كتاب Electricity & Controls for HVAC/R
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Electricity & Controls for HVAC/R

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كتاب Electricity & Controls for HVAC/R  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Electricity & Controls for HVAC/R    كتاب Electricity & Controls for HVAC/R  Emptyالخميس 14 يناير 2021, 9:33 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Electricity & Controls for HVAC/R
6th Edition
Stephen L. Herman , Bennie L. Sparkman  

كتاب Electricity & Controls for HVAC/R  H_v_a_17
و المحتوى كما يلي :

v
PREFACE / ix
SECTION 1 Basic Electricity 1
A SPECIAL NOTE ON SAFETY 2
Unit 1 Atomic Structure 6
Unit 2 Electrical Quantities and Ohm’s Law 15
Unit 3 Measuring Instruments 24
Unit 4 Electrical Circuits 35
Unit 5 Electrical Services 50
Unit 6 Wire Size and Voltage Drop 63
Unit 7 Inductance 72
Unit 8 Capacitance 79
SECTION 2 Control Circuits 89
Unit 9 Schematics and Wiring Diagrams 90
Unit 10 Developing Wiring Diagrams 107
SECTION 3 Motors 117
Unit 11 Split-Phase Motors 118
Unit 12 The Shaded-Pole Induction Motor 131
Unit 13 Multispeed Motors 135
Unit 14 Three-Phase Motor Principles 148
Unit 15 The Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor 159
Unit 16 The Wound Rotor Induction Motor 179
Unit 17 The Synchronous Motor 186
Unit 18 Brushless DC Motors 193
CONTENTSvi CONTENTS
SECTION 4 Transformers 199
Unit 19 Isolation Transformers 200
Unit 20 Autotransformers 221
Unit 21 Current Transformers 227
SECTION 5 Control Components 233
Unit 22 Overloads 234
Unit 23 Relays, Contactors, and Motor Starters 243
Unit 24 The Solid-State Relay 248
Unit 25 The Control Transformer 252
Unit 26 Starting Relays 260
Unit 27 Variable-Speed Motor Control 270
Unit 28 The Defrost Timer 274
Unit 29 The Thermostat 282
Unit 30 Pressure Switches 298
Unit 31 The Flow Switch 304
Unit 32 The Humidistat 308
Unit 33 Fan-Limit Switches 311
Unit 34 The Oil-Pressure Failure Switch 317
Unit 35 Solenoid Valves 321
Unit 36 The Short-Cycle Timer 327
Unit 37 Methods of Sensing Temperature 338
Unit 38 Gas Burner Controls 347
Unit 39 Oil Burner Controls 353
SECTION 6 Troubleshooting Using Control Schematics 359
Unit 40 Introduction to Troubleshooting 360
Unit 41 Room Air Conditioners 376
Unit 42 A Commercial Air Conditioning Unit 383
Unit 43 Heat-Pump Controls 388
Unit 44 Packaged Units: Electric Air Conditioning and Gas Heating 400CONTENTS vii
SECTION 7 Ice Maker And Refrigeration Controls 413
Unit 45 Household Ice Makers 414
Unit 46 Commercial Ice Makers 436
Unit 47 Refrigeration Controls 452
SECTION 8 Solid-State Devices 463
Unit 48 Resistors and Color Codes 464
Unit 49 Semiconductor Materials 472
Unit 50 The PN Junction 478
Unit 51 Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Photodiodes 483
Unit 52 The Transistor 490
Unit 53 The Unijunction Transistor 496
Unit 54 The Silicon-Controlled Rectifier 501
Unit 55 The Diac 509
Unit 56 The Triac 512
Unit 57 The Operational Amplifier 518
SECTION 9 Solid-State Controls 531
Unit 58 Programmable Logic Controllers 532
Unit 59 Programming a PLC 546
