كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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 كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008

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عدد المساهمات : 16538
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008  Empty
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أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008
Chairman
Frank T. Lauinger
President and CEO
Robert F. Biolchini
Senior Vice-President, Finance and Administration, CFO
Mark Wilmoth
Senior Vice-President, Audience Development & Book Publishing
Gloria S. Adams
Director
Mary McGee
Managing Editor
Marla Patterson
Editor
Joseph Hilyard
Production Manager
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Art Director
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ii IPE 2008

كتاب International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008  I_p_e_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Guest Essay viii
Chronology 2007 xii
Encyclopedia & Atlas
North America
United States 1
Gulf of Mexico 46
Alaska 57
Canada 62
Latin America
Argentina 81
Belize 86
Bolivia 86
Brazil 87
Chile 96
Colombia 97
Cuba 101
Ecuador 102
Guatemala 104
Jamaica 106
Mexico 106
Nicaragua 113
Peru 114
Trinidad & Tobago 115
Venezuela 117
Europe
Albania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Croatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Republic of Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Malta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Sweden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Turkey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
United Kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Middle East
Bahrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Iran. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Iraq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Kuwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Oman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Qatar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Yemen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Africa
Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Angola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213IPE 2008 iii
Chad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Congo (Brazzaville). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Congo (Former Zaire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Equatorial Guinea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Gabon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Ghana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Ivory Coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Libya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Madagascar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Mauritania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
Tanzania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
Former Soviet Union
Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Azerbaijan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
Kyrgyzstan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Lithuania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
Tajikistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
Turkmenistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
Uzbekistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
China 275
Asia-Pacific
Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
Brunei. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
East Timor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
Mongolia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Myanmar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321
Papua New Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Vietnam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332
Key Stats & Tables
Key Stats
Future energy supply . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Reserves and production . . . . . . . . . .344
Drilling and exploration . . . . . . . . . . .350
Investment and markets . . . . . . . . . 359
Trade and tankers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364
LNG—Industry outlook. . . . . . . . . . . 366
LNG—Liquefaction and receiving . . . .370
LNG—Carrier fleet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374
LNG—Risks and opportunities . . . . . 379
Refining and products . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Gas processing and products . . . . . . .389
Petrochemicals outlook . . . . . . . . . . .393
Statistical Tables
World reserves and production . . . . . 406
Oil consumption, production, reserves,
and trade
World oil consumption. . . . . . . . 408
World petroleum product
consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
World oil production . . . . . . . . . .412
Historical oil reserves . . . . . . . . .416
World oil imports and exports . . . 417
World oil trade movements . . . . .418
World oil balance . . . . . . . . . . . .419
Oil refining
Summary of operating refineries
worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
World refining capacity . . . . . . . .423
World refinery throughput . . . . . . 427
World refining margins . . . . . . . .427
Natural gas consumption, production
and trade
World natural gas consumption . .428
World natural gas production. . . .430
World natural gas trade movements:
pipelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
World natural gas trade movements:
LNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Petroleum prices
Crude oil prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Petroleum product prices . . . . . .433
Comparative energy prices . . . . .434
Price history of oil, gas,
and gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
International rig count . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Information Sources
National oil companies and energy
ministries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
Glossary of abbreviations and
acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
Advertiser’s index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Index of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Fold-out Map LegendA
Abanico block, 101
Abbas, Mahmoud, 183
Abiteye field, 233
Abreu e Lima refinery, xvii,
90, 95
Abu Dhabi, 193
Abu Dhabi National Energy
Co (ADNEC), 195
Abu Dhabi National Oil Co
(ADNOC), 194
acquisitions/mergers, 363
Adar-Yale fields, 239
Afghanistan, 293; oil/gas
discoveries in, 270; TAPI
gas pipeline through, 293;
Trans-Afghan natural gas;
pipeline agreement of, 323;
war, 4
Afghan-Tajik basin, 270, 271
Africa, 199–244; Chinese
investment in, 206;
Chinese worker safety in,
284; European summit
with, 206; maps, 200–204,
208–209, 215–216, 218,
223, 225, 230, 233, 235,
239, 241–242; Skikda
liquefaction plant damaged
in, 371
Agbami project, 44
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 171
Ainslie Block, 63
Akri field, 233
Alam El Bueib discovery
(AEB), 218
Alaska, 56–61; drilling/
production in, 60;
environmental issues in, 61;
exploration/development
in, 57–59; lease sales in,
60; maps, 56–61; National
Petroleum Reserve in,
58–59; North Slope gas
hydrates in, 57; pipelines
in, 61
Alaska Gasline Inducement Act
(AGIA), 61
Alaska National gas pipeline, 61
Alba field, 222
ALBA Initiative, 122
Albania, 125–127; drilling/
production in, 127;
exploration/development in,
125–127; pipelines in, 127;
refining/processing in, 128
Albania-Macedonia-Bulgaria
