كتاب Electricity and Electronics for HVAC
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Electricity and Electronics for HVAC

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كتاب Electricity and Electronics for HVAC  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Electricity and Electronics for HVAC    كتاب Electricity and Electronics for HVAC  Emptyالإثنين 25 يناير 2021, 3:22 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Electricity and Electronics for HVAC
Rex Miller
Professor Emeritus
State University College at Buffalo
Mark R. Miller
Professor
University of Texas at Tyler  

كتاب Electricity and Electronics for HVAC  H_v_a_20
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Chapter 1. Introduction to Electricity 1
Performance Objectives 1
Introduction to Electricity 1
Static Electricity and Magnetism 2
Electricity 2
Electricity’s Future 3
Matter and Electricity 4
Solids, gases, and liquids 4
Atom 5
Electrons, protons, and neutrons 6
Properties of Electrons 8
Orbiting Electrons 8
Electrical Charge 9
Outer Shell 10
Valence electrons and ions 10
A Practical Unit of Charge 12
The Volt 12
Controlling Electrons 13
Difference of Potential (Voltage) 13
Electron Flow (Current) 14
Conductors 14
Resistance 14
The Electric Circuit 15
Connecting a Circuit 16
Switches Control Electron Flow 16
Schematic 17
Review Questions 17
For more information about this title, click hereChapter 2. Current, Voltage, Resistance, Power, and Ohm’s Law 19
Performance Objectives 19
Sources of Electricity 19
Chemical action 19
Heat 19
Light 20
Pressure 20
Magnetism 20
Units of Measurement 21
Unit of charge: coulomb 21
Unit of current: ampere 22
Unit of potential difference: volt 22
Unit of resistance: ohm 22
Siemens 23
Prefixes 23
Ohm’s Law 24
Ohm’s law examples 25
Ohm’s law and the closed circuit 27
Ohm’s law in other forms 29
Uses for ohm’s law 30
Power 31
Joule 31
Watt 32
Putting Electricity to Work 32
Resistors and heat 32
Mechanical energy 32
A Practical Unit of Electrical Power: Kilowatt-Hour 34
Review Questions 35
Chapter 3. Resistors, Other Electric Components,
and Their Symbols 37
Performance Objectives 37
Color Code 38
Tolerance 39
Examples 39
Gold and silver third bands 40
Variable Resistors 41
Schematic 43
Types of Resistors 43
Fixed resistors 43
Tapped resistors 44
Variable resistors 44
Fusible resistors 44
Temperature-compensating resistors 47
Types of Capacitors 47
Fixed capacitors 47
Electrolytic capacitors 48
Variable capacitors 49
Types of Inductors 50
Fixed inductors 50
Variable inductors 51
Transformers 51
viii ContentsSemiconductors 52
Diodes 52
Transistors 52
Switches 53
Relays 53
Fuses and Circuit Breakers 53
Lamps 55
Batteries 56
Meters 57
Reading Schematics 57
Review Questions 57
Chapter 4. Series and Parallel Circuits 59
Performance Objectives 59
Series Circuit 59
Resistances in series 61
Voltages in series 61
Current in series 61
Series circuit rules 62
Fuses 62
Parallel Circuit 63
Cells in parallel 63
Parallel circuit characteristics 63
Currents in a parallel circuit 64
Resistances in a parallel circuit 64
Parallel circuit rules 65
Series-Parallel Circuits 65
Series-parallel resistance circuits 66
Determining resistance 66
Determining current in series-parallel circuits 68
Determining voltage in series-parallel circuits 68
Review Questions 72
Chapter 5. Magnetism, Solenoids, and Relays 73
Performance Objectives 73
Permanent Magnets 74
Temporary Magnets 75
Electromagnets 75
Magnetic Theory 76
Magnetic Permeability 76
Shapes of Magnets 76
Poles of magnets 78
Electromagnetism 79
Magnetism in a coil of wire 80
Electromagnets 80
Using electromagnetism 82