Unit 60 Analog Sensing for Programmable Controllers 557
GLOSSARY / 561
INDEX / 579
INDEX
579
A
AC (alternating current), basic
loads, 72
AC electrolytic capacitor, 86, 88
AC induction motor, 161
Across-the-line starting, 165, 166f
Adjustable head pressure valve,
454–455, 455f, 456f
Adjustable pressure switches, 300,
300f, 302
Alternators
electrical services key term, 61
electrical source, 11
voltage producer, 51, 51f
Aluminum
AWG table, 65f
conductor, 9, 473
resistance table, 64f
Ambient air temperature,
240, 242
Ammeter
current transformers, 227,
228f, 230, 230f
measurement instruments, 24,
29–32, 29f, 30f, 31f
measuring instruments key
term, 34
troubleshooting, 369–371, 372f
troubleshooting instrument,
361
troubleshooting key term, 374
types of, 29–32, 29f, 30f,
31f, 32f
Amortisseur, key term, 192
Amortisseur winding, 187,
187f, 191f
Ampere (amp)
current impact chart, 4, 5f
quantities/laws key term, 22
term of, 16, 16f
voltage control, 271, 271f
voltage value determination,
222–225, 223f, 224f
Auxiliary Limit, 402, 411
AWG (American Wire Gauge), 70
AWG (American Wire Gauge)
table, 65t
B
Bands of color
resister ratings, 466f,
466–467, 467f
resistors key term, 470
Base, transistor connections, 490,
491f, 495
Batteries, 11
Bellows, 298, 302
Bellows-type thermostat, 344,
345f, 346
Bidirectional diode, 509–510,
510f, 511
Bimetal strip
bimetal unit, 236f, 236–237,
237f
expansion of, 340, 340f
key term, 242
Bimetal thermostats, 282–283,
283f, 285
Bimetal type
overloads, 234, 236f,
236–237, 237f
overloads key term, 242
Bin thermostat, 440, 450
Bipolar transistors, 518, 529
Black tape, 56
Black wires, 56
Bohr, Niels, 8
Boiler control circuit, 100–102,
101f
Boolean language, 554, 556
Amplifier, 519
Analog, transistors, 494, 495
Analog input, 557, 560
Analog meter, 24, 25, 34
Analog sensors
differential amplifier, 559, 559f
grounding, 558–559, 559f
installation, 558, 558f
programmable controllers, 558
shielded cable, 558, 558f
Anode, 479, 481f, 482
Antifreeze protection, 291, 296
Apparent power, 76, 76f, 77
Arc-over, 58, 61
Armature, 244, 244f, 247
Article 440, 66
Artificial respiration, 4
Atom
conductor, 473, 473f
insulator, 473, 473f
key terms, 14
parts of, 6
plum pudding model, 8
semiconductor, 473, 473f
structure of, 7–8, 473
Auger, 440, 445f, 450
Auto transformers, 200
“Automatic defrost,” 274
Automatic gas valve (AGV), 402
Automatic reset overload, 237,
239f, 242
Autotransformer starting, 165,
166–168, 168f
Autotransformers
current relationships, 225f,
225–226
general features, 221–222,
222f
variable speed motor control
key term, 273
Note: “f” indicates a figure580 INDEX
Branch circuit selection,
67–68, 68f
Bridge rectifier
full-wave, 480–481, 481f
key term, 482
synchronous motor, 190, 190f
Brushless, key term, 196
Brushless DC motors
advantages of, 194, 1
electronic control, 196
operation, 194f, 194–195, 195f
popularity of, 193
Brushless exciter
key term, 192
synchronous motor, 190f,
190–191, 191f
Brute force method,
558–559, 560
Bump theory, 10f, 10–11, 11f
C
Cabinet thermostat, 426, 434
Cadmium sulfi de cell (CAD cell),
354, 357
Cam, 274–275, 281