pipeline (AMBO), 127, 129
Alberta: bitumen pipelines
in, 74–75; mined
production of, 74; oil
sands development of, 71;
production forecast in, 74;
Royalty Review Panel,
78–79; synthetic crude oil
forecast of, 75
Alberta Energy Research
Institute (AERI), 62
Alexandrite 1X well, 220
Al Gattara, 378
Algeria, 199–207; Block 351c
in, 204; Block 352c in,
204; Block 405B in, 204;
Djebel Bottena Block 129
in, 204; drilling/production
of, 204–205; exploration/
production of, 199–204;
Gassi Touil project in, 206;
Gaz de France seeking
approval of, 206; Hassi
Messaoud plant in, 206;
international activities of,
206–207; licensing blocks
in, 204; liquefied natural
gas in, 206; maps, 200,
202, 204; nomad-class
desert rig in, 204–205;
petrochemical complex
in, 207; Reggane North
concession in, 204; Russia’s
energy accord with, 207,
261; Terga power plant
in, 207
Al-Jabalayan production
facility, 239
Alpine field, North Slope, 60
Al Shaheen oil and gas field, 188
Advertisers
Halliburton 197
Transocean 245
Wilbros Group 335
ContentsIPE 2008 461
Index
alternative fuels: in China, 291; energy
demands requiring, 341; in Japan,
314–315; in United Kingdom, 165;
in United States, 40–42; United
States consumption of, 41
Altmark gas field, 136
Al Uqlah block, 196
Alve field production, 145
Al Wafa gas field, 228
Amal West field, 185–186
Amazon state; oil/gas sought in, 92;
pipelines in, 95
American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, 341, 347
Amoruso area, 16
Amu Darya River basin, 270
Anadarko basin, 12
Anadarko Petroleum Corp , 15, 46, 242
Anchor Loop project, 76
Anglo-Norwegian Statfjord field, xviii, 148
Angola, 207–213; Block 14 activity
in, 207; Block 15 of, 212; Block
16 in, 208; Block 17 in, 209–212;
Block 17 zones of, 212; Block 18
of, 212; Block 31 ultradeep activity
of, 208; Block 32 discoveries of,
208–209; Dalia field oil production
in, 209–212; deepwater fields of,
208; deepwater Rosa fields of, 212;
drilling/production of, 209–212;
exploration/development of,
207–210; future material projects of,
210; Greater Plutonio development
of, 212; Japan’s discussions with,
213; liquefied natural gas of,
212–213; maps, 208–209; Marimba
North project of, 212; Organization
of Petroleum Exporting Countries
joined by, 208
Angore fields, 324
Anguille field, 223
Apache Corp , 45
APEC group, 293
Aquitaine basin permit, 132–133
Aral Sea evaluation, 273
Arctic Circle, x, 146
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
(ANWR), 59
Argentina, 81–86; Bolivia’s agreement
with, 86–87; drilling/production
in, 85; exploration/development in,
81–85; international activities of,
86; map, 85; oil export tax increase
announced by, 85
Armenia; Block 2 of, 247; Iranian natural
gas pipeline to, 247; aromatics
complex, 326; Arthit natural gas
field, 329
Arzew, 207
Asher-Menashe exploration license, 183
Asia: Iran’s joint-venture projects with,
174; liquefied natural gas in, 283;
Pacific, 294–334; Pacific/ maps, 295,
297, 303, 308, 313, 316–317, 320,
332–333; processing capabilities
of, 384; refining capacity of, 385;
southern, 302
Asia-Pacific Network, 294
Assam-Arakan, 306
Association for the Study of Peak Oil
(ASPO), 340
Atasu-Alashankou export pipeline, 257
Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP), 70–71
Athena oil project, 166
Attarat Umm Ghudran oil shale deposit
(AUG), 182
Austral basin, 85, 96
Australia, 294–296; Barta Block
development in, 296; Block AC/P36
of, 294–295; Bonaparte Gulf permit
in, 294; Browse basin project in,
296–298; Carnarvon basin W06-12
permit in, 294–295; Casino-Ipswitch
gas pipeline in, 298; coalbed methane
field in, 298; Cooper basin discovery
in, 296; drilling/production in, 296;
exploration/development in, 294–296;
Greater Gorgon Project in, 297;
liquefied natural gas in, 296–298;
LNG export plants in, 370; map, 295;
offshore exploration permits awarded
in, 294; pipelines in, 298; Pluto
LNG gas development in, 296, 371;
Stybarrow development production in,
296; Thylacine gas development in,
296; Van Gogh development in, 294;
Wompi Block in, 296
Austria, 127–128
Azerbaijan, 250–251; field, 158; Georgia
importing gas from, 251, 254;
pipeline corridors in, 250; Shah
Deniz gas-condensate field in, 250;
Turkey importing gas from, 250
Azov-Kuban basin, 264
Azurite oil field, 217
B
back-tax bills, 121
Badami Unit, 57
Bahrain, 169–171; major industries of,
169; oil potentials of, 169
Baja LNG terminals, 31
Bakken, 65
Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, 182, 251
Balakhany VII zone, 250
Balgzand Bacton Line (BBL), 268
Bali agreement, 403
Balkans region, 125
Bana-Bavu structure, 178–179
Bangladesh, 298–299
Begumganj gas field development plans
in, 299
Bibiyana gas field in, 298; Sangu offshore
gas field and, 299
Banten refinery, 311
Baobab oil field, 226
Barbados, 123
Barents Sea, 144, 146, 371
Ba Ria Vung Tau Province, 334
Barrow Island, 297
Barta Block, 296
Barzan gas project, 187
basin reserves, of West Africa, 211
Bay of Campeche, 86, 111–112
Begumganj gas field, 299
Beibu Gulf basin, 279
Belgium, 128, 131
Belize, 86, 104
Benguela Belize-Lobito Tomboco project
(BBLT), 207
Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly, 271–272
B-Golitza well, 128
Bhutto, Benazir, 322
Bibiyana gas field, 298
Bieszczady blocks, 152
Bilabri FPSO, 234
Bina-Bawi-1 exploratory well, 178–179
biodiesel: factory, 259; Guangxi plant
for, 291; plant, xix; production, 343;
project, 96; Singapore plant for, 326462 IPE 2008
Index
bioethanol: fuel production, 291; plant,
165; production, 343; biofuels,
95; China’s policies toward, 291;
environmental harm from, 343; flexible
strategies needed for, 343; Philippines
projects in, 325; pipelines, 90;
transport fuel consumption for, 343
Bioko Island LNG facility, 222, 223, 371
biomass fuel, 41
Biotitt prospects, 143
bitumen: Alberta pipelines for, 74–75;
estimates, 350; upgrader, 75
Blacktip gas-condensate field, 294
Black Warrior basin, 402
Blane field production, 145
Bleue Loraine Permit, 133
Blind Faith project, 44, 52
Blue Nile basin, 240
Bohai Bay discovery, 281
Bohai Gulf, 281
Bolivia, 86–87; Argentina’s agreement
with, 86–87; Brazil’s gas pact
with, 87, 93; gas reserves in, 86;
international activities of, 87;
refining/products in, 87; bomb
attacks, 112
Bomu manifold, 233
Bonaparte basin, 294
Bonaparte Gulf permit, 294
Bongs South West, 234
Bonny Island: LNG train, 234; trains, 236
Borneo, 309
Bosi FPSO, 234
Bou Draa field, 231
Bowen basin, 298
BP Alaska, 45
BP PLC, 55, 69
BP Products North America Inc , 44
Brass LNG terminal, 234
Brazil, 87–96
Bolivia’s gas pact with, 93
Bolivia’s gas-price agreement with,
87; Campos basin in, 88; drilling/
production in, 93–94; energy
consumption of, 87; ethanol
production of, 89, 314–315;
exploration/development in, 90–93;
gas production in, 89; lease sales in,
92; liquefied natural gas in, 94; maps,
88, 90, 94, 97; National Petroleum
Agency of, 92; natural gas liquids
in, 89; natural gas reserves of, 88;
new field discoveries in, 91; oil/NGL
projects of, 89; pipelines in, 95;
refining in, 95–96; ultra-deepwater
exploration drilling by, 358; United
States partnership with, 95–96;
Venezuela’s agreement with, 121
Brazilian National Social and Economic
Development Bank (BNDES), 95
Brazilian Petroleum and Gas Institute
(IBP), 87
Brazos Belle field records, 17
Brigham Exploration Co , 15
Brindisi terminal, 139
British Columbia, 79
British Emerald LNG carrier, 378
Browse basin, 294–295
Browse basin project, 296–298
Brunei, 299; Japan’s trade agreement
with, 299, 314; map, 317; natural
