki licensing round, 169
drilling activity, of Australia, 307, 308;
of Canada, 367; global, 369; United
States onshore/offshore, 371
drilling and production, in Alaska, 72; in
Angola, 225–226; in Argentina, 102;
in Australia, 306; in Brazil, 109–112;
in Canada, 79–81; of China, 292–293;
in Denmark, 153; in Egypt, 232; of
gas shales, 32–40; in Gulf of Mexico,
63–67; in Indonesia, 323–325; in
Iran, 193–194; in Iraq, 202–203;
in Kkazakhstan, 267; in Mexico,
129–130; in Nigeria, 246–247; North
America’s market of, 26; of Norway,
171–173; of oil shale, 31–32; in Peru,
133–134; in Russia, 273–274; in
Thailand, 344–345; in Turkey, 180;
in United Kingdom, 185–186; in
United States, 23–31
drilling contractors utilization, 372
drilling rigs, construction of, 372; global
count of, 368, 370; hurricane damage
to, 65; international count on, 369,
459–460; offshore fleets of, 368; of
United States, 25, 26
drillship, 372
Droshky discovery, 64
Druzhba pipeline, 151, 279
Dudley, Robert, 188
Dumbarton field project, 185
Dung Quat refinery, 346, 347
D’Urville block, 332
Duvernay Oil Corp., 95
Dzheitune (Lam) well, 280
E
earthquake, 288, 336
East Belumut field, 330
East Siberia-Pacific Ocean (ESPO)
pipeline, 269, 277, 278, 294
Eastern Nile Delta, 230
Ebenthal fields, xiii, 146
Ebony-1 exploration well, 235–236
Ebouri field, 234
Ech Chouech concessions, 252
economic growth, of China, v–vi;
financial crisis influencing, 2;
global, v; oil movement needed
for, viii; stimulus programs for, 2
economic indicators, 2
Economic Insight, Inc. (EII), vi
economic projections, 1
economies of scale, 356
Ecopetrol, 115, 168International Petroleum Encyclopedia 490
Index
Ecuador, 120–122; Iran’s refining pact
with, 122, 197; map, 120–121;
Venezuela’s cooperative projects
with, 122
Edge Petroleum Corp., 40
Egypt, 229–233; drilling/production in,
232; Europe’s energy agreement with,
149, 233; exploration/development in,
230–232; gas exports of, 229–230;
natural gas exports of, xii; oil/gas
exploration in, 229; pipelines in,
232–233; Syria/natural gas from, 212
Egyptian Offshore Drilling Co.
(EODC), 230
Eider Rock refinery, 94
Ejercito Popular Revolucionario, 129
El Bibane field, 253
Électricité de France (EDF), 188
Elektrizitaets-Gesellschaft-Laufenburg
(EGL), 161
Elk-Antelope field, 339
Ellice J-27, 78
Elm Coulee field, 32
Elysium Energy LLC, 37
Enbridge Inc., 93, 94
EnCana Corp., 28, 84, 95
Encore Acquisition Co., 20, 29
Endangered Species Act (ESA), 54, 71
Enel Green Power, 164
Energen Corp., 37
Energia Costa Azul, xi
energy, BMI predictions on, 350;
Canada’s producing/exporting of, 75;
China’s mix of, 284; comparative
prices of, 457; Croatia investing
in, 150; EU policies on, 404; fossil
fuels/global needs for, 8; global
consumption of, 6; Obama’s goals
concerning, 18; offshore research on,
79; Pakistan’s mix of, 336; renewable,
10; Royal Dutch Shell PLC issues
of, 354; supply/consumption of, 6;
United Kingdom’s, 181; United
States consumption/efficiency of, 15;
United States demand of, 10
energy demand; financial crisis
influencing, 2; OGJ assessing, 3
Energy Independence and Security Act,
52, 53
energy industry, global recession
impacting, vii–viii; revenues, 362
Energy Information Administration (EIA),
2, 6; global oil output forecast of, 350;
petroleum use projection of, 16
Energy Policy Act, 53, 72
Energy Policy Research Foundation, 426
Energy Resources Conservation Board, 81
energy security, 380
Energy Transfer Partners LP, 44, 45
engineering contractors, 400
enhanced oil recovery (EOR), 373
Enhanced Oil Resources Inc., 28
Eni Norge, 171
Eni Petroleum US LLC, 62, 70
Eni SPA, 159, 165, 339; CCS projects
of, 164, Libya buying stake in, 240;
oil sands being developed by, 228;
renewable fuels studies of, 113;
Sicilian Strait development of, 160
Enogex LLC, 49
Enron Corp., vii
environmental issues, of Alaska, 72–73;
in Australia, 311–312; of Italy,
164–165; of Norway, 174; oil sands
and, 88; in United States, 53–55
environmental policies, of EU, 404
EOG Resources, 28, 32, 81
Equatorial Guinea, 233–234
Erika (tanker), ix, 155
Escravos-Lagos pipeline system, 248
Espirito Santo, 108
Essar Exploration & Production
(EEPL), 240
Esso Exploration Angola Ltd., 225
ethanol, cellulosic, 52; distilleries, 141,
320; Petrobras building pipeline
for, xii; pipeline, 113; United States
production of, 52; from wood
waste, 356
Ethiopia, 255, 256
ethylene, Asia-Pacific capacity of, 416;
capacity additions of, 416; complexes,
413; expansions, 414; global capacity
additions of, 414; global capacity of,
413–415; Iran’s pipelines of, 197;
Iran’s west pipeline of, 423; Middle
East capacity of, 419; production,
295; production capacity of, 416; top
producers of, 413; trade of, 415