The Solenoids and Relays 82
Power relays 86
Solenoid valves 86
Principles of operation 86
Applications 87
Liquid line service 87
Suction line service 89
Contents ixHigh-Temperature Applications 89
Hot-gas defrost service 90
Transformers for Low-Voltage Controls 91
Review Questions 92
Chapter 6. Electrical Measuring Instruments 93
Performance Objectives 93
Electricity 93
Types of Meter Movements 94
D’Arsonval meter movement 94
Analog meters 97
Parallax Error 97
Ammeters 98
Extending the range of an ammeter 99
Connecting an ammeter in the circuit 99
Clamp-on ammeters 99
AC ammeters 101
Voltmeters 101
Connecting a voltmeter 102
AC Voltmeters 102
Ohmmeters 103
Multimeters 103
Meggers 104
Digital Meters 104
Other Instruments 106
Automatic halogen leak detector 106
Electronic sight glass 107
Electronic charging meters 107
Using an Ohmmeter 108
Warning 108
Adjusting the meter 108
Review Questions 110
Chapter 7. Electrical Power: Direct Current
and Alternating Current 111
Performance Objectives 111
Power Sources 111
Types of Batteries 112
Primary cell 112
Secondary cell 112
Dry Cells 112
Battery Specifications 115
Connecting Cells 115
Battery Maintenance 118
Nickel-Cadmium Cells 119
Alkaline Cells 119
Alternating Current 119
Sine Wave 120
Sine-Wave Characteristics 121
Phase 122
Average, RMS, and Peak Values of AC 122
x ContentsPolyphase Alternating Current 123
Three phase 124
Three-phase connections 124
Electrical Properties of Delta and Wye 126
Delta connection () 126
Wye connection (Y) 126
Delta and wye summarized 126
Review Questions 127
Chapter 8. Inductors and Transformers 129
Performance Objectives 129
Changing Inductance 130
Self-Inductance 130
Mutual Inductance 133
Inductive Reactance 134
Measuring XL 134
Power in an Inductive Circuit 134
Uses for Inductive Reactance 135
Transformers 135
Mutual inductance in a transformer 135
Iron-core transformer 136
Construction 137
Types of iron-core transformers 137
Voltage Transfer 138
Step up, step down 139
Turns ratio 139
Power Transformers 140
Audio Frequency and Radio Frequency Transformers 140
Autotransformers 141
Transformer Losses 142
Inductive Circuits 144
Special handling 145
Utilizing the Inductive Delay 146
Review Questions 146
Chapter 9. Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance 147
Performance Objectives 147
The Capacitor 149
How the Capacitor Works 149
Capacity of a Capacitor 150
Breakdown Voltage 151
Basic Units of Capacitance 151
Types of Capacitors 151
Electrolytic Capacitors 153
Making an electrolytic capacitor 154
Connecting electrolytics 154
Working Voltage, Direct Current (WVDC) 155
Capacitive Reactance 155
Capacitor Causes a Lagging Voltage 156
Checking Capacitors 157
Review Questions 158
Contents xixii Contents
Chapter 10. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Alternating Current 161
Performance Objectives 161
Single-Phase and Three-Phase AC 161
Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance 162
Power Factor 164
Distributing Electric Power 165
Polyphase 166
Circuit Breakers 169
Review Questions 171
Chapter 11. Solid-State Controls 173
Performance Objectives 173
Semiconductors 173
Semiconductor Principles 174
Diode 175
Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers 177
Transistors 178
Transistor impedances 179
Integrated Circuits 180
Solid-state demand defrost control 182
Thermistor Sensing 182
Humidity Sensing 184
Bridge Circuit 186
Unbalanced bridge 187
Sensors 189
Controllers 189
Electronic Controllers 189
Differential Amplifiers 190
Actuators 191
Other Devices 192
Solid-State Compressor Motor Protection 192
Operation of the module 192
Troubleshooting the control 194