gas discovery in, 299
Bulgaria, 128–129
Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 25, 61
Burgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline (BA),
257, 265
Burren Energy PLC, 166
Bush, George, xii, xix, 4, 95, 183
Buzzard field, xii, 162
C
Cabinda, 209
Cabinda Gulf Oil Co , 207
Cabrillo Port project, 31
Cacouna Energy, xvi
Cakerawala production platform (CKP), 331
Calhoun LNG facilities, 29
California: greenhouse gas standards in,
43; oil spills and, 43
Camamu-Almada basin, 91
Camarupim field, 92
Cameroon, 213–214; Block MLHP 5
of, 213; Block MLHP 7 of, 213;
Block PH-77 of, 213; Ngosso Block
offshore of, 213–214; Nigeria’a
boundary demarcation with, 214;
North Matanda oil project feasibility
study and, 214
Campo Junin field, 121
Campos basin, 88, 91, 93
Canada, 62–79; Beaufort Sea Paktoa
C-60 wildcat in, 63, 68; British
Columbia royalty program of, 79;
carbon emissions tax in, 403; coalbed
methane in, 69; crude oil markets in,
73; crude oil production in, 72–73;
depressed drilling activity of, 66–67;
drilling/production in, 64–68; energy
company news in, 79; environmental
issues of, 78; exploration/development
in, 63–64; gas exports from, 77; gas
production/consumption in, 62; gas
shales of, 401; liquefied natural gas
in, 63, 76; LNG import terminals
in, 372; maps, 62, 65, 71, 73–74, 77;
natural gas declining deliverability in,
63; natural gas resources in, 62; oil/
gas capital spending in, 64; oil sands
in, 69–76, 347–350; pipelines in, 76;
refining capacity of, 78; refining in,
77; United States drilling compared to,
19; western/drilling activity in, 67–68
Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador
Offshore Petroleum Board
(C-NLOPB), 68
Canada-Nova Scotia Petroleum Board, 67
Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling
Contractors (CAODC), 67
Canadian Association of Petroleum
Producers (CAPP), 62–63
Canadian Beaufort Sea, 63, 68
Ca Ngu Vang field, 333
Cano Sur project, 99
Cantarell field, Mexico, 106–107
cap-and-trade system, 403
capital expenditures: forecast, 358;
increases, 76; on LNG facilities, 369
Carabobo field, 119
Carandayty subbasin, 123
carbon capture and storage (CCS), xi,
149, 150, 403; coal-fired power plant
using, 405; as emissions reduction
method, 405; geologic sequestration
system for, 404
carbon dioxide, xiv, 136, 297
capture venture, 193; flood project, 24;
from Sleipner field, xi; storage, 166;
web sites related to, 405
carbon emissions: Lithuania’s lawsuit
regarding, 259–260; Quebec tax on, 78,
402; reduction, 165–166; tax, xv, 403IPE 2008 463
Index
carbon sequestration: projects, 405;
strategy, 44
Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum
(CSLF), 405
Carbon Sequestration Regional
Partnership, 405
Caribbean-Pacific oil pipeline, 122
Caril-1 well, 209
Carnarvon basin, 294–295
Carpathian blocks, 152
Casino-Ipswitch gas pipeline, 298
Caspian gas Pipeline, xix
Caspian Kashagan oil field, xvi
Caspian Pipeline Consortium, 257
Caspian Pipeline System, 258
Caspian region oil pipelines, 257
Caspian Sea, 252; basin, 137;
development in, 272; natural gas
pipeline in, 272; Cassiopee Est
Marine-1 well, 215
Catatumbo basin, 100
Catguas block, 100
Caucasus, Kura basin, 253
Cauvery basin, 306
Cavendish field, 162
Centauro Sur field, 100
Cepu Block, 310
Chaco basin, 123
Chad, 214
Changbei field, xiii, 281, 318–319
Changpang oil field, 306
Chavez, Hugo, xii, 117, 119–122, 153, 284
Cheal oil field, 321
Chemchemal gas fields, 177
Chetopa field, 24
Chile, 96–97; exploration/development
in, 96; lease sales in, 96–97; liquefied
natural gas in, 97; Magallanes basin
blocks in, 97
China, 275–291; African investment
of, 206; alternative fuels in, 291;
Beibu Gulf basin production-sharing
contracts in, 279; biofuels policy of,
291; Bohai Bay discovery in, 281;
Changbei field production in, 281;
Chuanhu pipeline plan in, 287;
Chuanhu pipeline schematic and,
287; coalbed methane project in, 283;
coal v other fuels in, 369; crude
production/import requirements in,
278; Daqing multiple-output plant
in, 290; deepwater oil drilling in,
282; domestic upstream spending
increases in, 279; drilling/production
in, 281–283; eastern, 277; East
Siberia Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
in, 285; energy investment of, 362;
energy mix of, 275; exploration/
development in, 279–281; foreland
basins/thrust belts in, 281; gas
balance in, 283; Gorgon project in,
371; Guangxi biodiesel plant in, 291;
horizontal well plans in, 282; Inner
Mongolia methanol-to-propylene
facility in, 290; international
activities in, 284–285; Iranian gas
supply agreement collapses with,
283; Japan’s meetings with, 312;
Jilin City propylene plant in, 290;
Jiuxi basin exploration in, 279–280;
joint venture shipping considered in,
284; Kazakhstan’s gas line to, 286;
as leading coal producer/user, 279;
liquefied natural gas in, 283–284;
liquids technologies sought in, 289;
LNG carrier orderbook of, 374; LNG
shipbuilding goals of, 374; maps,
276–277, 280–282, 284–286, 288;
Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basin in,
280; Myanmar oil pipeline with, 287,
319; Nanjing’s synthesis gas plant
in, 290; Nanpu Block production
in, 281; Nansha refining facility in,
289; natural gas energy production
of, 283; natural gas requirements
increasing in, 278–279; Ningbo
POSM manufacturing plant in, 290;
Ningbo refinery proposal in, 289;
oil/gas reserves in, 275; oil import
sources of, 278–279; oil pipeline
projects in, 286; oil production
capacity of, 278; oil production v
consumption in, 278; oil tank farms
planned in, 284–285; Pearl River
Mouth basin in, 279; Peng Lai 19-3
oil field in, 281; petrochemicals
in, 290; pipeline contract of, 194;
pipelines in, 285–287; refinery
capacity expansion in, 289; refinery
increases of, 383; refining capacity
increasing in, 279; refining joint
venture in, 289; refining/products
in, 289; Sichuan province gas fields
production; in, 279; south, 282;
strategic petroleum reserve site
details in, 288; strategic petroleum
reserve timeline in, 287–288;
terminals in, 284; Thailand drilling
successful for, 330; Turkmenistan
gas line with, 272–273, 285;
underground coal gasification
system in, 289; Venezuela exporting
oil to, 121; West-East Pipeline
Project in, 285; western, 276; west
products pipeline in, 285; worker
safety demanded by, 284; Wuhan
ethylene project in, 290; Yacheng gas
supply outlook in, 282–283; Zhong
Ximentang Island LNG terminal in,
284; Zhoushan oil port in, 286
China National Petroleum Corporation
(CNPC), 214, 285
Chinguetti oil field, 230–231
Chiswick field, 161
Chouech Es Saida concessions, 242
Christian, Louis, 172
Chuanhu pipeline plan, 287
Chuanhu pipeline schematic, 287
Clean Air Act, xv
clean fuel production, 388
Cleveland basin, 160
climate change, xi
climate change (statistics), 403–405
coal, 267; China and, 369; China leading
producer/user of, 279; FischerTropsch projects based on, 384, 386;
mine accident, 273; in San Juan basin,
402; world reserves of, 386
coalbed methane (CBM)
in Australia, 298; in Black Warrior
basin, 402; in Canada, 69; in China,
283; in France, 133; India’s sale
of, 306; in Midcontinent, 401;
opportunities for, 400; Powder River
production of, 26; Powder River well
drilling for, 26; production outlook
of, 402; Russia’s pilot project of, 264;
in Sindh Province, 322; in United
States, 25–26; United States basins
with, 400
coal-fired power plant, 405
Cobra discovery, 159
coiled tube drilling, 23, 359464 IPE 2008
Index
Colombia: drilling/production in,