Etisong-1 well, 244
Ettrick field, 184
Eugene Island Blocks, 56
Europe, Africa’s energy partnership with,
149, 224; Egypt’s energy agreement
with, 149, 233; FPS prospects of, 351;
gas pipeline projects in, 176; gas shale
study in, 149–150; greenhouse gas
emissions reduction plans of, 150; LNG
imports in, 391; map of, 145, 147, 163;
natural gas demand in, 149; offshore
oil/gas production of, 350, 351
European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD), 148
European Union (EU), Africa’s
partnership with, 224; biofuels of,
155; climate change actions of, 427;
environment/energy policies of, 404;
green-house gas reduction agreement
of, xv; processing capacity of, 397
Exall Energy Corp., 78
Excelerate Energy LLC, 42
EXCO Resources Inc., 33
expenses/revenues, of pipeline
companies, 46
exploration and development, in Alaska,
67–70; in Algeria, 218; in Angola,
224–225; in Argentina, 98–102; in
Australia, 301–305; in Brazil, 105–108;
in Canada, 77–78; in Chile, 114; in
China, 291–292; in Colombia, 116–117;
in Cuba, 118–119; in Denmark,
152; in Egypt, 230–232; in Ghana,
235–236; in Gulf of Mexico, 56–61;
in India, 316; in Indonesia, 322–323;
in Iraq, 200–201; in Italy, 160–161;
in Kazakhstan, 265–266; in Nigeria,
243–244; in Norway, 167–171; in Peru,
133; in Russia, 272–273; in Saudi
Arabia, 209–210; in Tobago, 135; in
Trinidad, 135; in Tunisia, 252–253;
in Turkey, 179–180; in United
Arab Emirates, 212–214; in United
Kingdom, 183–185; in United States,
19–21; in Venezuela, 139
exploration and production, global
spending on, 377; investments in,
377; in Libya, 237–239; in Papua
New Guinea, 339; in Vietnam,
345–346
exploration blocks, in Ethiopia, 256; of
Greenland, 151; Kul-Bas, 266
exploration licensing, xi
exploration wells, of Amos prospect,
188; Bounty l, 135; Briseis-1, 302;
in Cook Inlet basin, 72; Cuda-IX,
236; Dhodak Deep No. 1, 335–336;
Ebony-1, 235–236; Glencoe-1, 302;
Kavarna No. 1 l, 148; Kigogole-1,
253; Knockandoo-Talisker, 169;
Morskaya-1, 272; Ngege-1, 254;
Nimblefoot-1, 301; Omko, 235;
South Tor Pod, 152
exporters, of high-TAN crudes, 404
extended continental shelf, 20
extended reach drilling (ERD), 29–30
extended-reach well, ix, 29
Extractive Industries Transparency
Initiative (EITI), 379
Exxon Valdez oill spill, xii, 74
ExxonMobil Corp., 69, 139, 340
Black Sea exploration of, 179; Cepu block
production announced by, 323–324;
extended-reach well of, ix, 29; global
energy demand expectations of, 7;
lawsuits against, 74; NOC agreement
with, 239; Petrovietnam cooperative491 International Petroleum Encyclopedia
Index
agreement with, 292; Refining &
Supply, 47
ExxonMobil Exploration and
Production, 176
ExxonMobil Poland, 174
ExxonMobile Pipeline Co., 93
F
FACTS Global Energy, 192
Faghur basin, 231
Falkland Islands, 184
Fannie Mae, iv
Faroe Petroleum, 153
Fayetteville Express pipeline, 45
Fayetteville shale, 32, 39
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
(FERC), xiii, 43
federal regulations, CCS, 53
feedstock regions, 421
Fell Block, 114
FERC-regulated terminals, 43
Ferdousi gas fields, 197, 330
Fidelity Exploration & Production Co., 31
financial crisis, Canada’s impact
from, 85–86; economic downturn
in, 2; energy demand influenced
by, 2; global recession and, viii;
Karachaganak fields influenced
by, 267; shockwaves of, iv; United
Kingdom influenced by, 182
financial summary, 356
Financial Times, 2, 52
Finland, 153
Fischer-Tropsch-based processes, 357
Flemish Pass basin, 76, 78
Flint Energy Services Ltd., 86
Flint Hill Resources, 72
floating production storage and offloading
vessels (FPSOs), 363–365, 390
floating production systems, 363–365
floating production unit (FPU), 228
Florida oil/natural gas drilling, 19
Floyd shale, 37
Floyd-Chattanooga play, 37
Fluor Corp., 179
Former Soviet Union, eastern map of,
260; western map of, 259
Formosa Petrochemical Corp, 343
Fort Hills pipeline system, 93
Fort McMurray, 88
fossil fuels, global carbon dioxide
emissions from, 426; world energy
needs and, 8
Foster Wheeler Ltd., 179, 239
FPS prospects, 351
FPSO platform, 109
frac stimulation/lateral length, 353
France, 154–155; alternative energy
in, 155; CCS pilot project of, 427;
Norway’s LNG shipment to, 154;
refining/products in, 154
Freddie Mac, iv
Freeport LNG, 41
Frøy field, 169
fuel, Argentina exports suspension of,
102; bunker, 399; China’s shortages
of, 296; jet, 345; small vehicle, 340
FutureGen Alliance, 54
future’s contract prices of, crude oil, 1
G
Gabon, 234–235
GAIL Ltd., 314
Galan block, 323
Galoc field, 340
Galsi natural gas pipeline, 162
Galtvort prospect, 170
Galveston Island block A-155, 61
Gao Graben, 241
Garden Banks, 58, 64
gas, Bergermeer’s reservoirs of, 166;
Canada drilling for, 24; countries