Restoring service 196
Review Questions 197
Chapter 12. Alternating Current Motors 199
Performance Objectives 199
Motors 199
Split-Phase Motor 204
Getting the motor started 204
Repulsion Start, Induction Run Motor 206
Capacitor-Start Motor 208
Permanent Split-Capacitor Motor 210
Theory of operation 212
Capacitor-Start, Capacitor-Run Motor 215
Theory of operation 215
Three-Phase Motor 216
Theory of operation 216Capacitor Ratings 219
Start Capacitors and Bleeder Resistors 219
Run capacitors 221
Motor Protectors 221
Compressor Motor Relays 221
Current-type relay 222
Potential-type relay 222
Review Questions 224
Chapter 13. Electrical Safety 225
Performance Objectives 225
Safety Devices 225
Safety Precautions 225
Main Switches 226
Portable Electrical Tools 227
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) 229
Types of Circuit Protectors 230
Review Questions 231
Chapter 14. Control Devices 233
Performance Objectives 233
Power Relays 233
Motor start relays 234
Relays with more than one contact 235
Thermal overload protectors 236
Time-delay relays 237
Solenoids 238
Thermostats 239
Bellows-type thermostats 239
Bimetallic-type thermostats 241
Heating and cooling thermostats 242
Microprocessor thermostats 245
Thermostat Adjustments 245
Heat anticipators 246
Cold anticipators 246
Switches of Many Types 246
Pressure Control Switches 247
Water Tower Controls 248
Review Questions 250
Chapter 15. Heating Circuits 251
Performance Objectives 251
Basic Gas Furnace Operation 252
Basic Electric Heating System 253
Basic operation 253
Ladder Diagrams 254
Manufacturer’s Diagrams 257
Field Wiring 258
Low-Voltage Wiring 258
Contents xiiiHeat Pumps 260
Operation 261
Special requirements of heat-pump systems 266
Heat-pump combinations 267
High-Efficiency Furnaces 267
Operation 268
Electrical controls 269
Sequence of operation 270
Combustion process 271
Troubleshooting the Pulse Furnace 271
Review Questions 278
Chapter 16. Air-Conditioning Circuits 279
Performance Objectives 279
Basic Air-Conditioning Unit 279
Push-button switches 282
Fans 283
Schematics 283
Ladder Diagrams 287
Thermostats 287
Fan switches 291
Troubleshooting 291
Review Questions 291
Chapter 17. Refrigeration Circuits 293
Performance Objectives 293
Basic Refrigerator 293
Thermostats 293
Start relays 295
Refrigerator-Freezer Combination 295
Manual defrost 295
Automatic defrost 296
Defrosting 296
Defrost thermostats 297
Defrost cycle 299
Other Devices 302
Troubleshooting 304
Rapid Electrical Diagnosis 306
Energy-Saver Switches 309
Review Questions 310
Chapter 18. Troubleshooting 311
Performance Objectives 311
Safety 311
Handling refrigerants 312
Testing precaution 312
Electrical safety 312
Compressor Problems 312
PSC compressors 312
Air-conditioner compressors 312
xiv ContentsLow-Voltage Operation 315
Using a System to Troubleshoot (Electrical) 316
Motor testing 316
Capacitor testing 317
Motor-protector relay testing 317
Using Meters to Check for Problems 318
Using a Volt-Ammeter for Troubleshooting Electric Motors 320
Clamp-on volt-ammeters 320
Looking for grounds 321
Looking for opens 322
Looking for shorts 322
Motors with Squirrel-Cage Rotors 323
Testing the Centrifugal Switch in a Single-Phase Motor 323
Testing for a Short Circuit Between Run and Start Windings 324
Capacitor testing 324
Measuring the capacity of a capacitor 325
Troubleshooting Procedure 326
Review Questions 327
Chapter 19. Controlling Electrical Power for
Air-Conditioning Units 329
Performance Objectives 329
Choosing Wire Size 329
Limiting voltage loss 330
Minimum wire size 330
Wire selection 330
Wire Size and Low Voltage 330
Voltage drop calculations 332