100–101; energy company news
in, 101; exploration/development in,
99; lease sales in, 99–100; map, 98;
natural gas in, 98; oil production
in, 98; pipelines in, 101; refining/
products in, 101
Colorado: coiled tube drilling in, 23;
oil shale development in, 2; Roan
Plateau in, xv, 12
Colorau-1 exploration well, 209
Columbia basin, 401
Columbia River basin, 14
commercial cellulosic ethanol plant, 40
commercial pipeline operation, 331
concession L44/43, 331
condensate-bitumen blend (dilbit), 72
condensate production, 392
Condor block, 99
Congo (Brazzaville), 215–216; Marine 1
Block of, 216; Marine XII oil reserves
of, 216; Perenco fields of, 216; Persee
Nord Est Marine-1 discovery of, 215;
ultra-deep offshore block of, 215;
Yombo field of, 215–216
Congo (former Zaire), 217; Azurite oil
field of, 217; Lake Kivu natural gas
of, 217
Conservation of Clean Air and Water in
Europe (CONCAWE), 388
Constanta-Trieste Pipeline (C-T), 154
construction: drilling rigs, 356; gas
plants, 391; liquefied natural
gas, 367; pipelines cost for, 34;
containment systems, 377
Continental Resources Inc , 14
continuous catalyst regeneration
operation (CCR), 190
contractors, drilling rigs, 355
Cooper basin, 296
Cooper oil project, 296
Corocoro field, 117
Correa, Rafael, 102, 104
Corvina field, 114
Coryton refinery, 165
Costa Rica, 123
Cottonwood field, xiii, 53
Cove Pointe terminal, 148
Cretaceous Carbonate Play, 252, 253
Cretaceous Donga formation, 244
Cretaceous-Tertiary Madame
formations, 244
Croatia, 129
crude oil: Alberta’s synthetic, 75;
Canadian production of, 72–73;
China’s import requirements of, 278;
cumulative production growth in,
337; global price statistics on, 433;
global production fo, 388; markets
for, 73; offshore supplies of, 336–338;
production capacity increase of, 342;
spill, 327
crude slate, 388
Cuba, 101–102; exploration/development in,
102; map, 110; oil production in, 102
Cubatao refinery, 95
Cuejdiu block, 154
Curupayty subbasin, 123
Cuu Long basin, 333
Cyclone Sidr, 298
Cyprus, republic of, 158
Czech Republic, 129–131; Belgium
pipeline to, 128, 131, 135–136
D
Daandine CBM field, 298
Dabayaa-1 well, 220
Daewoo yard, 234
Dalia field, 209–212
Dalian petrochemical project, 290
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, 19
Danish Tyra field, 132
Daqing field, 279, 290
Darfur: oil production from, 239–240;
violence in, 238
Darkhovin oilfield phase 3, 171
Darling, Alistair, 161
da Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula, 103
Davis Strait blocks, 131
deck lift record, 53
Decommissioning Cost Provision Deed
(DCPD), 164
Deep Bossier, East Texas, 16–17, 401
deep-draft semisubmersible (DDS), 52
Deep Panuke development project, 68
Deep Panuke field, 64–65
deepwater drilling, 282; of China, 282;
gas production with, 358; Gulf of
Mexico oil production with, viii;
natural gas discovery with, 143; of
Norway, 143; oil discoveries, 211; oil
production, 358; of Sabah, 315; ultra,
52, 208, 215, 358; of West Africa, 210
deepwater fields: of Angola, 208, 212;
capital expenditures forecast of, 358;
of Malaysia, 315; of Mauritania, 231
deepwater wells, 197
deep well drilling, 309
Degeh Bur zone, 284
delayed coker process, 191
Denmark, 131–132; exploration/
development in, 131–132; pipelines
in, 132
Denver-Julesburg basin, 23
Department for Business, Enterprise, and
Regulatory Reform (DBERR), 161
Department of Trade and Industry
(DTI), 161
Det Norske Oljeselskap ASA, 151
al-Dhabi region, 184
Dhahran field, 189
diesel fuel: changing specifications for,
387; forecast for, 382; global demand
for, 387; regional supply/demand
balances of, 390; renewable, 138
Dihok area, 177
Disko phase 1 blocks, 131
Djebel Bottena Block 129, 204
Dodds-Roundhill clean coal gasification
project, 69
Doina Sister prospect, 154
Dolphin project, 193–194
domestic upstream spending, 279
Dominion, 45
Dominion assets, 55
DONG Energy’s offshore pipeline, 132
Douala basin, 213–214
Dreki area licenses, 144
drilling: fleets, 354; forecast, 67;
Switzerland’s plans for, 139
drilling activity: offshore/onshore, 353;
in Saudi Arabia, 190
drilling and exploration: of Egypt,
220; in New Zealand, 320–321; of
Romania, 154
drilling and exploration (statistics),
350–359; coiled tube, 359
deepwater/ultradeepwater, 358; floating
production systems and, 357–358;IPE 2008 465
Index
gas production cost and, 355; rig
activity in, 350–354
drilling and production: Alaska, 60;
Albania, 127; Algeria, 204–205;
Angola, 209–212; Argentina, 85;
Australia, 296; Brazil, 93–94; Canada,
64–68; China, 281–283; Colombia,
100–101; Georgia, 253–254; Gulf
of Mexico, 50–54; India, 306;
Indonesia, 310; Israel, 183; Italy,
139; Kazakhstan, 256; Libya, 228;
Mexico, 107–111; Nigeria, 234;
Norway, 145–146; Pakistan, 322;
Peru, 114; Poland, 151–152;
Portugal, 153; Russia, 261–265;
South Africa, 237; Tajikistan, 271;
Thailand, 329–331; Trinidad, 116;
Turkey, 158; ultradeepwater, 52;
United Arab emirates, 192; United
Kingdom, 162; United States, 15–24,
18; Venezuela, 120; Vietnam, 333
drilling contractors: offshore/merger
of, 351; offshore/onshore utilization
of, 352; drilling rigs; active fleet
of, 354; activity, 350; contractors
ordering, 355; counts (by region) of,
351; global statistics of, 436–437;
international count of, 353; offshore
construction of, 356; shortages, 228;
United States owners of, 354; in
Venezuela, 120
Droshky appraisal well, 46
dry gas: production, 16; reserves, 12
Duart field production, 166
Dubai fields, 193
Dubai Mercantile Exchange, xv
Dubai Petroleum Establishment, 192
Dulisminskoye field, 269
Dung Quat refinery, 334
Durresi block, 127
Dussafu Marin area, 223
E
East China Sea, 312
East Coast basin, 319–320
Eastern Gas Program, 261
East Falcon block, 120
East Mediterranean Gas (EMG), 221
East Siberia Pacific Ocean pipeline
(ESPO), 268–269, 285
East Texas Deep Bossier, 16–17
East Timor, 300; Block 06-103 seismic
survey in, 300; Masela block appraisal
wells in, 300
Ebberston Moor gas field, 160
Ebro basin, 156
Ech Chouech concessions, 242
Economic Development and Trade
Ministry, 266
economic expansion, 89–90
Ecuador, 102–104
energy policy in, 104
exploration/development in, 103; gas
processing in, 104; human rights
abuses in, 104; LPG facilities built
by, 104; map, 103; oil production
in, 103
Edmonton: bitumen upgrader near,
75; hydrogen facility in, 78;
Scotford upgrader near, 70–71;
TransMountain transports from, 76
Egina oil field, 234
Egypt, 217–221; Alexandrite 1X well of,
220; drilling/exploration of, 220
exploration/development of, 218–220;
gas liquids plant in, 171; gas
processing of, 221; Giza North-1 well
of, 220; Gulf of Suez oil production
of, 217; Israel’s oil imports from,
221; Jade-1X well of, 219; Jade-4
well of, 218; Kahraman B-22 wildcat
well of, 219; Kom Ombo Concession
of, 220; Meleiha concession extension
of, 219; natural gas growth engine
of, 217; NGL recovery plant of,
221; North Ramadan Block of, 220;
pipelines of, 221; refining/products of,
221; Salam gas plant of, 221; Syrah
5x well of, 219; Western Desert wells
of, 218, 220; Zaina-2 well of, 219
electricity, cost comparison, 225
electric power generation, 76, 232
Elk-2 appraisal well, 324
El Paso Natural Gas Co (EPNG), 32–34
emissions reduction method, 405
Empresa Nacional del Petr-leo (ENAP), 103
EnCana Corp , 13–14
energy: China’s investment in, 362
Energy Information Administration
projections on, 9–10; funding,
11; Georgia’s security of, 251;
Guatemala’s mining policies and,
105; India’s investment in, 362;
Japan’s changing mix of, 312;