Capacitance, 79, 80f, 88
Capacitive load, 72, 79
Capacitive reactance factors,
81–82, 82f
Capacitive resistance, 88
Capacitor
charging, 79–80, 80f
ratings, 81–82
testing, 86–87
types, 85–86, 86f
Capacitor motor (PSC), 130
Capacitor-start induction run
motor
operation, 120f, 122–123, 123f
single phase motor, 118,
119–120,
Capacitor-start split-phase
motors, 130
Capacitor terminals, 128f,
128–129, 129f
Carbon brushes, 180, 181f, 184
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR), 4
Case, 495
Cathode, 479, 481f, 482
Central air conditioning
units, 2, 3f
Central processing unit (CPU)
PLC “brains,” 533, 533f, 534,
535f, 536, 536f, 537f
PLCs key term, 545
Centrifugal switch
resistance-start induction run
motor, 120–121, 121f
split-phase motors key
term, 130
Ceramic insulator, 12
CFM (condenser fan motor) relay,
305, 307
CFS (condenser flow switch),
305, 307
Circuit breaker, 61
Circuit breaker boxes, 56f, 56–57,
57f, 58f
Circuits
alternating current loads, 72
key terms, 88
safety check, 2
Circular mils, 64, 70
Clamp-on, 34
Clamp-on ammeter
current transformers, 230, 230
key term, 231
use of, 29, 30–32, 31f
Code letter, 162–164, 163f, 178
Collector, 490, 491f, 495
Combination, 44
Combination circuit, 38–42, 39f,
40f, 41f, 42f
Commercial air conditioning unit
general features, 383–384, 386
key term, 386
legend, 383, 384f
schematic, 383, 385f
Commercial ice makers
flaker type, 440–443, 444f,
445f, 445–447, 446f, 447f,
448f, 449f
general features, 414, 436
Scotsman Company, 436,
437f, 438f, 439f, 439–440,
441f, 442f, 443f
Common denominator, 44
Common denominator
method, 38
Compact
basic operation, 415, 415f
circuit operation, 416f, 416–
420, 417f, 418f, 419f, 420f
household ice makers key
term, 434
new model, 421f, 421–423,
422f, 423f, 424f
Compressor circuit
schematic, 110–113, 111f, 112f
wiring diagram, 113–114,
113f, 114f
Compressor lock-out relay, 404,
409f, 410f
Compressor nameplate, 66–67
Compressor relay coil, 305, 307
Compressors, 66–68
Condenser flooding, 453f,
453–455, 454f, 455f, 456f
Condensing unit, 400, 401f, 411
Conductors
electrical flow, 9–10
key term, 14
material content, 472–473
NEC termination temperature
regulation, 68
sizing, 66–68
valence electrons, 9, 473
Consequent pole motor, 135–136,
136f, 145
Contact, 296
Contact arrangements, 282
Contact race, 554, 556
Contact section, 235–236, 342
Contactor, 246, 246f, 247
Continuous, 281
Continuous run timer, 275, 276f,
Control circuit
boiler schematic, 100–102,
101f
compressor wiring diagram,
113–114, 113f, 114f
fan motor, 107–108, 108f
start-stop push button, 98f,
98–100, 99f, 100
thermostat, 102f, 102–104,
103f, 104f
three wire, 90, 91, 91f
two-wire, 90–91, 91f
Control connector, 195, 195f, 196
Control contacts, 317, 319, 320
Control contacts, 320
Control relay (CR), 305, 305f, 307
Control transformer
industrial/commercial,
255–257, 256f, 257fINDEX 581
key term, 259
residential, 255, 255f
schematic, 257, 258f
Control valves
gas, 349, 350f, 351, 351f
key term, 352
Conventional, 482
Cooling anticipator, 286–287,
287f, 296
Cooper
AWG table, 65f
conductor, 9, 10f, 473