The Effects of Voltage Variations on AC Motors 333
Selecting Proper Wire Size 335
Unacceptable Motor Voltages 336
Calculating Starting Current Values and Inrush Voltage Drops 336
Single-phase current 336
Three-phase circuits 338
Inrush voltage drop 339
Code Limitations on Amperes Per Conductor 339
Heat Generated Within Conductors 339
Circuit Protection 340
Standard rule 341
Fuses 341
One-time single-element fuses 341
Time-delay two-element fuses 342
Types of fuses 343
Thermostats 343
Thermostat as a control switch 344
Service 345
Starter Kits 346
Single-Phase Line Monitors 347
Time Delays 350
Pressure Controls 350
Head pressure controls 350
Line voltage head pressure controls 352
Contents xvThree-Phase Line Voltage Monitor 355
Current Sensing 355
Review Questions 359
Chapter 20. Careers in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration 361
Performance Objectives 361
Industries that Employ Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Mechanics 361
Job Qualifications 364
The Future 365
Pay and Benefits 365
Teaching as a Career 367
Sources of Additional Information 367
Review Questions 369
Index 371
AC. See Alternating current
ammeter, 22, 98, 101, 320
symbol, 57
generator, 21
window unit, diagram, 290
Actuators, 191
AG fuses. See Automotive glass fuses
Air capacitors, 152
Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration
Institute (ARI), 331
Air conditioning, 4
unit, 279
Air core coil, 50, 130
Alternating current (AC), 21, 119
Alternator, three-phase, 125
American Wire Gage (AWG), 330
Ampere, 2, 14, 22
Amplifier stage, 191
Anti-sweat heater, 309
Applications, high temperature, 89
ARI. See Air-Conditioning and
Refrigeration Institute
Asia-minor, 2
Atom, 5
Automatic defrost, 296
Automation, 4
Automotive glass (AG) fuses, 55
Autotransformers, 141
Average
value, 122
AWG. See American Wire Gage
Bar magnet, 77
Batteries, 56
types of, 112
Battery maintenance, 118
Bimetallic disc, 297
Bimetallic strip, 237, 241, 242
Bleeder resistor, 157, 219, 221
Breakdown voltage, 151
Bridge circuit, 186
operation of, 188, 189
Brush-lifting, 207
induction run motor, 207
CAB resistive element, 185
Capacitance, 162
units, 151
Capacitive reactance, 155
Capacitor
capacity of, 150, 325
charging, 150
discharging, 150
how it works, 149
ratings, 219
run, 152
start, 152
symbols, 49
testing, 317, 324
Capacitors, 147, 149
start, capacitor-run motor, 215
start motor, 208, 209
types, 151, 153
Carbon atom, 7, 8
Carbon dioxide, 4
Carbon-composition resistors, 38
Cartridge fuse, 55
Cell
alkaline, 119
construction of, 112
sizes, 116
symbol, 60
Cell and battery symbols, 57
Cells
connecting, 115
in parallel, 63, 117
in series, 60, 117
nickel-cadmium, 119
373cemf. See Counter emf
Centrifugal switch, 323, 324
Ceramic capacitors, 153
Characteristics, parallel circuit, 63
Charged bodies, 12
Charges
attract, 11
negative, 10
positive, 10
repel, 11
Charging meter, 108
electronic, 107
Checking capacitors, 157
Chemical action, 16, 19
Chemical reaction, 14
Chinese, 2
Chips, 174
semiconductor, 343
Choke, 51
Circuit, 15
complete, 15
connecting a, 16
open, 15
protection, 339
Circuit breaker, 55, 169, 170,
171, 341
Circuit protectors, types, 230
Circuits
air-conditioning, 279
inductive, 144
three-phase, 338
Clamp-on ammeter, 99, 100
Clamp-on volt-ammeter, 321
Code limitations, 339
Coefficient of coupling, 136
Coil
sucking effect, 82, 83
of wire, magnetism, 80
Coils, 129
Cold anticipator, 246
Color bands, 38, 39
Color code, 38
Common base circuit, 180
Common emitter circuit, 179
Compounds, 5
Compressor, 318
air conditioning, 312
motor protection, 192
motor relays, 221
Compressor (Cont.)