Japan’s production innovations
in, 314; parameters, 4–5; Taiwan’s
innovations in, 328; Tajikistan crisis
of, 269; technology/efficiency, 294;
United States supply/demand of, 4
Energy Charter Treaty, 265
energy company news, 79, 101; in
Canada, 79; in Colombia, 101; of
Gulf of Mexico, 54–55; of Norway,
150–151; in Romania, 155; of United
States, 44–45
energy consumption
of Brazil, 87; efficiency and, 11; oil
exports v , 360
energy demands
alternative resources pursued for, 341;
in Italy, 139; sources of, 344; Energy
Independence and Security Act of
2007, 4
Energy Information Administration
(EIA); Brazil’s energy consumption
from, 87
energy parameters of, 4–5
energy projections of, 9–10; LNG import
growth predicted by, 32; state energy
profiles from, 8
Energy Infrastructure Rehabilitation
Project, 251
energy policy: APEC group recommends
diversified, 293; in Ecuador, 104;
of Germany, 136; of India, 301; of
Nigeria, 235–236; Turkmenistan
changes in, 271
Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE),
133, 134
energy sector: global comparative price
statistics on, 434; Indian companies
in, 300
energy supply statistics, 336–343; giant
oil discoveries and, 338–341; of oil
production, 336–338, 340; of peak
oil, 340–342
Energy White Paper, 162
enhanced oil recovery (EOR), 44,
185–186, 346–347466 IPE 2008
Index
Eni Petroleum Co , 55
Enoch field, xv, 145
environment: biofuel harming, 343;
issues involving, 43, 61, 78; law
violations against, 258; United States
expenditures on, 44
environmental issues: in Germany, 136;
of Norway, 149–150; of United
Kingdom, 165–166
Eocene Sokor formation, 244
Equatorial Guinea, 221–223; Blocks I
of, 221–222; Blocks O of, 221–222;
exploration/development of,
221–222; lease sales in, 222; liquefied
natural gas of, 222–223; production
sharing contracts of, 222; Zafiro oil
field of, 223
Erawan field, 331
Erika oil spill, 135
Ermintrude prospects, 143
Espirito Santo basin, 92
ethanol: Brazil’s production of, 89,
314–315; capacity increases for,
95; commercial cellulosic plant
producing, 40; demand for, 40;
gasoline prices v , 41; market
constraints on, 42; price pressure
influencing, 42; production capacity
for, 42; supply/demand estimates of,
42; United States production/demand
of, 43
ethylene: capacity, 289; company
expansions, 395; global capacity
of, 393; largest complexes dealing
with, 393; national capacities of, 394;
prices, 396; propane and, 389; top 10
producers of, 394; trade, 396; United
States comparisons with, 395; United
States production of, 395; Wuhan
project of, 290
ethylene pipeline, 176
Europe, 125–166; African summit with,
206; crude slate of, 388; as largest
offshore oil/gas producer, 340; Libya
oil supplier to, 226; maps, 126, 130,
140; refinery outlook in, 388; refining
capacity of, 385
European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD), 263
European Commission, 403
European Trading Scheme (ETS), 405
European Union (EU): Morocco
cooperation from, 231; processing
capabilities of, 384
Exmouth basin, 294, 296
exploration and development: of Alaska,
57–59; of Albania, 125–127; of
Angola, 207–210; of Argentina,
81–85; of Australia, 294–296; of
Brazil, 90–93; of Canada, 63–64;
of Chile, 96; of China, 279–281;
of Colombia, 99; of Cuba, 102; of
Denmark, 131–132; of Ecuador, 103;
of Egypt, 218–220; of Equatorial
Guinea, 221–222; of France,
132–133; of Georgia, 252–253; of
Ghana, 224; of Guatemala, 105;
of Gulf of Mexico, 46–50; of India,
304–305; of Indonesia, 308–309; of
Iraq, 177–179; of Israel, 183; of Jiuxi
basin, 280; of Kazakhstan, 254–255;
of Netherlands, 141–142; of New
Zealand, 319–320; of Nicaragua,
113; of Nigeria, 234; of Norway,
143; of Pakistan, 321; of Peru, 114;
of Qatar, 187; of Romania, 154; of
Russia, 260–261; of Saudi Arabia,
189; of South Africa, 237; of Sudan,
238–240; of Taiwan, 327–328;
of Tajikistan, 270; of Tanzania,
240–241; of Thailand, 329; of
Trinidad, 115–117; of Turkey, 157;
of Turkmenistan, 272; of United
Kingdom, 159–161; of United States,
12–14; of Venezuela, 117
exploration and production: of Algeria,
199–204; global spending on, 355,
360; in Libya, 226–227; oil/gas, 355;
in Vietnam, 332–333
exploration drilling: Iraqi bid rounds for,
180; ultradeepwater, 358
Exploration Study Agreement (ESA), 141
exploration wells: for oil/gas, 144; of
StatoilHydro, v–vi; ultradeepwater, 358
extended reach drilling (ERD), 18, 262
ExxonMobil Corp , vii
Exxon Valdez verdict, 45
F
Fachi West-1 exploration well, 244
FACTS Global Energy, 175
Faroe-Shetlan channel, 144
Fateh field, 193
Federal energy legislation, 4
Fell block gas deal, 96
Fergana basin: oil/gas production of, 258;
seismic surveys in, 259
Fergana basin exploration block, 270
Finland, 132
Fischer-Tropsch fuels (F-T), 384, 386
Flax East-1 well, 296
fleet development: handy, 365;
panamax, 365
floating production, storage, and
offloading vessels (FPSOs), 357–358;
Bilabri/Bosi, 234; Nigeria’s
development of, 234; Nigeria’s future
in, 235; Okoro Setu, 234; flood
project, 24
foreign investment: of China, 206;
of Taiwan, 327; Turkmenistan
seeking, 272
foreign-owned refinery, 334
foreland basins, 281
formation characteristics, 152
Former Soviet Union (FSU), 247–273;
eastern, 249; maps, 248–253, 255,
257–258, 260, 262–263, 266;
western, 248
Fort Hills: economics of, 70; oil sands
project, 70
Fos Cavaou terminal, 134
fossil fuel: production, 267;
thermochemical conversion of, 404
Fos-sur-Mer terminal, 134
France, 132–135; coalbed methane wells
in, 133; exploration/development in,
132–133; gas suppliers in, 133; gas
transmission/distribution in, 134;
high-profit taxes imposed in, 133;
Iran pressured by, 133; liquefied
natural gas in, 134; LNG terminals
in, 134; refining/products in, 135
Frontier basin geoscience surveys, 308
fuel consumption, 343
fuel demand, 381
fuel oil: Japan’s demand dropping for, 312;
North/South Korea pact on, 326–327IPE 2008 467
Index
fuel production, 291
Fuerte blocks, 99
Fujian Fuels JV, 289
Fula field, 239
Funiwa field, 233
FutureGen project, 405
G
Gabon, 223; Anguille field of, 223;
Dussafu Marin area of, 223
Galoc oil field, 325
Gambat Block, 322
Garibay block, 100
gas: China’s balance of, 283; -condensate
test, 166; Dallas/Fort Worth
International Airport well of, 19;
Egypt’s liquids plant for, 171;
French supplies of, 133; Hungary’s
diversifying supply of, 138; India’s
reduced estimates of, 304–305;
Iran’s consumption of, 177; Iran’s
resource development of, 175; largest/
unconventional fields for, 402;
Myanmar’s Gulf deposits of, xv; price
trends of, 392; processing survey,
390; processing trends of, 392;
Sichuan province production of, 279;
Songo Songo Island plant for, 241;
trade movement, 364; transmission/
distribution, 134; United States
resource estimates of, 399; worldwide
plant construction for, 391
gas consumption, 5, 62, 107; in Iran,
177; LNG imports and, 367
gas exports: of Canada, 77; of Iran, 171;
of Nigeria, 232–233
gas field: Al Shaheen, 188; Altmark,
136; Al Wafa, 228; Arthit, 329;
Arthit natural, 329; Begumganj, 299;
Bibiyana, 298; Changbei, 318–319;
Chemchemal, 177; Ebberston Moor,
160; Gazprom evaluation of, 270;
India’s natural, 304; Karan, 190;
Kormor, 177; Kovykta, 260, 266;
Kudu, 244; Kyzyloi, 256; Minke,
162; Ormen Lange, vi; Permian, 183;
Punta Ballenas, 101; Sangu offshore,
299; Sawan, 322; Shah sour, 193;
Sichuan province, 279; Tangguh,
311; Touat, 206; Wilmington, 16
gas hydrates: in North Slope, xiii, 57; in
South Korea, xiv, 327; Taiwan with,
328; United States resource of, 23
gas-oil separation plant (GOSP), 190