producing, 410; Egypt exports
of, 229–230; Floyd-Chattanooga
play exploration for, 37; Galveston
Island block A-155, 61; Gazprom’s
storage capacities of, 154; global plant
construction for, 409; global resources
estimate of, 352; global uncommitted,
386, 387; Khor Mor field’s production
of, xiv, 203; Middle East’s resources
of, 387; Pagoreni field’s production
of, xiv, 133; southeast United States
transportation for, 424; Trinidad/
Tobago discovery of, xii; United
States reserves of, 33
Gas Exporters Countries Forum (GECF), 7
gas fields, Arthit, 344; Ayazli, 180;
Castello, 160; of China, xv; Ferdousi,
197, 330; Golshan, 197; Henry, 302;
Kambuna, 323, 344; Komsomolsk,
279; Kupe, 335; Madura BD, 323;
McCully, 78; Perseus, 309; Shwe,
313; Tange Bijar, 193; Taurt, 232;
West Breagh, 183; Wheatstone, 311;
Wisey, 186; Yuzhno Russkoye, 156,
277; Zora, 214
gas hydrates, in Alaska, 68–69; in India,
317; in Krishna-Godavari basin, ix;
on North Slope, xiv; progress in, 360;
gas liquefaction facility, 226
Gas Natural SDG SA, 162
gas plant propane production, 412
gas processing, global outlook of, 407;
global roundup of, 407; in United
States, 49, 409
gas production, of Atwater Valley
block, 67; of Chevron Corp., 26;
Gazprom’s forecasts of, 274; in
Gulf of Mexico, 66; leaders in, 362;
Marcellus, 35; of Pagoreni field, xiv,
133; Piceance basin project in, 26;
risked production additions in, 353;
shut-in, 66; of United States, 350; in
Venezuela, 140
gas reserves, global, 410; global increase
of, 360; global proved, 387; of Iran,
192; leaders in, 363; North Field,
208; of Sakhalin-1 project, 275; of
United States, 33
gas shale, Alabama areas of, 36; in
Arkoma basin, 38; Beaver River,
83–84; in Canada, 81–85, 352;
Chattanooga exploratory tests
for, 37; Conasauga exploratory
tests for, 37; Delaware basin wells
for, 35; developing, 352; drilling/
production of, 32–40; Europe’s study
of, 149–150; in Moncton-Sackville
subbasin, 81; Muskwa, 84–85; in
St. Lawrence Lowlands, 82; Stealth
Ventures development of, 83;
Triangle Petroleum’s blocks of, 82; in
United States, 23, 352; United States’
drilling/production of, 23, 32–40;
Woodford, 38; Yellow Jacket, 40
gas storage, Gazprom capacities of, 154;
Gulf Coast capacity for, 50; planned
projects in, 50–51; in United States,
50–51
Gascav natural gas pipelines, 112
gas-condensate area, 69
Gasoducto Andino del Sur (GAS), 134
Gasoducto Carrasco-Cochabamba pipeline
(GCC), 103
Gasoducto de Interconexion SudesteNordeste pipeline, 112
gasoline, China’s import/refining of,
399; long-term demand scenarios of,
401; Mexico imports of, 131; overall
demand for, 402; price history of,
458; short-term supply/demand of,
400; United States demand of, 400;
United States exports of, 401
Gaspe Peninsula, 78
gas-to-liquids (GTL), 356; cancelled
projects in, 358; commercials units of,
358; United States diesel projected
from, 360
Gate LNG terminals, 166
Gateway pipeline, 93
Gaz de France (GDF), 154International Petroleum Encyclopedia 492
Index
Gaza Marine-1 well, 204
Gaza Strip, 205
Gazprom, 156, 192, 275, 280; Abkhazia’s
gas pipeline of, 277; Africa priority
of, 247; African opportunities of,
223; gas production forecasts of,
274; gas storage capacities of, 154;
Sakhalin-2 project agreement with,
276; South Stream pipeline of, 279;
Ukraine gas supplies cut off by, 149,
275, 280–281
Gazprom Exports, 166
GDF Suez SA, 155
geology, attributes of, 353;
of unconventional plays, 83
Geomet, 37
GeoPetro Resources Co., 72
geopolitical issues, 349
Georgia, xiii, 263–265, 274
GEPetrol, 234
Germany, 156; renewable energy
companies of, 156; Russia’s gas
exploration deal with, 275
Ghadames basin, 239
Ghana, 235–236; discoveries/prospects
in, 236; exploration/development in,
235–236
Ghana National Petroleum Corp., 236
Giant Champion fields, 314
Gippsland Basin Joint Venture, 305
Gladden prospect, 58
Glencoe-1 exploration well, 302
Global Biofuels Ltd., 249
global community, biofuel demand of,
355; carbon dioxide emissions in,
426; carbon dioxide stationary sources
in, 426; crude oil distillation of, 404;
crude oil prices of, 3; drilling activity
of, 369; drilling rig activity of, 368;
drilling rig count in, 368, 370;
drilling/exploration of, 367; economic
growth of, v; energy consumption
of, 6; energy needs of, 8; energy
reserves of, 350; ethylene capacity
of, 413–415; exploration/production
spending in, 377; ExxonMobil’s
energy expectations of, 7; gas plants
construction in, 409; gas plants
of, 409; gas processing of, 407; gas
reserves of, 360, 410; gas resources
of, 352; liquefaction plants of, 390;
liquid fuel production of, 359; LNG
commodity in, 388; LNG demand
of, 408; LNG demand projections
of, 386, 408; LNG market of, 392;