problems, 313
terminal board, 193
terminals, 109
troubleshooting, 313
Conductance, 23
Conductor, 14
grounding, 227
heat generated, 339
Connecting
an ammeter, 99
a capacitor, 156
cells, 115
Connection
delta, 126
diagrams, 353
three-phase, 124
wye, 126
Construction, 137
Control, troubleshooting, 194
Controllers, 189
Controls
pressure, 350
solid state, 173–198
Cooling
thermostats, 242, 244
towers, 249
Copper, 13
atom, 7
Coulomb, 12, 21
Counter emf (cemf), 132
Current, 13, 14, 62
changes, sine wave, 131
division, 69
eddy, 143
in parallel circuits, 64
in series, 61
relay, 223, 235
sensing, 355
type relays, 222
voltage, and resistance, relationship,
28, 29
Cybertronic actuators, 191
Cycle, defrost, 299
D’Arsonval meter movement, 93
Dead band, 351
Defrost
circuit, 297, 300
374 IndexDefrost (Cont.)
control, 183
solid-state, 182
heater, 299
service, 90
termination thermostat, 299
timer, 296, 298, 301
manual, 295
Defrosting, 296
Defrosts, automatic, 296
Delay, inductive, 146
Determining resistance, 66
Devices, safety, 225
Diagram, manufacturer’s, 256, 257
Difference of potential, 22
Differential amplifiers, 190
Digital meter, 104, 105
Diodes, 52, 174–177
DIP. See Dual in-line package
Distributing electric power, 165, 166
Doping, 175
Dry cell, 112, 113
Dual in-line package (DIP), 181, 182
Eddy currents, 8, 143
Electric currents, physiological effects, 226
Electric heating system, 253
Electrical
charge, 9
safety, 225–232
Electricity, 1, 2, 4, 93
future of, 3
putting to work, 32
sources, 19
Electrolytic capacitors, 48, 49,
153–158
Electromagnetism, uses, 82
Electromagnets, 75, 80, 82
Electron, 1, 4
flow, 16
movement, 21
Electronic controllers, 189
Electrons
controlling of, 13
location of, 9
orbiting, 8
properties of, 8
protons, neutrons, 6
Elements, 5
EMF, counter. See Counter emf
Energy saver, 309
Evaporator pressure, 89
Explosion proof motor, 218
Fan, 283
motors, 203
switch, 291
Ferrite core choke, 51
Field wiring, 258
Filings, iron, 3
Fixed
capacitors, 47, 48
inductors, 50
resistors, 43
Flat pack IC, 181
Float switch, 250
Force fields, 11
Four-wire wye system, 169
Franklin, Benjamin, 2, 3
Free electrons, 10
Freezers, upright, 304
Freeze-ups, 352
Frequency, 21
Frost-free, 296
Fuse, 62
and circuit breakers, 53
dual element, 342
how it works, 341
single element, 341
time delay, 342
types of, 343
Fusible resistors, 44, 46
Fusite thermal relay, 294
Gallium, 175
Gas furnace operation, 252
Generation of power, 166
GFCI. See Ground-fault circuit
interrupter
Gold and silver bands, resistors, 40
Gray wires, 227
Greeks, 2
Ground-fault circuit interrupter
(GFCI), 229
Grounded capacitor, 324
Grounded phase, 322
Growler, 323
Guide, cross reference, 349
Index 375Halogen leak detector, 106
Handling refrigerants, 312
Heat, 19, 260
anticipator, 246
combinations, 267
and furnace controls, 269
operation of, 264–267
systems, 266
Heater,
defrost, 299
electric, 34
Heating
circuits, 251–278
and cooling wiring diagram, 260
thermostats, 242, 244
Heat reclaiming, 91
Helium ion, 7
Hermetic compressors, troubleshooting,
288, 290
High-efficiency furnaces, 267
Horsepower, 32
Horseshoe magnet, 77
Hot air furnaces, 251
Hot gas defrost circuit, 302
Hotpoint refrigerator, 307
Humidity sensing, 184
Hydrogen
atoms, 6
ion, 7
Hydrolyzed, 185, 186
Hysteresis, 142, 349
Ice maker, 302, 303
Ice-box, 302
Impedance, 162, 179
Incandescent lamps, 56
Indium, 175
Inductance, 162
Inductance, changing, 130
Inductive circuits, 144
Inductive delay, 146
Inductive reactance, 129, 134
uses of, 135
Inductors, 129–146
symbols, 130
Inrush current, 338
Inrush voltage
drops, 336, 339
Instruments, measuring 93–110
Insulator, 14
Integrated circuit, 180
Ionization, 11
Ions, 10
Iron core coil, 130