resistance table, 64f
Core transformer, 204, 204f, 218
Coulomb
key term, 22
term, 15-16, 16f
CR. See Control relay (CR)
Crankcase heater, 384, 386
CTs, 231. See also Current transformers (CTs)
Cube-size thermostat, 440, 450
Cumulative compressor, 281
Cumulative compressor run timer,
275, 277f, 278, 278f, 279f
Current
autotransformers, 225f,
225–226
human body impact, 4, 5f
inductive circuits, 74f,
74–75, 75f
Ohm’s law chart, 20f
pure-capacitive circuit, 81,
82–83, 83f
pure resistive circuit, 72,
73f, 75
Current flow
capacitive circuit, 82, 82f, 83f,
83–84
combination circuits,
40-42, 41f
key term, 44
parallel circuits, 37–38,
37f, 38f
series circuit, 35–36, 36f
Current fl ow theory, 479, 482
Current limiting resistor, 318, 320
Current relay
general features, 262f,
262–263
key term, 268
starting relay type, 260
Current transformer
ammeter, 30, 30f
formulas, 201
key term, 34
Current transformers (CTs)
class of, 200
general features, 227–229,
228f
key term, 231
D
Dalton, John, 7
Dark current, 487
Dashed lines, 96, 97f, 98f
DC excitation current,
188–189, 192
Definite time control, 181,
182f, 184
Defrost heater thermostat,
426, 434
Defrost thermostat, 389,
390f, 398
Defrost timer
commercial, 279, 280f
construction of, 274–275,
275f
heat-pump, 389–390, 390f,
391f, 392f, 393f
key term, 281, 398
refrigeration appliances, 274
Delay-on-break, 330, 331, 333,
333f, 337
Delay-on-make, 330, 331, 332f,
333f, 337
Delta connection
three phase, 51, 53, 53f, 54f
three-phase motors, 153,
156, 156f
Delta, 61
Diac
characteristics, 509–510, 510f
general features, 509, 510f
key term, 511
Dielectric, 79, 80f, 88
Dielectric stress
electrostatic charge, 80f,
80–81
key terms, 88
Dielectric test set, 87, 87f
Differential amplifi er, 559, 560
Differential pressure switch,
317–318, 318f, 320
Differential thermostat, 290f,
290–291, 296
Digital, 494, 495
Digital meter
ammeter, 32, 32f
ohmmeter, 33, 87
key term, 34
voltmeter, 25–27, 27f
Diode
bidirectional (diac), 509
electrical device, 478–479, 479f
identifying leads, 481, 481f
key term, 482
material content, 475, 476f
rectifiers, 480f, 480–481, 481f
testing, 479, 480f
Disconnecting switch, 69, 69f, 70f
Disconnection, 68–69, 69f
Distribution transformers,
214, 215f
Door interlock switch, 402, 411
Dopants, 483
Double-acting, 380
Double-acting thermostat, 378
Double-break contact, 247
Double-break contacts, 245–246,
246f
Draft motor relay (DMR), 404
Dual Inline Package (DIP), 196
Dual voltage motor, 124–126,
125f, 126f
Dual voltage stator, 153–155,
153f, 154f, 155f
Dual-pressure switch, 300,
301f, 302
Dust collection, 194
E
E-I core, 205, 205f, 218
Eddy currents, 245, 247
EFM (evaporator fan motor) relay,
305, 307
EFS (evaporator flow switch),
305, 307
Ejector blades, 415, 434
Electric arc, 348, 352
Electric circuits problems, 44–49
Electric heating element,
464, 465f
Electrical circuits, 35–36, 36f
Electrical currents measurement
instruments, 24582 INDEX
Electrical pressure
key term, 22, 374
voltage, 16, 17f
Electrical resistance heating
element, 380
Electrical symbols
NEMA, 93–95, 95f
wound rotor induction motor,
180, 181f