LNG supply of, 391, 408; LNG
trade movements of, 456; LNG trade
of, 386, 390; LNG trade patterns
of, 410; LNG trade projection of,
385; LNG volatility in, 393; LPG
supply/demand of, 408; natural gas
consumption of, 451–452; natural gas
outlook of, 7; natural gas production
of, 452–453; natural gas trade of,
454–455; oil balance of, 442–443; oil
consumption of, 2, 4, 431–432; oil
demand of, 6; oil fields decline rate
in, 366; oil imports/exports of, 440;
oil output of, 350; oil production, 4,
350, 429–430, 435–438; oil reserves
increase of, 360; oil shale of, 352;
oil supply of, 8; oil supply/demand
of, 3; oil trade movements of, 441;
oil/gas investments of, 377–378; oil/
gas production in, 4, 350; oil/gas
recession prices of, 79; oil/gas supply/
demand of, 3, 6; oil/gas transaction
values of, 380; petroleum product
consumption of, 433–434; petroleum
resources of, 351, 352; pipeline
expansion plans of, 422–423; pipelines
expansion of, 422–423; pipelines in,
454–455; proved gas reserves of, 387;
uncommitted gas of, 386, 387
Global LNG Inc., 42
global recession, derivatives influencing,
vi–vii; energy industry impacted by,
vii–viii; financial reforms for, viii; oil/
gas prices in, 79
global refineries, 395, 398; operating
summary, 444–445; throughput, 450
global refining, 395; capacity, 395–398,
446–449; margins, 450; operations in,
398; trends in, 400–401
Gold Oil PLC, 133
Golden Pass terminal, 41
Golden Triangle Storage Inc., 50
Golshan gas fields, 197
Gorgon project, 293, 310
Gothic shale, 40
GPS navigation system, 46
Great Plains Exploration Inc., 81
Great Wall Petroleum Group, 284
Greater Angostura field, 136
Greater Bongkot North field, 344
Greater Ekofisk platform, 172
Greater Gorgon project, 309
Greater Green River basin, 28
Greater Java refinery, 326
Greater Kittiwake Area (GKA), 185
Greater Plutonio complex, 224
Greece, 156–157; crude oil distillation of,
156; pipelines in, 156–157; refining
in, 156; Green Canyon block, 58;
Droshky discovery in, 64; Pegasus
field in, 63
greenhouse gases (GHG), 425, 426; from
biofuels, 53; California emissions
standards for, 55; Canada’s targets
of, 95; emissions, 52; EU reduction
agreement on, xv; Europe’s emissions
reduction plan of, 150; oil sands
crude oil and, 90
Greenland, 151
Groundstar Resources Ltd., 142
Grouse field, 185
Gryphon field, 186
GT-BTX extraction distillation
technology, 343
GTI, 39
Guangdong province, 293–294
Guangxi refinery, 296
Guatemala, 123
Guayaquil gulf, 121
Guinea, 255
Gujarat refinery, 318, 319
Gujarat State Petroleum Corp., 314
Gulf Coast, coalition for, 61; coking
refinery netbacks of, 402; gas-storage
capacity of, 50; LNG terminals, 42;
maps, 57; storage projects on, 51; of
Texas, 57
Gulf Gateway Energy Bridge, 43
Gulf of Mexico, 56–67; Big Foot project
in, 64; central lease sale 206 of, 62;
deepest production spar in, xii;
deepwater discoveries in, 63; drilling/
production in, 63–67; exploration/
development in, 56–61; gas
production in, 66; hurricane damage
and, 65; hurricanes Gustav/Ike in,
xiii, 65; lease sales high bids in, 62;
lease sales in, x, 61–63; loop current
in, 58; map of, 59–60; oil production
in, 66; Port Arthur terminal in, 67;
shut-in gas production in, 66; shut-in
oil production in, 66; ultradeepwater
operations in, 376
Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act, 41
Gulf of Suez, 229, 230, 232
Gullfaks field, 171–172
Gulltopp well, 172
Guyana, 142
GX Technology (GXT), 102
H
Habshan oil field, 214
Habshan-Fujairah oil pipeline, 214
Hai Su Den (HSD), 345
Hainan province, biodiesel project in,
298; methane project in, 293
Haldia refinery, 319
Haldia-Barauni crude oil pipeline, 317
Halfdan field, 153
Halliburton Co., 342
Halyard-1 discovery, 305493 International Petroleum Encyclopedia
Index
Hamas, 205
Hammerfest liquefaction plant, 174
Hampa Engineering Corp., 330
Harper, Stephen, 77
Hassi Messaoud oil/gas complex, 223
Haynesville shale, 32
Hazelwood, Joseph J., 74
Hazira terminal, 319
Headington Oil Co., 32, 55
heavy crude, in North Sea, 186; oil
distillation/thermal cracking of, 363;
Western Canada’s disposition of, 89
Hebron heavy oil fields, 79
Hebron-Ben Nevis field, 76
Henry gas field, 302
Heritage Oil Corp., 241
Heritage Oil International Malta Ltd., 165
Hess Corp., 32, 58; Nimblefoot-1
exploration well of, 301
Hibernia oil project, 76
HighMount Black Warrior Basin LLC, 36
high-TAN crudes, 404
Horizon pipeline, 92
Hormoz refinery, 195
Horn River basin, 81, 83, 84
Horseshoe Basin Unit well, 28
HubLineSM pipeline system, 42
Hudson fields, 184
Huizhou refinery, 296
Hunan biodiesel production plant, 298
Hungary, 158
Huntly coal seam gas, 335
hurricanes, Gustav, xiii, 65; Ike, xiii, 65;