gasoline: changing specifications for, 387;
demand decrease of, 382; ethanol
prices v , 41; forecast for, 382; global
demand for, 387; global historic price
statistics of, 435; Iran’s shortage of,
174; market balance in, 38; market
raising price of, 383; production/
prices, 37; rationing program, xv;
United Kingdom sales of, 165;
United States demand/deficit of, 39
Gasparovic, Ivan, 155
gas processing: in Ecuador, 104; of Egypt,
221; in Kazakhstan, 258; in Mexico,
113; in Qatar, 188; of Tanzania, 241;
in Thailand, 331–332; worldwide, 391
gas processing and products statistics,
389–392
gas-to-liquids, 390; global gas
production growth in, 391; propane
overview in, 389
gas production, 62; in Brazil, 89; costs
rising of, 363; deepwater, 358; from
Mari-B field, 183; of Mexico, 107;
of Nigeria, 232–233; NWECS,
340–341; offshore/spending on, 360;
in private sector, 304; rising costs
of, 355; Sonatrach taking control of,
206; of Sudan, 239; top 20 in, 346;
of Turkmenistan, 271; United States
unconventional, 403; worlds largest
in, 391
gas reserves: in Bolivia, 86; in China,
275; by company type, 361; countries
with, 267; in Gulf of Mexico, 46;
in Sarikamysh Block, 270; top 20
in, 346; unchanged, 344; of United
States, 12
gas shales: of Canada, 401; next big play
in, 399; production outlook of, 402;
United States plays of, 400
Gassi Touil, 206
gas-to-liquids (GTL): existing/planned
plants for, 390; global capacity for,
390; outlook, 390; plant, xiii
Gaza Marine-1 well, 182
Gaz de France, 206
Gazprom, 260, 262–265; -Beltransgaz
pipeline deal, 269; oil/gas field
evaluation in, 270
GDF Suez, xvii
generalized structural features, 14
Genghis Khan, xvii, 51–52
geologic sequestration system, 404
Georgia, 252–254; Azerbaijan exporting
gas to, 251, 254; drilling/production
in, 253–254; energy security in,
251; exploration/development in,
252–253; Kura basin successes in,
252–253; Nazvrevi/Block XIII area
of, 253
geoscience surveys, 308
Germany, 135–136; energy policy of,
136; environmental issues in, 136;
pipelines in, 135–136; refining/
processing in, 136
Ghadames basin, 228, 241–242
Ghana, 224–225; exploration/
development in, 224; Hyedua-1
well of, 224; Keta Block of, 224;
Mahogany-1 well of, 224; pipelines of,
224–225; Tano blocks of, 224; West
African gas pipeline of, 224–225
Ghard-ST1 discovery well, 220
Ghawar oil field reserves, 189–190
giant offshore oil fields, 339
Giza North-1 well, 220
Gjaerum, Reidar, viii
Gjøa field development, 144
Global capacity growth, 387
global market trends, 379
global reserves, natural gas, 381
GlobalSantaFe/Transocean merger, 45
global spending, 355, 360
global statistics: on comparative energy
prices, 434; on crude oil prices, 433;
of historic gasoline prices, 435;
on historic oil/gas prices, 435; on
international rig count, 436–437; of
liquefied natural gas exports, 433; on
natural gas consumption, 428–429;
of natural gas pipeline exports,
431–433; on natural gas production,
430; on oil balance, 419–420; of
oil consumption, 408–409; on oil
exports, 417; of oil/gas reserves/
production, 406–407; on oil imports,468 IPE 2008
Index
417; on oil production, 412–415;
on oil reserves, 416; on oil trade
movements, 418; on operating
refineries summary, 421–422; of
petroleum product consumption,
410–411; on petroleum products,
434; on refinery throughput, 427;
on refining capacity, 423–426; on
refining margins, 427
global warming, 312
Gobi desert block, 318
Golfo San Jorge basin, 85
Goliat oil license, 144
Gonu cyclone, 187
Gorgon project, 371
Gotland prospect, 156
Greater Gorgon Project, 297
greater Plutonio development, 212
Great South basin, 320
Great Wall Drilling Co (GWDC), 330
Greece, 136–137; high-pressure gas
network in, 137; Italian pipeline
interconnection with, 138–139;
Libya gas pipeline to, 229; map, 137;
Turkey gas pipeline link with, 136;
Turkey’s pipeline with, 158
Green Canyon Block 599, 46
greenhouse emissions: cap-and-trade
system for, 403; climate change
(statistics) and, 403; promising
technologies for, 403
greenhouse gas (GHG), 43
Greenland: Davis Strait blocks in, 131;
Disko phase 1 blocks in, 131;
Guangdong Dapeng, 283
Guangxi biodiesel plant, 291
Guardian natural gas pipeline, 32
Guatemala, 104–105; energy/mining
policies of, 105; exploration/
development in, 105; map, 105; oil
exports of, 104; oil production in,
104; refining/products of, 105
Guercif Beni Znassen license, 231
Guinea-Bissau, 243
Gujarat refinery, 306
Gujarat-Saurashtra basin, 305
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 174
Gulf Gateway energy bridge terminal, 28
Gulf Keystone, 204
Gulf Landing, 30
Gulf of Campeche, 106
Gulf of Gabes, 241
Gulf of Honduras, 86
Gulf of Martaban, 319
Gulf of Mexico (GoM), 46–55; deepwater
production in, viii; drilling/
production in, 50–54; energy
company news of, 54–55; exploration/
development in, 46–50; lease sales
in, 47–50; Lower Tertiary tests in,
12–13; maps, 47–49, 51, 54–55;
natural gas production in, 52; oil/
gas exploration in, xix, 102; oil/gas
reserves in, 46; oil production of,
53; potential reserves of, vii; strong
storms in, 111; structures removed
from, 55; ultradeepwater drilling
activity in, 52
Gulf of Suez, 217, 220, 221
Gulf of Thailand, 329, 331
Gulf of Tonkin, 333
Gullfaks field, 146
Guyana, 123
Gwydyr Bay prospect area, 57
H
Haciqabul-Qazax-Tbilisi trunkline,
251, 254
Hai Su Trang discovery, 333
Halliburton Co , 195
Halliburton Energy Services, 268
Hamaneh, Kazem Vaziri, 171
Hammerfest LNG plant, 148
Haradh-íUthmaniyah natural gas
pipeline, 190
Haricha field, 231
Harrison exploration well, 159
Hassi Messaoud plant, 206
Hathor Deep IX well, 218
Health and Safety Executive (HSE),
163–164
Hebei Spirit, 327
Hebron-Ben Nevis project, 63
Heletz-Kokhav field, 183
Hercules Offshore Inc, 45
High Island Block 31, 46
High Island Block A268, 52
high-pressure gas network, 137
high-profit taxes, 133
HiLoad unit, 28
Hin Leong, 325
Homs basin, 192
horizontal well, 282
al-Humaidhi, Bader Mishari, 184
human rights, 104
Hungary, 137–138, 311; Croatia’s border
with, 129; gas supply diversification
in, 138
Hunt Oil Co , 46
hurricane Dean, 52, 111
hurricane destruction, 54
hurricane management system, 55
Husky Energy Inc , 69
Hussein, Saddam, 177
Hutton, John, 161
hydraulic fracturing program, 256
hydrocarbons, 64, 123, 141; in
Balakhany VII zone, 250; fields
of, 261; fluids plant, 326; liquid,
244; Norway development of,
146; in Pliocene Fasila zone, 250;
resources, 358; StatoilHydro/Norsk
Hydro production of, 150; Sudan’s
production of, 238
hydrogen facility
in Edmonton, 78
in Poland, 152–153
Hyedua-1 well, 224
I
Ignalina nuclear power plant, 260
Illizi basin, 204–205
import terminals, 372–373
Independence Hub platform, xvi, 51
natural gas production from, 52
subsea layout of, 51
Independencia III well, 123
Independent Royalite Petroleum Co , 15
Independent Scully Energy Corp , 15
India, 300–307; Cauvery basin discovery
in, 306; coalbed methane sale in,
306; drilling/production in, 306;
economic/population growth in,
300; energy investment of, 362;
energy policy of, 301; energy sector
companies of, 300; exploration/
development in, 304–305; gas
discovery estimates reduced
in, 304–305; gas pipelines in,
304; Gujarat refinery in, 306;IPE 2008 469
Index
Gujarat-Saurashtra basin in, 305;
Krishna-Godavari basin in, 304–305;
Krishna-Godavari Block D6 in,
305; Krishna-Godavari Block
KG-OSN-2001/3 in, 306; liquefied
natural gas in, 307; LNG imports
of, 307; map, 302; natural gas
demand in, 304; natural gas fields