Joule, 31
Kilby, J.S., 180
Kilohms, 25
Kilowatt-hour, 34
meter, 35
kVAR, 165
kW, 165
Ladder diagrams, 234, 255, 287, 308
Laminated core, 143
Lamps, 54
Leading and lagging, 132, 156
Leakage, 90
Leaky capacitor, 151
LED, 347
Light, 20
Limit controller, 247
Limit switch, 246
Line cords and plugs for AC units, 280
Line voltage
monitor, three-phase, 355, 356
head pressure controls, 352
Linear scale, 97
Lines of force, 11
Liquid line solenoid, 88
Load, 15
Lock box, 231
Locked rotor amperes, 336
Losses, transformer, 142
Low voltage
operation, 315
wiring, 258
Magnesia, 2
Magnetic
contactors, 233
field, 80, 81
flux, 78
permeability, 76
poles, 78
theory, 76
Magnetism, 2, 20, 73
376 IndexMagnetite, 2
Magnets, shapes, 77
Main disconnect, 227
Main switches, 226
Maintenance, battery, 118
Manual defrost, 295
Mass, 4
Matter, 4
forms of, 5
Measuring XL, 134
Mechanical energy, 32
Megger, 104, 105
Megohms, 25
Mercury cell, 116
Mercury contacts, 243, 244
Meter
movements, 94
scales, 96
adjusting, 108
Mica capacitors, 48, 152
Microamperes, 25
Milliamperes, 25
Mirrored scale, 98
Mixtures, 5
Module, 192
Molecule, 5
Monitors, 350
single-phase, 347, 348
Motor, 33, 199
capacitor-start, 148
problems, 315
protection, 235
protector relay, 317
protectors, 221, 236
single-phase, 148
start relays, 234
voltages, unacceptable, 336
Multipin circular, 181
Multimeter, 94, 103, 104
scale, 98
Mutual inductance, 133, 136
National Electrical Code, 331,
339, 341
Neon lamps, 56
Nonlinear
resistors, 42
scale, 97
Noyce, Robert, 180
NPNP, 177
N-type crystals, 178
Objectives, performance, 1, 19
Oersted, Hans Christian, 79
Ohm, 2, 14, 22
George, 3
Ohm’s law, 24
closed circuit, 27
examples, 25
other forms, 29
uses for, 30
Ohmmeter
scale, 103
Oil-filled capacitors, 153
Open
capacitor, 324
phase, 322
Opens, 322
Orbital electrons, 6, 7
Outer shell, 10
Overload, 339
protector, 319
Oxygen atom, 6
Packages, transistor, 181
Paper capacitors, 48, 153
Parallax error, 97
Parallel circuit, 63
rules, 65
Peak value, 122
Permanent magnets, 74
Permanent split-capacitor (PSC)
compressor, 312
motor, 210
Permeability, 76
Phase, 122
Photoemission, 20
PN junction, 175
PNP transistor, 180
PNPN, 177
Polyphase, 166
alternating current, 123
system, 166
Potential
difference, 13
relay, 222, 224, 235
Potentiometer, 42
Powdered iron-core inductors, 51
Index 377378 Index
Power, 31, 134, 162
factor, 164
waveform, 163
Precautions, safety, 225
Prefixes, common, 23
Pressure, 20
Pressure control
head, 350
head, solid state, 351
switches, 247, 248
Pressure controls, 350
mounting recommendations, 354
Primary cell, 112
Principles, semiconductor, 174
Printed circuit board control center,
260, 261
Probe resistance, 353
Procedure, troubleshooting, 326
Programmable
controllers, 192
thermostats, 56
PSC compressor. See Permanent
split-capacitor, compressor
hookup, 213, 214
PTCR device, 359
P-type crystals, 178
Pulse
combustion process, 273
furnace, 251, 268
sequence of operation, 270–273
troubleshooting, 274–277
Purely resistive, 164
Push-button switches, 282, 283
PWS motor, 357
Range of ammeter, 99
Rapid start comparisons, 359
Reactance, capacitive, 147
Reactive power, 165
Reading schematics, 57
Rechargeable cells, 114
Rectifier circuit, 176
RED, 306–309
Refrigerants, handling, 312
Refrigeration, 4
Refrigerator,
basic, 293, 294
circuits, 293
freezer, schematic, 300
Relay, 53, 54, 73, 82, 85, 86
applications, 87
in circuit, 87
contacts, 236
symbols, 234
motor start, 234
power, 86, 233
pull in, 338
switch contacts, 234
symbols, 234
time delay, 237, 238
Repair or replace, 326
Repulsion start, induction run motor,
206, 207
Resistance, 14, 37, 62, 162
in parallel, 64
in series, 61
Resistor
and heat, 32
symbols, 45
various sizes, 37