Ivan, 65; Katrina, 65; oil drilling
structures damaged by, 65; Rita, 65
Husky Energy Inc., 78, 80, 323
Hussein, Saddam, 198, 200
hydrocarbons, 165, Caurus project with,
168; Shushan “C” concession discovery
of, 232; Venezuela’s reserves of, 138
Hyme oil prospect, 168
Hyundai Hysco, 335
I
Iceland, 152; northern Dreki licensing
round, 169; offshore exploration, 169
Ichthys field, 302, 310
IGI Poseidon SA, 162
Illinois basin, 39
Imperial Energy PLC, 188, 278
improved or enhanced oil recovery
(IOR-EOR), 367
In Salah gas (ISG) development, 218
in situ production, oil sands, 92
Inchon refinery, 342
Independent XTO Energy Inc, 55
India, 314–321; alternative energies
in, 320–321; capacity additions
of, 399; Colombia’s exploration
agreement with, 118, 316; exploration/
development in, 316; gas hydrates in,
317; LNG demand/contracts outlook
of, 389; LNG infrastructure, 319–320;
natural gas production of, 315; oil
consumption of, 314; petrochemicals
in, 320; pipeline plans of, 315;
pipelines in, 317–318; refining capacity
of, 319; refining/products in, 318–319
Indian Oil Corp. (OIC), 91
Indian Oilsands Corp., 343
Indonesia, 321–326, 427; biodiesel
plant in, 326; China’s energy-related
agreement with, 322; drilling/
production in, 323–325; exploration/
development in, 322–323; LNG in,
325–326; LNG production in, 325;
map, 333; oil production of, 321;
oil/gas regulations of, 321; as OPEC
member, 321
IndyMac Bank, iv
Infinity Energy Resources Inc, 131
Inner Moray Firth area, 188
Inpex Corp., 106, 325
Integrated Energy Policy (IEP), 315
Inter Pipeline Corridor pipeline, 92
International Alliance Group, 94
international drilling rigs, 369, 459–460
International Energy Agency (IEA), 6;
geopolitical issues identified by,
349; oil fields studied by, 349; oil
production forecast of, 349
International Energy Outlook (IEO), 6
International Monetary Fund, 7
International Oil and Gas Agency,
263–264
international oil companies (IOCs), 122
International Renewable Energy Agency
(IRENA), 271
InterState Gas Systems, 337
investments, Eni SPA, 240; in
exploration and production, 377;
global oil/gas, 377–378; Kazakhstan’s
oil/gas pipeline, 269–270; in oil
pipelines, 46; in refineries, 49, 403
Iona Energy Co., 70
Ipswich prospect, 170
Iran, 192–198; Brazil’s OPEC invitation
from, 104; Caspian Sea conference
and, 261; China’s nuclear program
contract with, 197; Croatia’s
relationship with, 148–150; drilling/
production in, 193–194; Ecuador’s
refining pact with, 122, 197;
ethylene pipelines of, 197, 423; gas
reserves of, 192; LNG agreements
of, 197–198; Malaysia’s agreement
with, 197–198; oil/gas fields of, 192;
OPEC-styled cartel proposed by, 197,
208, 275; petrochemical projects of,
197; petrochemicals of, 196–197;
pipelines in, 194–195; production/
consumption of, 194; refinery
capacities in, 195–196; refining/
products in, 195; South Pars field in,
193; Swiss gas deal with, 161; West
ethylene pipeline in, 423
Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI), 194, 318, 337
Iraq, 198–204; countries adjacent
to, 202; drilling/production in,
202–203; exploration/development
in, 200–201; gas/oil field licensing
of, xv; infrastructure issues of, 203;
Japan’s rebuilding cooperation with,
204, 326; lease sales in, 201; license
scheme of, 201; natural gas exports
of, 201; oil produced by, 198; oil/gas
exports of, 201; oil/gas licensing of,
201; oil/gas outlook of, 200; United
States troops withdrawal from, 200
Ireland. See Republic of Ireland
Irkutsk Oil, 278
Isab refinery, 164
Island Gas Resources PLC, 185
Isle of Grain LNG terminal, 187
Israel, 204–205; Black Sea oil source
of, 181; Hamas violence with, 205;
MedStream pipeline project and, 205;
oil imports of, 204
Italy, 159–165; Adriatic Sea exploration
permits off, 160; alternative energy
in, 164; environmental issues of,
164–165; exploration/development
in, 160–161; LNG terminals in, 162;
oil/gas production of, 159; pipelines
in, 162–164; Sicilian offshore licenses
and, 160
Ivory Coast, 237
J
Jackpine mine, 92
Jacky field, 183
Jagdishpur-Haldia pipeline, 320
Jamaica, 123–124
Jamalco alumina refinery, 124
Jamnagar refinery, 315
Jan Mayen Ridge, 169
Janovice field, 151
Japan, 326–329; alternative energy in,
329; Brunei’s free trade agreement
with, 328; Iraq’s rebuilding
cooperation with, 204, 326; LNG
importing of, 328; map, 327; refiningInternational Petroleum Encyclopedia 494
Index
in, 329; Vietnam’s oil industry
involvement of, 347
Japan Bank of International Cooperation
(JBIC), 231, 276
Jarn Yaphour, 213
Jaslovski Bohunice nuclear plant, 177
Jasmine gas condensate field, 184
Jean, Michaelle, 77
Jeanne d’Arc basin, 76, 78, 80
jet fuel plant, 345
Jim Walker Resources Inc., 37
Jintao, Hu, 141, 294