Electricity
bump theory, 10f, 10–11, 11f
common sources, 11
composition, 9–10, 10f
key term, 14
measurements/values, 15
safety check, 2
terminal polarity, 11, 12f
valence shell, 9
Electromagnetic fi eld, 187, 192
Electromotive force (EMF), 16, 22
Electron
atomic structure, 7, 7f, 8f
coulomb, 15-16, 16f
discovery of, 7–8
electrical charge, 6
key term, 14
law of charges, 7, 7f
orbits of, 8-9, 9f
size of, 6, 7f
Electron fl ow theory, 482, 679
Electronic defrost timer, 390–391,
393f, 394f
Electronic short cycle timers,
330–331, 332f, 333, 333f
Electronic symbols, 96, 97f, 98f
Electrostatic charge, 80f, 80–81, 88
Emitter, 490, 491f, 495
Engineering notation, 20–21
Equipment nameplate, 66–67, 68f
Evaporator, 274, 281
Excitation current, 206, 218
Expansion
bimetal strip, 340, 340f
key term, 346
pressure, 344, 345
temperature sensor, 338, 339
F
Fan control circuit
schematic, 107–108, 108f
wiring diagram, 108–110,
109f, 110f
Fan motors, 136–137
Fan relay. See FR (fan relay)
Fan switch, 285, 285f, 296
Fan switches
general features, 311–312,
312f
key term, 316
types of, 312–313, 312f, 313f
Fan-limit switch, 314, 315f, 316
Farad, 81, 88
Field discharge resistor, 188,
188f, 192
Field effect transistors (FETs),
139–140, 518, 529
Fifteen lead motor, 156, 157f
“Fire eye,” 348–349, 352
First aid, safety rules, 4
5 amperes, 227–228, 228f, 231
Fixed resistors
color coding, 466f, 466–467,
467f
key term, 470
standard values, 467,
468f–469f, 469
values, 469, 469f
Flaker type, 450
Flaker type ice maker
basic features, 440–443, 444f,
445, 445f
operation, 445–447, 446f,
447f, 448f, 449f
“Flame eye,” 348–349, 352
Flame rod, 349, 349f, 352
Flame sensors, 348–349
Flex tray
basic features, 424–427, 425f,
426f, 427f
key term, 434
operation, 427–430, 428f,
429f, 430f, 431f,
432f, 433f
problems/precautions, 431,
433, 433f
Flow switch, 304–306, 305f,
306f, 307
Flow washers, 415, 415f, 434
Forward biased, 479, 482
4-way valve, 322, 322f, 325
FR (fan relay), 107–108, 115
Freezer assembly, 440, 450
Frequency, 196
“Frost free,” 274
FSCR (fl ow switch control relay),
243–244, 247
Full-wave rectifier, 480–481,
481f, 482
Fuse, 56, 61
Fused disconnects, 59–60, 60f
Fused jumper, 364–365, 365f, 374
Fuses, 58–58, 59f
G
Gain
negative feedback, 520, 520f
op am ideal, 519
op amp key term, 529
Gallium arsenide (GaAs),
483–484, 484f
Gallium arsenide phosphide
(GaAsP), 483–484, 484f
Gallium phosphide (GaP),
483–484, 484f
Gas burners, 347
Gate, 502, 502f, 507
Gate turn off device (GTO),
141–142
Germanium, 473, 477
Gold, 9
Green tape, 56
Gun-type oil furnace, 353–354,
354f, 357
H
Hair, 308–309
Half-wave rectifi er, 480, 480f, 482
Hands, 4
Harmonics, 139, 145
Head pressure valve
adjustable, 454–455,
455f, 456f
nonadjustable, 453f, 453–454,
454f
Heat anticipator, 285–286,
286f, 296
Heat-pump
defrost timer, 389–390, 390f,
391f, 392f, 393f
electronic defrost timers,
390–391, 393f, 394f
general features, 388
sequence timer, 389, 389f
system schematic, 391–394,
395f, 396, 396f, 397f
thermostats, 389INDEX 583
Heater section, 235–236, 242
Heating element, 235, 235f, 242
Helium, 7, 8f
Henry, 73, 77
Henry, Joseph, 73