Reverse bias, 175
Rheostat, 42
RMS. See Root Mean Square
Root Mean Square (RMS), 123
Rotating field, 200
Run and start windings, 324
Run capacitor, 221
sizes, 213
Safety, 311
electrical, 312
Schematic, 16, 43, 85, 283
AC window unit, 281
permanent split-capacitor compressor,
212
SCR. See Silicon-controlled rectifier
types, 178
Secondary cell, 112
Self-inductance, 130, 131
Semiconductors, 52, 173
chips, 343
Sensing, current, 355, 357
Sensors, 189, 198
wiring diagrams, 358
Series circuit, 59, 60
rules, 62
Series-parallel circuits, 65–72Service, 345
technician, 311
Shaded pole, 201
induction motor, 200
motor, reversibility, 201
uses, 201
Shapes of magnets, 76
Shell core transformer, 138, 139
Shorted equipment, 228
Shorts, 322
Shunting current, 99
Siemens, 23
Sight glass, 107
Silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR), 177
Simple rectifier, 176
Sine wave, 120
characteristics, 121
Single-phase
starting switch, 204
system, 166, 167
AC, 161
compressor, 109
induction motor, 206
Slip, normal, 334
Solar system, 8
Solenoid, 73, 82, 238
coil, 88
natural gas, 240
valve, 84, 86, 90, 238, 239
Solid core, 143
Solid state control modules, 193, 194
Solids, gases, and liquids, 4
SPDT switch, 242
Specifications, battery, 115
Speed, synchronous, 334
Split-phase
motor, 204
furnace motor, 205
Squirrel cage, 199
Squirrel cage rotor, 200, 323
Start capacitor in compressor
circuit, 211
Start capacitors, 219
Start kits, 346
Start relay, 295
Starting current values, 336
Static electricity, 2
Substances, 4
Switch, 16, 246
symbols, 54
Symbol
for inductors, 51
for NPN transistor, 53
for PNP transistor, 53
for transformer, 52
Synchronous speed, 334
Tapped resistors, 44
Temperature-compensating resistors, 47
Temporary magnets, 75
Test lamp, 316
Testing, motor, 316
Thales, 2
Thermal emission, 20
Thermistor sensing, 182
Thermistors, 184
Thermostat, 239, 287, 293, 343
adjustments, 244
bellows-type, 239, 241
circuitry, 345
control switch, 344
defrost termination, 299
location, 258
microprocessor based, 244, 343
modern, 242
wiring diagram, 243
Third band, color code, 40
Three phase, 124
AC, 161
circuits, 338
compressor, 109
meter hookup, 168
motor, 216, 217
relationships, 167
Time
delays, 350
lag, 132
TO-5 case, 182
Tolerance, 39
Tools, portable, 227
Total resistance, 72
Transfer resistor, 180
Transformer, 51, 129, 135, 136
audio frequency, 140, 141
auto, 141
closed-core, 138
iron-core, 136
losses, 142
mutual inductance, 135
open core, 138
Index 379Transformer (Cont.)
power, 140, 141
radio frequency, 140
step-up, 139
step-down, 137, 139
Transistor, 53, 175
impedance, 179
junction, 179
Troubles, capacitor, 158
Troubleshooting, 304
window units, 291
Turns ratio, 139
Types of
capacitors, 47
fuses, 55
inductors, 50
resistors, 43
solenoids, 83
transformers, 137
Unbalanced bridge, 187
Units of measurement, 21
Valence electrons, 8, 10
Values, full load amperage, 337
Valve
nameplates, 91
operation, 86
Variable capacitors, 49
Variable resistors, 41, 44, 46
Vector, 162
Volt, 2, 22
Voltage drop, calculations, 332
Voltage drop, per 100 feet of copper
wire, 334
Voltage drops, 331
permissible, 332
Voltage loss, limiting, 330
Voltage losses, 335
Voltage, 13, 62
transformer, 138
variations, general effects of, 333
Voltages in series, 61
Volt-ammeter, 320
Voltmeter, 22, 101
circuit, 102
symbol, 57
connecting, 102
Water tower controls, 248
Water, 5
Watt, 32
Wattage rating, resistors, 38
Window air conditioners, 280
Wire size, 329
low voltage, 330
selection, 329, 330, 335
Wire-wound resistors, 43
Wiring diagram, 262, 263
Working voltage, direct current (WVDC),
155
WVDC. See Working voltage, direct current


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