Jizan refinery, 211
JKX Oil & Gas, 177
Johansen formation, 174
Jordan, 205–206; China’s agreement
with, 206; nuclear energy program of,
206; oil shale development of, 205;
South Korea’s agreement with, 206;
Syria’s border fields with, 202
Jordbaer prospect, 171
Jorf Lasfar refinery, 242
Jubarte field, 109
Jubilee oil field, 235
Julimar Southeast-1 discovery, 305
Jum’ah, Abdallah S., 351
Jura gas-condensate field, 186
Jurassic Haynesville shale play, 33
Jurong Aromatics Corp., 341
Jurong Island, 341
Justice and Equality Movement
(JEM), 251
K
Kairiki Energy Ltd., 252
Kalar-Bawanoor Block, 201
Kambuna gas field, 323, 344
Kamennoi development project, 273
Karachaganak field, 266, 267
Karama block, 325
Karataikyz fields, 267
Karimov, Islam, 281
Kashagan oil field, xi, 265, 266, 267
Kavarna No. 1 exploration well, 148
KazakhOil refinery, 270
Kazakhstan, 265–270; Caspian Sea
conference and, 261; drilling/
production in, 267; exploration/
development in, 265–266; oil/gas
pipeline investment in, 269–270;
pipelines in, 267–268
Kazakhstan Petrochemical Industries
Inc., 270
Kazakhstan-China pipeline, 269, 294
KazMunaiGas (KMG), 266
KazTransGas (KTG), 270
KazTransOil, 269, 278
K-Dow petrochemicals project, 206
Kedah refinery, 197, 330
Kenai LNG plant, 74
Kerkouane permit, 252
kerosene, 300
Keta basin, 236
Keystone pipeline, xi, 94
Khalda concession, 233
Khalifa Coastal refinery, 338
Kharwah-1 well, 215
Khor Mor field, xiv, 203
Khursaniyah oil field, xiii, 211
Khuzestan refinery, 195
Kigogole-1 exploration well, 253
Kinder Morgan Energy Partners LP, 44, 45
Kior Inc., 355–356
Kipper field, 305
Kipper Unit Joint Venture, 305
Kirkuk oil fields, 181
Kirkuk-Banias pipeline, 203
Kirkuk-Ceyhan oil pipeline, xv
Kish Bank basin, 159
Kita Marine oil discovery, 245–246
Kizomba C project, 225
Knockandoo-Talisker exploration well, 169
Kodiak fields, 57
Kodiak prospect, 58
Komombo concession, 232
Komsomolsk gas field, 279
Korea National Oil Company, 228
Kosovo, 146
Kouilou Department, 228
Kovykta field, 274
Krishna-Godavari basin, ix, 316, 317
Kucova heavy oil field, 144
Kul-Bas exploration block, 266
Ku-Maloob-Zaap (KMZ), 124, 130
Kuparak formation, 67
Kupe gas field, 335
Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG),
198, 200, 202, 342–343
Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), 181
Kuwait, 206–207
Kuwait Gulf Oil Company, 206
Kyrgyzstan, 270
L
La Palma field, 139
Labrado Sea/Ungava basin, 152
Lacq basin, 427
Lagansky block, 272
Laizhou Bay Sag, 291
Lake Albert Rift basin, 253, 254
Landana fields, 224
landfill gas, 53
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), 315
Latin America, 142
Latvia, refinery in, 271; underwater cable
claims of, 271
lawmakers, 425
lawsuits, against ExxonMobil Corp., 74;
federal, 73
lease sales, in Alaska, 70–72; in Brazil, 109;
in Chile, 114–115; in Colombia, 117;
in Denmark, 153; in Gulf of Mexico,
x, 61–63; in Iraq, 201; in Norway,
173; in Peru, 133; in Trinidad/Tobago,
135–136; in United Kingdom, 185; in
United States, 40–41; in Virginia, 40
Leed Petroleum PLC, 56
Lehman Brothers, iv, v
Leismer Oilsands, 86
Lelyaki oil field, 281
lending margins, 388
Leni Gas & Oil PLC, 177
Leprechaun Resources Ltd., 76
Liberty discovery well, 72
Libya, 237–240; Eni SPA investment
of, 240; exploration/production,
237–239; Malta’s joint exploration
with, 165; map, 222; oil reserves of,
237; oil/gas production of, 239
Libya Investment Corp., 239
Lieberman-Warner cap-and-trade
program, 53
Linde North America, 53
Linn Energy LLC., 39, 55
liquefaction plants, 390
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), China’s
supply/demand of, 410; global
supply/demand of, 408
liquid natural gas (LNG), 354; in Alaska,
74; America’s imports of, 391; AsiaPacific demand outlook of, 389; AsiaPacific’s market of, 389; Asia’s imports
in, 391; in Australia, 309; Australian
Pacific, 310; Bontang facility for,
325; in Brazil, 112; Broadwater
project for, 43; cargo-swapping of,
393–394; China’s carriers of, 392;
China’s contracts for, 389; Costa Azul,
130–131; Cyprus’ storage of, 180;
Europe’s imports in, 391; financing for,
388; global demand of, 408; global
demand projections of, 386, 408; as
global energy commodity, 388; global
market of, 392; global supply of, 391,
408; global trade movements of, 456;
global trade of, 386, 390; global
trade patterns of, 410; global trade
projection of, 385; global volatility in,
393; growth scenarios of, 385; India’s
demand/contracts outlook for, 389;
India’s infrastructure for, 319–320;
in Indonesia, 325–326; Indonesia’s
production of, 325; Iran’s agreements
on, 197–198; Japan importing, 328;495 International Petroleum Encyclopedia
Index
lending margins pressure of, 388;