in, 304; natural gas production in,
301; oil consumption v production
in, 301; oil reserves of, 301; ONGC
investment plans in, 305; pipeline
v refinery in, 306; private sector gas
production in, 304; refining capacity
in, 301; refining/products in, 306;
regasification terminals in, 307;
Venezuela supplying oil to, 121
Indian Oil Corp , xv, 180, 301
Indonesia, 308–311; Banten refinery in,
311; Cepu Block operations in, 310;
domestic energy use in, 360; drilling/
production in, 310; exploration/
development in, 308–309; Frontier
basin geoscience surveys of, 308; lease
sales in, 309; liquefaction plant in,
371; liquefied natural gas in, 311;
liquefied natural gas supplies of, 30;
Mahakam block of, 309; maps, 316,
332; oil/gas block offerings in, 309;
oil/gas in, 308; Oyong oil field
production of, 310; pipelines in, 311;
piracy around, 310; Premier oil’s
offshore acreage of, 332; productionsharing contract and, 309; refining
in, 311; Sebuku production-sharing
contract of, 309; Senoro LNG plant
in, 311; South Flores area surveyed
and, 310; Suban field gas delivery
of, 310; survey program in, 308;
Tangguh gas field project in, 311; tax
cuts offered in, 309
Injra oil/gas block, 322
Inner Mongolia: Autonomous Region,
318, 319; methanol-to-propylene
facility in, 290
in situ production, 73, 349–350
in situ projects, 349–350
international activities: of Algeria,
206–207; of Argentina, 86; of Bolivia,
87; in China, 284–285; of Japan,
312–314; of Portugal, 153–514; of
Trinidad/Tobago, 116–117
International Energy Agency (IEA),
10–12, 121, 161, 180
international growth, vii
International Maritime Bureau (IMB), 232
international oil companies (IOCs),
360–361; resource/technology
mapping, 361; upstream v
downstream, 362
International Tribunal for the Law of the
Sea, 123
interstate gas pipeline companies, 33
interstate pipeline mileage, 33
investments/markets (statistics), 359–363
IOC/NOC dynamics and, 360–362; labor
market and, 363; offshore spending
and, 360; oil prices and, 359–360;
stranded natural gas and, 362–363
Iran, 171–177; Asian joint-venture
projects of, 174; China’s gas supply
agreement collapses with, 283;
Darkhovin oilfield phase 3 in, 171;
domestic energy use in, 360; France
pressuring, 133; gas consumption
in, 177; gas exports of, 171; gasoline
rationing program in, xv; gasoline
shortage in, 174; gas resources
development of, 175; liquefied
natural gas in, 173–174; maps,
173, 176; natural gas liquefaction
capacity of, 173; natural gas pipeline
from, 247; oil discoveries in, 171;
oil minister removed in, 171; oil
production of, 171; Oman’s agreement
with, 173; Persian LNG project of,
173–174; petrochemical production
capacity of, 175; petrochemical
production/demand/exports of, 175;
petrochemical projects of, 175–177;
Qeshm Island liquefaction plant
in, 174; refining capacity of, 174;
refining/products in, 174; Venezuela’s
refinery agreement with, 121; west
ethylene pipeline in, 176
Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline (IPI), 323
Iraq, 177–181; Bana-Bavu structure
in, 178–179; Chemchemal gas
fields in, 177; Dihok area in, 177;
exploration blocks bid rounds in,
180; exploration blocks in, 178;
exploration/development in, 177–179
Indian Oil Corp invited by, xv, 180;
Japan’s financial assistance to, 180;
Kormor gas fields in, 177; maps,
178–179; oil output of, xviii;
oil production capacity of, 179;
oil production increase in, 180;
petroleum systems of, 179; Taq Taq
field in, 177–178; Tawke oil field in,
177; Tawke oil field production in,
180; western desert prospects of, 179
Ireland, 138
Irving Oil Co refinery, xiii
Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha oil
fields, xiv
Isle of Grain terminal, 164
Isongo E discovery, 213
Israel, 182–183; Asher-Menashe
exploration license of, 183; drilling/
production in, 183; Egypt’s oil
exports to, 221; exploration/
development in, 183; HeletzKokhav field in, 183; Mari-B field
gas production in, 183; natural gas
production in, 182; oil imports of,
182; Palestinian peace talks with,
183; Permian oil and gas fields in,
183
Italy, 139–141; drilling/production
in, 139; energy demands in, 139;
Greece pipeline interconnection
with, 138–139; liquefied natural gas
in, 139; LNG terminals projected in,
139; pipelines in, 139–141; refining/
products in, 141
Italy-Greece Interconnector (IGI),
137, 141
Ivory Coast, 226; Baobab oil field of,
226; refineries in, 226
J
Jade-1X well, 219
Jade-4 well, 218
Jamaica, 106; lease sales in, 106; LGN
terminal in, 106; Petrocaribe
Initiative signed by, 106
Jan Mayen Ridge, 144
Japan, 312–315; alternative fuels in,
314–315; Angola’s discussions with,
213; Brunei’s trade agreement with,470 IPE 2008
Index
299, 314; China’s meetings with,
312; energy mix changing in, 312;
energy production innovations in,
314; expanding Libyan operations
of, 227; fuel oil demand dropping
in, 312; international activities of,
312–314; Iraq borrowing money
from, 180; liquefied natural gas in,
314; LNG carriers joint agreement
in, 378; map, 313; methane hydrate
deposits in, xiii; Middle East imports
reduced in, 312; nuclear plant
shutdown in, 312; United Arab
emirates loan from, 194
Japan Bank for International Cooperation
(JBIC), 314
Jasmine C platform, 329
Jatropha plant, 325
Jeanne d’Arc basin, 64
Jebel Ali refinery, 194
Jenein Nord Block, 241–242
Jeza-Qamar basin, 196
Jidong field, 281
Jilin City, 290
Jiuxi basin, 279–280; oil production/
exploration stages in, 280; oil reserves
of, 280
joint venture shipping, 284
Joslyn North mine project, 75
Juanambu-1 discovery well, 100
Jubail refinery, 191
Jubarte field, 93
Juha fields, 324
Julia field, vii
Jurong Island; aromatics complex
on, 326; LNG terminal on, 326;
petrochemical plant on, 326
K
Kab 121 well, 107
Kaduna refinery, 236
Kahraman B-22 wildcat well, 219
Kahraman B Bahariya oil field, 219
Kalimantan Island, 309
Kalimantan Java pipeline, 311
Ka-Maloob-Zaap field, 53
Kandym-Khauzak-Shady-Kungrad
project, 273
Karachaganak Petroleum Operating BV
(KPO), 258
Karachaganak project, 256
Karmir-1 exploratory well, 247
Karstø processing complex, 145
Kashagan oil field, 254–255
Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plant, xvi, 312
Kazakhstan, 155, 254–258; Caspian
region oil pipelines in, 257;
China’s gas line with, 286; drilling/
production of, 256; environmental
law violations in, 258; exploration/
development in, 254–255; gas
processing in, 258; geopolitical
objectives of, 254; hydraulic
fracturing program used in, 256
Karachaganak project in, 256
Kashagan oil field progress in, 254–255
Konys-Kumkol pipeline in, 257; Kyzyloi
gas field production in, 256; largest
fields in, 256; pipelines in, 257;
Russian pipeline projects with, 257;
significant oil/gas resources of, 254;
Turkmenistan-China gas line in, 257
KazMunaiGas (KMG), 254–256
Kearl oil sands project, 75
Kerch Strait oil spill, 268
Keystone oil pipeline project, 32
Khalda concession, 218, 221
Khalifa Point refinery, 322–323
Khartoum refinery, 238–239
Kharwah-1 well, xii
Khauzak gas pipeline, 273
Khipro Block, 321
Khop well, 230
Khurbert East-1 discovery well, 191–192
Khursaniyah gas plant, 191
Kikeh field production, 315
King field oil production, 53
Kingfisher well, 243
Kirchner, Néstor, 86, 87
Kizomba A development, 212
Kohat basins, 322
Kom Ombo Concession, 220
Konys-Kumkol pipeline, 257
Kordofan field, 284
Kormor gas fields, 177
Kovykta gas field, 260, 266
Kozmino terminal, 269
Kribi-Campo basin, 214
Krishna-Godavari basin, 304–305, 306
Krishna-Godavari Block
KG-OSN-2001/3, 306
Kristin field, vi