Hermetically sealed compressors,
66–68
Hertz, 50, 51f, 61
High voltage spark ignition, 347,
348, 349, 351f
High-leg, 61
High-leg connection, 54, 54f
High-pressure switch
general features, 298–299,
299f, 301f
key term, 302
Holding, 181, 184
Holding current, 502, 507
Holding relay (HR)
key term, 337
short-cycle timer, 328f, 328–
330, 329f, 330f, 331f, 332f
Holding switch, 417, 417f, 434
Hopscotch method, 365, 366f,
367f, 368f, 374
Horseplay, 4
Hot-gas solenoid valve, 439,
439f, 450
Hot-wire relay
general features, 261f,
261–262
key term, 268
starting relay type, 260
Household ice makers
compact, 415f, 415–420,
416f, 417f, 418f, 419f, 420f
flex tray features, 424–427,
425f, 426f, 427f
flex tray operation, 427–430,
428f, 429f, 430f, 431f,
432f, 433f
flex tray problems, 431,
433, 433f
general features, 414
new compact model, 421f,
421–423, 422f, 423f, 424f
Human body, 4, 5f
Humidifier, 309, 309f
Humidistat, 308, 309, 309f
Humidity, 308
Humidity control, 194
Hydrogen, 7, 7f
Hysteresis, 217
Hysteresis loop, 525–526,
526f, 529
I
I/O capacity, 537, 537f, 545
I/O rack, 536–537, 537f, 545
Ice makers. See Commercial ice
makers, Household ice
makers
Illuminated, 535–536, 545
Impedance
key term, 77
measurement value, 75f, 75–76
pure-capacitive circuit,
82–83, 83f
quantities/laws key term, 22
speed control, 270
symbol, 75
term, 17
In phase, 72, 73f, 77
In-line ammeters, 227, 228f, 231
Indoor fan relay (IFR), 384, 386
Indoor resistance heat, 391,
395f, 398
Induction-run motor, 130
Inductive circuits, 73f, 73–75,
74f, 75f
Inductive load, 72
Inductive reactance
inductive circuits, 74f, 74–76,
75f, 76f
key term, 77
Inlet, solenoid valve, 321,
322f, 325
Inline, 34
Inline ammeter, 29, 29f
Input, 556
Input impedance, 25–26, 34
Input terminal, 548
Insulated gate bipolar transitors
(IGBTs), 139–141, 140f, 145
Insulated gloves, 2
Insulation, 66, 67f, 70
Insulator, 12, 14, 473, 473f
Integrated circuits (ICS), 288
Interlocking
key term, 247
relays, 243–244
squirrel cage induction motor
key term, 178
term, 166–167
Internal relay, 543, 545
“Inverter rated,” 140–141
Inverting amplifi er, 521, 521f,
522f, 529
Inverting input, 519, 519f, 529
Isolation transformers
calculations, 201f, 207–210,
208f, 209f, 210f
common use, 252
construction, 203, 204f
core types, 203–206,
204f, 205f
distribution transformers,
214, 215f
excitation transformers, 206
general features, 201f,
201–203, 202f, 203f, 204f
key term, 218, 259
maximum current
determination, 216–217
multiple secondaries
calculations, 212–214,
213f, 214f
multiple tapped windings, 210,
211f, 212f
mutual induction, 206–207,
207f
operating principles,
206f, 206
power loss, 217, 217f
practical problems, 219–220
ratings, 216
testing, 215–216, 216f
L
Lattice structure, 474, 474f, 475f,
476f, 477
Law of charges, 7, 7f, 14
Leads
identifying diode, 481, 481f
identifying transistor,
494, 494f
Leakage current, 266, 268
Legend
commercial air conditioning
unit, 383, 384f
heat-pump system, 396f
room air conditioners, 376,
377f, 380
Level detector, 522f, 522–525,
523f, 524f, 525f, 529
Light current, 488584 INDEX
Light-emitting diode (LED)