in Mexico, 130; NEG, 42; Neptune
project for, 42; Nigeria cutting exports
of, 249; North West Shelf, 311; in
Norway, 173–174; Norway’s shipment
of, 154; Pampa Malchorita liquefaction
plant for, 134; Petrofield LNG facility
developed for, 330; Pluto project of,
310; price/demand of, 393; Qatar’s
recovery projects of, 209; Qatar’s
sector of, 207; re-gasification terminal
for, 159; Sendai terminal for, 328;
supply/price of, 407; trade flexibility
influencing, 393; trans-basin flow
of, 394; in United Kingdom, 181; in
United States, 41–44; United States’
import contracts of, 393; United
States importing of, 43; United
States imports of, 43; United States
price trends of, 409; United States
terminals for, 41, 43, 390; Yemen’s
liquefaction plant for, 216
Liquid Niugini Gas Ltd., 340
liquid production, 362
liquid reserves, 361
Lithuania, 271; Polish energy issues
discussed with, 271; underwater cable
claims of, 271
Llanos basin, 116
LNG carriers, 392; Al Huwaila, 392;
capacities of, 392; of China, 392
LNG terminals, Adria, 150; Adriatic, 161;
of BlueOcean Energy, 44; in Calabria,
xi; Cove Point, 41, 168; Energia
Costa Azul, xi; Gate, 166; Gulf coast,
42; Isle of Grain, 187; in Italy, 162;
Montoir-de-Bretagne, 173; near New
Jersey, 42–43; Oceanway Secure
Energy pipeline and, 41; in Thailand,
x; in United States, 41, 43, 390
Lobito refinery, 226
Loma El Divisadero (LEDO), 98
Long Beach, CA, 30
Long Lake, 86, 87
Lorraine shale, 83
Los Angeles basin, map of, 30
Los Flamencos field, 102
Louisiana, 59–60
Lower Congo basin, 224, 228
Lower Cretaceous Sargentes sandstone, 177
Lower Ismay formation, 40
Lukoil, 177
Lundin Petroleum AB, 185
Lunskoye field, 276
Lusitanian basin, 175
Lyco Energy Corp., 32
LyondellBasell Industries, 166
Lysekil refinery, 179
M
M7-A project, 166
Maari field, 332
Mackenzie Gas pipeline, 76, 78
Madagascar, 240
Madura BD gas field, 323
Madura oil/gas block, 324
Maersk Oil and Gas AS, 153
Magellan basin, 114
Mahakam River Delta, 325
Mahanadi basin, 316
Maharaja Lela-Jamalulalam (MLJ), 313
Mahogany Deep, 235
Majnoon field, 201
Makassar Strait fields, 322
Malaysia, 330–331; Iran’s agreement
with, 197–198; map, 333; oil/gas
complex in, 331
Mali, 241
al-Maliki, Nouri, 198
Malta, 165
Manabi refinery, 122
Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals
Ltd., 318
Manifa heavy oil field, 210
Mannar basin, 348
Manning, Patrick, 136
manpower shortage, 400
Manzanillo terminal, 130
maps, of Africa east, 220; of Africa west,
219; of Alaska, 68–70; of Algeria, 221;
of Anadarko basin, 39; of Angola, 225;
of Arctic Islands, 85; of Asia Pacific,
304; of Australia, 302; of Beaufort
Sea, 84; of Cabinda, 225; of California,
29; of Campos Basin, 105; of Canada,
75–76; of Caspian Sea, 264; of Central
America, 127; of China, 285–286; of
Colombia, 116; of Ecuador, 120–121; of
Europe, 145; of Europe (eastern), 163;
of Europe (northern), 147; of Former
Soviet Union (east), 260; of Former
Soviet Union (west), 259; of Gabon,
234; of Gulf of Mexico, 59–60; of
Indonesia, 333; of Japan, 327; of
Libya, 222; of Los Angeles basin, 30;
of Malaysia, 333; of Mexico, 125–126;
of Middle East, 199; of Nigeria, 245;
of North Sea, 167; of Oman, 207; of
Permian basin, 22; of Persian Gulf,
191; of Sakhalin Island, 276; of South
America (northeast), 100; of South
America (northwest), 99; of South
America (southeast), 101; of southeast
Asia, 303; of Tabasco, 128; of Texas
Gulf Coast, 57; of Tobago, 138; of
Trinidad, 138; of United Kingdom,
182; of United States, 11–14; of
United States (eastern), 12; of United
States (midwest), 13; of United
States (northeast), 14; of United
States (southeast), 19–20; of United
States (western), 11, 27; of Venezuela,
137–138; of White Rose oil field, 80;
of Yemen, 216
Maranon basin, 134
Marathon Oil Corp., 32, 47, 56, 64,
74, 377
Marcellus shale, 32, 33, 34; Chesapeake
Appalachia’s wells for, 35; New
York state wells for, 35; of Range
Resources Corp., 35
Marine Mammal Protection Act, 54, 71
Marine XIV block, 228
Mariner Energy Inc., 58, 67
Maritime Agreement, 119
MarkWest Energy Partners LP, 49
Marsvin oil prospect, 173
Marten Mountains, 78
Massambala-1 well, 224
Mathura refinery, 319
Mauritania, 241–242
Maverick basin, Cretaceous Pearsall shale
well in, 35–36; Pearsall-Eagleford
activity in, 36
Mazeikiu Nafta refinery, 271
M’Boundi field, 228
McCain, John, 17
McCully gas field, 78
McFarlane deposit, 301
McKenzie Delta pipeline, 94
McMoRan Exploration Co., 56, 58
McQuilling Services LLC, 383
Medgaz, pipeline, 223; pipeline route
of, 178
Mediterranean Oil & Gas PLC (MOG), 165
MedStream pipeline system, 181, 205, 318
Medvedev, Dmitry, xv, 140
Mejillones terminal, 115
Mellita refinery, 239
Melville fields, 184
Mengoepeh field, 325