Kudu gas field, 244
Kufra area, 227–228
Kulibsky area, 271
Ku Maloob Zaap field, 107
Kunnar mining lease area, 321
Kura basin, 252–253, 253
Kurdistan Regional Government
(KRG), 177
Kurgan area licenses, 261
Kuwait, 184; al-Dhabi region discovery
in, 184; oil minister resignation in,
184; oil production increase in, 184;
refinery planned in, 184
Kuwait National Petroleum Co , 184
Kuzbass basin:CBM, 264
Kvitebjørn field production, 146
Kyrgyz licenses, 270
Kyrgyzstan, 259; Fergana basin seismic
surveys in, 259; Mailisu III oil field
extended in, 259
Kyzyloi gas field, 256
Kzyl Orda, 256
L
labor market, 363
Lake Kivu, 217
Lampasas County, 15
Landana North reservoir, 207
Lanta field, 329
La Rabida refinery, 156
Las Mesas structure, 113
Latin America, 81–123; LNG market of,
380; maps, 82–85, 88, 90, 94, 97–98,
103, 105, 108–111, 114, 117–119;
oil/gas activity in, 123
lease sales; in Alaska, 60; in Brazil, 92; in
Chile, 96–97; in Colombia, 99–100;
in Equatorial Guinea, 222; in Gulf
of Mexico, 47–50; in Indonesia, 309;
in Jamaica, 106; of Libya, 228; in
Norway, 144–145; in Trinidad/
Tobago, 115; in Turkey, 157–158;
of United Kingdom, 161; in United
States, 14–15
Leismer project, 70IPE 2008 471
Index
Lesar, David, 195
Libya, 226–229; Block NC 200 of, 227;
drilling/production of, 228; drilling
rig shortages in, 228; as European oil
supplier, 226; exploration/production
in, 226–227; first gas licensing round
in, 228; Greece gas pipeline to, 229;
Japan expanding operations in, 227
lease sales of, 228
map, 203; Murzuq basin of, 228; oil
reserves of, 226; pipelines of, 229
seismic survey in, 227–228; Sirte basin
exploration in, 228; Sirte basin joint
investment of, 226–227; Taiwan’s oil
deal with, 328
licensing blocks, Algeria, 204
Lindsey refinery, 165
Linera, Alvaro Garcia, 86–87
Lin Yuan petrochemical complex, 328
liquefaction plant: capacity development
of, 368, 370–371; in Indonesia, 371;
of Qeshm Island, 174
liquefied natural gas (LNG), 76, 369; in
Algeria, 206; of Angola, 212–213; of
Asia, 283
in Australia, 296–298
in Brazil, 94; in Canada, 63, 76
in Chile, 97; in China, 283–284; China
and, 369; dramatic market growth
expected for, 369; of east Asia, 283;
of Equatorial Guinea, 222–223; in
France, 134; global export statistics
of, 433; global production of, 397;
in India, 307; in Indonesia, 311;
Indonesia supplies of, 30; industry
outlook of, 366–369; in Iran,
173–174; in Italy, 139; in Japan,
314; Latin America market for, 380;
new construction in, 367; New
England’s importation of, 27; in
Nigeria, 236; in Norway, 146–148;
Pacific Rim and, 367–368; in
Peru, 114; pricing trends/costs in,
369; in Qatar, 187; StatoilHydro’s
opportunities in, x; in Taiwan, 328;
trade of, 397; from Trinidad/Tobago,
117; in United States, 27–32; United
States importing, 29; world demand
of, 397; world supply of, 397
liquid: hydrocarbons, 244; technologies,
289; top 20 reserves of, 345
liquid fuels: unconventional, 19; United
States sources of, 346
liquids production: reserves/production
statistics on, 345–346; top 20 in, 345
Lithuania, 259–260; CO2 emission suit
in, 259–260; Ignalina nuclear power
plant in, 260; Mestilla’s biodiesel
factory in, 259; oil pipeline extension
in, 259
Llanos basin, 98, 100
LNG capital expenditures, 368
LNG carrier fleet (statistics), 374–379;
Pacific Rim shipyards and, 374;
propulsion systems of, 379; world
production of, 375–377
LNG carriers: British Emerald, 378;
China’s orderbook for, 374;
containment systems in, 377;
escalating costs of, 365; Japan’s
joint ownership agreement on, 378;
propulsion systems on, 379; Q-Flex,
378
LNG construction, 372
LNG demand, 366
LNG exports: of Norway, 371; proposed
Australian plants for, 370; United
States, 373
LNG facilities: Calhoun, 29; historic/
projected capital expenditures on,
369; on Pacific Rim, 368; in Senoro,
311; in Taiwan, 328
LNG growth, 367
LNG imports: of Americas, 367; of
Asia, 366; Canada/U S terminals
for, 372; capacity of, 370; country of
origin of, 373; Energy Information
Administration predicting growth
in, 32; of Europe, 366; of India, 307;
natural gas consumption and, 367;
U S volumes of, 373
LNG liquefaction and receiving
(statistics), 370–373; import
activity of, 370; of import terminals,
372–373; import terminals for,
372–373; liquefaction plants/capacity
of, 370–371
LNG netback data, 380
LNG production: in Nigeria, 234; of
Qatar, 187; Qatar leader in, 367, 369;
regasification capacity gap with, 371
LNG risks and opportunities (statistics),
379–381; global market trend
highlights in, 379; of netback data,
380; spill impacts and, 379
LNG supply, 366; global, 366; price
netbacks for, 380; by region, 366
LNG tankers, 375–377
LNG terminals; Baja, 31; Brass, 234;
challenges facing, 134; in France,
134; Gulf Landing, 30; Italy’s
projections of, 139; in Jamaica,
106; on Jurong Island, 326; in
Mississippi, 31; Nigeria’s future,
235; permitting of, 27–28; receiving,
129; on Soko Island, 283; West
Coast, 30; Zeebrugge, 128; in Zhong
Ximentang Island, 284
LNG trains, 324
Long Lake oil sands development, 70
Long Son refinery, 334
Los Angeles basin, 31
Louisiana Artificial Reef Program
(LARP), 54
Louisiana State University, 254
low-carbon power, 159
low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 191
Lower Congo Basin, 207, 208
Lower Magdalena basin, 99
Lower Tertiary tests, 12–13
LPG facilities, 104
Lucapa-1, 207
Lund, Helge, iv
Lusitanian basin, 153
M
Macina graben exploration, 229
MacKenzie Delta, 63
MacKenzie natural gas transportation
project, 76
MacKenzie Valley gas pipeline, 65
Madagascar, 229
Mozambique Channel of, 229; Tsimiroro
heavy oil field of, 229
Magallanes basin blocks, 97
Magdalena basin, upper/lower, 99
Magellan region, 96
Mahakam block, 309
Mahogany-1 well, 224472 IPE 2008
Index
Mailisu III oil field, 259
Main Pass energy hub, 32
major oil companies, 133
Mako Trough development, 137
Malaysia, 315–318; deepwater blocks
N/Q in, 315; Kikeh field production
starts in, 315; map, 316; Sabah
deepwater gas discovery in, 315;
Tabu field production starts in, 315;
west-east oil pipeline in, 318
Malaysia Thailand Joint Development
Area, 331
Mali, 229; Block 18 of, 229
Macina graben exploration of, 229;
Taodeni basin of, 229
al-Maliki, Nouri, 177
Malta, 141; oil/gas exploration in, 141;
seismic work in, 141
Manas petroleum blocks, 258
Mandar Block, 309
Manifa oil fields, 190
Manjericão-1 well, 209
maps: Africa, 200–204, 208–209,
215–216, 218, 223, 225, 230, 233,
235, 239, 241–242; Alaska, 56–61;
Algeria, 200, 202, 204; Anadarko
basin, 12; Angola, 208–209;
Argentina, 85; Asia Pacific, 295,
297, 303, 308, 313, 316–317, 320,
332–333; Australia, 295; Brazil, 88,
90, 94, 97; Brunei, 317; California,
30; Canada, 62, 65, 71, 73–74, 77;
Centralized Wilmington field units,
16; China, 276–277, 280–282,
284–286, 288; Colombia, 98;
Columbia river basin, 14; Cuba, 110;
Deep Bossier gas areas, 16; eastern
United States, 3; Ecuador, 103;
Europe, 126, 130, 140; Former Soviet
Union, 248–253, 255, 257–258,
260, 262–263, 266; Greece, 137;
Guatemala, 105; Gulf of Mexico,
47–49, 51, 54–55; India, 302;
Indonesia, 316, 332; Iran, 173, 176;
Iraq, 178–179; Japan, 313; Latin
America, 82–85, 88, 90, 94, 97–98,
103, 105, 108–111, 114, 117–119;
Libya, 203; Los Angeles basin, 31;
Malaysia, 316; of Marad permitting
activity, 27; of Maverick basin
leasehold, 12; Mexico, 108–110,
111; Middle East, 181; midwest, 6;
Newark basin wellsite, 18; Nicaragua,
110; Nigeria, 233, 235; northeast


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