characteristics, 484, 484f
circuit connection, 486, 486f
construction, 483–484, 484f
key term, 251, 488
lead identification, 484–485,
485f
seven-segment displays,
485, 486f
solid state relay, 248–249, 249f
testing, 484, 485f
Limit switches, 313, 314f, 316
Line current
delta connection, 53, 54f
wye connection, 52
“Line isolation,” 202, 226
Line monitor, 333–334, 334f,
335f, 336, 336f
Line voltage
delta connection, 53, 54f
general features, 287,
287f, 288f
thermostat key term, 296
wye connection, 51–52, 52f
Load
control circuit, 99
schematics/wiring design
key term, 105
Loading terminal, 534, 536, 545
Lock-out relay (LOR), 404f,
403–404, 405f, 406f, 411
Locked rotor current, 163, 178
Loop, 529
Low voltage controls, 391, 392,
395f, 398
Low-pressure switch, 299, 299f,
300f, 301f, 302
M
Magnetic field
inductive circuits, 73
key term, 77
rotation factors, 148–152,
149f, 150f, 151f, 152f
speed factors, 152–153
Magnetic fl ux, 132, 132f, 134
Magnetic lines of flux, 11
Main Limit, 402, 411
Maintaining, 181
Maintaining contact, 184
Major components, 376–377,
378f, 380
Measuring instruments, 374
“Megger,” 368–369, 372f
Megohmmeter, 368–369, 372f
Mercury contact thermostat,
283–284, 284f
Meter, 2, 37
Metering device, 322, 322f,
323f, 325
Metric prefixes
engineering notation,
20–21, 21f
standard measurement, 20, 20f
Mica, 12
Micro-farad, 81, 88
Microamperes, 16
Mil-foot, 64, 64f, 65t, 66, 77
Milliamperes, 16
Mold heater, 415, 415f, 434
Motor starters, 246, 246f, 247
Motors
consequent pole, 135–136,
136f
inductive circuits, 73
“inverter rated,” 140–141
multispeed fan, 136f,
136–137, 137f
power consumption, 126
power factor correction,
84–85, 85f, 86f
protecting large, 240, 240f,
241f
Movable contacts
electrical symbols, 92, 92f
schematics/wiring design key
term, 105
Multimeter, 27f, 27–28
Multiple taps, 226
Multiranged, 25, 26f, 34
Multispeed AC motors, 135, 136,
136f, 145
Mutual induction
key term, 218, 259
isolation transformers,
206–207, 207f
Mylar foil shield, 558, 560
N
N-type material, 475, 475f, 477
Nameplates
code letters, 162–164
compressors, 66–67
electrical motors, 164, 164f
squirrel cage induction motor
key term, 178
transformers, 216
National Electrical Code® (NEC®)
circuit conductor wire, 56
compressor regulation, 66–68
disconnecting visibility,
68–69, 69f
fuse ratings, 50, 58–59, 59f
locked rotor code letters,
163–164, 164f
temperature determination, 67f
termination temperature, 68
wire size, 63
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA), 93–95,
95f, 105
Negative temperature coefficient
(NTC), 342, 346
Neutral, 61
Neutral conductor, 55–56
Neutron, 6, 7, 8f, 14
Nichrome, 464, 470
NM cable, 12, 13f
Node, 105
Noise reduction ratio, 558, 560
Nonadjustable head pressure
valve, 453–454, 454f
Nonadjustable pressure switches,
300, 301f, 302
Noninverting amplifi er, 521, 521f,
522f, 529
Noninverting input, 519,
519f, 529
Normally closed, 105
Normally closed pushbuttons,
92, 93f
Normally closed switches, 92, 92f
Normally open, 105
Normally open pushbuttons,
92, 93f
Normally open switches, 92, 92f
NPN, 490, 491f, 494
NPNP junction, 512, 516