Menzel Ledjmet East (MLE), 218
merger and acquisition (M&A), 55
methane, Hainan province project of,
293; production, 53
Mexico, drilling/production in, 129–130;
gasoline imports of, 131; LNG in,
130; map of, 125–126; natural gas
production of, 128; oil production of,
ix, 130; refineries in, 131; United States’
oil exploration agreement with, 129
Mexilhao field, 108
MGM Energy Corp., 78
Midcontinent Express gas pipeline, xiii, 44
Midcontinent Express Pipeline, 44International Petroleum Encyclopedia 496
Index
Middle East, 198; crude oil production
of, 198; ethylene capacity of, 419;
map of, 199; net product trade
of, 403; polymer balance of, 421;
product demand of, 403; propylene
projects of, 419; refinery investments
of, 403; refining capacity of, 403;
uncommitted gas resources of, 387
Middle Magdalena basin, 116
Midland basin, 21
Mikesell, Raymond, viii
Mill River Pipeline LLC, 42
Milnesand (San Andres) Unit, 28
Minerals Management Service (MMS),
25, 40
Mingbulak oil field, xiv, 281
Miran West-1 well, 202
Mississippi Canyon Block, 56–57;
Gladden prospect on, 58; Kodiak
prospect on, 58
Mississippian Barnett shale, 35
Mississippian Mattson shale, 83
Mitsubishi Corp., 42
Mitsui &Co. Ltd., 21, 329
Mizzen field, 76
mobile offshore drilling unit
(MODUs), 369
Moghan oil block, 148–150
Moho Nord Marine-3 well, 228
Moho-Bilondo project, 228
Moin refinery, 142
Moncton-Sackville subbasin, 81
Mongolia, 348
Mongstad refinery, 174
Monrondava basin, 240
Montana, 32
Montara oil field, 301
Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal, 173
Moody’s Investors Service, 56
Morales, Evo, 103, 112
Moranbah-Gladstone pipeline, 312
Morocco, 242
Morozov, Denis, 188
Morskaya-1 exploration well, 272
Moth discovery well, 184
Movement for the Emancipation of the
Niger Delta (MEND), 244
Mozambique, 242–243
Mtsare Khevi field, 263
Muglad basin, 241
Multistage Kearl mine, 92
Multstage Joslyn North mine, 92
Mumbai, 315
Mumbai High field, 315
Murphy Exploration & Production
Co.-USA, 37, 56, 62
Muskwa gas shales, 84–85
Muslim/Arab civil war, 251
Muslims, 251
Myanmar, 331–332; China’s oil/gas
pipeline agreement with, 295;
cyclone Nargis striking, 332
N
Nabucco natural gas pipeline, 149, 180,
194, 262, 423
Nam Van Phong Petrochemical
Complex, 346
Namibia, 255
naphtha consumption, 418
naphthenic acid, 404
Nargis, cyclone, 332
Natalia prospect, 170
National Ambient Air Quality Standard
(NAAQS), 55
National Energy Administration
(NEA), 288
National Gas Hydrate Program
(NGHP), 317
National Iranian Gas Export Co.
(NIGEC), 161
National Oil Corporation (NOC),
viii, 165, 237; ExxonMobil Corp.
agreement with, 239
National Park Service (NPS), 40
National Petrochemical & Refiners
Association (NPRA), 47
National Petrochemical Company
(NPC), 196
National Petroleum Commission
(NPC), 250
National Petroleum Reserve- Alaska
(NPR-A), 68, 71
National Surface Transportation Policy
and Revenue Study Commission, 53
natural gas, 321; anti-flaring program,
249; Australia drilling of, 308;
Brazil’s production of, 104; in Canada,
77; China’s use of, 287–288; in
Columbia basin, 21; Corrib project of,
159; Egypt exporting, xii; Europe’s
demand of, 149; Galan block fields
of, 323; Galsi pipelines for, 162;
Gascav’s, 112; global consumption of,
451–452; global outlook of, 7; global
production of, 452–453; Hungary’s,
158; India’s production of, 315; Iraq’s
exports of, 201; Kazakhstan-China
pipeline for, 269, 294; Mexico’s
production of, 128; Nabucco’s
pipeline for, 149, 180, 194, 262,
423; North Slope pipeline for, xiii;
Pakistan’s consumption of, 336;
Pakistan’s supply/demand of, 337;
in Permian basin, 21; Peru’s reserves
of, 132; Pioneer processing plant for,
49; pipelines/global trade movements
of, 454–455; Poland’s deposits
of, 174–175; prices rising of, 354;
reserves increasing of, 21; Syria/Egypt
and, 212; Taweelah-Fujairah pipeline
for, 214; in United Kingdom, 181;
United States demand of, 17, 389;
United States prices of, 17; United
States production of, 10, 23; United
States supply/demand of, 15; United
States transportation/storage projects
in, 424; United States wells of, ix
natural gas liquids (NGL), 409
Natural Gas Liquids II project, 248
Natural Gas Supply Association
(NGSA), 33
Navigant Consulting Inc., 33
Negishi refinery, 329
Nelson, Bill, 119
Neptun block, 176
Neptune field, xii
Neptune LNG project, 42
Netherlands, 166
Neuquen basin, 98
New Albany shale, 39
New Exploration Licensing Policy
(NELP VII), 316
New Jersey, 42–43
New York state, 35
New Zealand, 332–335
Newfield Exploration Co., 32, 38, 57
Newfoundland & Labrador Refining
Corp., 94
Nexen Inc., 86–86
Nexen Petroleum Inc., 184
Nganzi block


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