Nucleus, 7, 14
Numbering
compressor circuit, 112f,
113–114, 114f
fan control circuit, 108–110,
109f, 110f
Nylobraid tube, 441, 450
Nylon, 308–309INDEX 585
O
Offset null, 519, 519f, 520f, 529
Ohm, 17, 17f, 22
Ohm’s law, 18–19, 22
Ohm’s law chart, 19, 19f, 20f
Ohm’s law formula chart, 19, 19f
Ohm’s law formulas, 19, 19f, 75
Ohmmeter
capacitor test, 86–87, 87
defrost timer, 278–279
diode testing, 479, 480f
key term, 34, 374
measurement instrument,
32–33, 33f
SCR testing, 504–506, 505f,
506f, 507f
squirrel-cage induction motor,
164–165, 165f
stator winding test, 123–124,
124f
synchronous motor, 189
transformers, 257
transistors, 491f, 491–493,
492f, 493f
triac, 515f, 515–516, 516f
troubleshooting, 365–369,
369f, 370f, 371f, 372f
troubleshooting instrument,
361
UJT, 498, 498f, 499f
wound rotor induction motor,
183, 183f
Oil fi red heating systems
control components, 354
controls, 353, 354f
operation, 355f, 355–356,
356f, 357f
Oil furnace, 353–354, 354f
Oil-filled capacitor, 85–86,
86f, 88
Oil-fired boiler circuit, 100–102,
101f
Oil-pressure failure switch
general features, 317, 320
key term, 320
specifications, 319, 319f
Open on rise of differential (ORD),
454, 456f, 460
Open on rise of inlet (ORI), 454,
455f, 456f, 460
Open-delta system, 54–55,
55f, 61
Operational amplifi er (op amp),
basic circuit connections, 521f,
521–522, 522f
general features, 518
hysteresis loop, 525–526, 526f
key term, 529
level detector application, 522f,
522–525, 523f, 524f, 525f
negative feedback, 520f,
520–521
oscillator application, 525,
526f, 527f
pulse generator application,
526–528, 527f, 528f
741 case, 528f
741 parameters, 519
741 pin connection, 519f,
519–520, 520f
Opposition, 132, 132f, 134
Opto-isolated, 249, 251
Orbits, 8
Orifice, 323, 324f, 235
Oscillator, 525, 526f, 527f, 529
Outdoor compressor controls,
391, 395f, 398
Outlet, 321. 322f, 325
Output, 556
Output terminal, 548
Overload relays, 234
Overloads, 234, 242
P
P-type material, 474, 475f, 477
Packaged units
circuit operation, 404,
407f, 408f
compressor lock-out relay,
404, 409f, 410f
cooling cycle, 400, 402
door interlock switch, 402
electronic controls, 402f,
402–403
heating cycle, 402
lock-out protection, 403f,
403–404, 405f, 406f
schematic, 400, 401f
Panel box, 56f, 56–57
Parallel, 44
Parallel circuit
circuit type, 35, 36–38, 38f,
42, 42f
power factor, 84, 84f
Part winding starting, 165, 170,
173, 173f, 174f, 175f, 176f
Permanent magnet rotor,
194, 196
Permanent-split, 130
Permanent-split capacitor
motor (PSC)
multispeed motors, 135
single phase motor, 119, 126f,
126–127, 127f, 128f
Phase current
delta connection, 53, 54f
wye connection, 52
Phase shifted, 507
Phase voltage
delta connection, 53, 54f
wye connection, 51–52, 52
Photoconductive devices,
487–488, 488f
Photodiode, general features,
487f, 487, 488, 488f
Photovoltaic device, 487,
487f, 488
PI, 81
Pico-farad, 81, 88
Pilot light, 347–348, 352
Pilot valve, 323, 324f, 325
Plates
capacitor, 79–80, 80f
dielectric stress, 81
Plum pudding model, 8
Plunger-type solenoid, 245,
245f, 247
PN junction
construction of, 479, 479f
diode leads, 481, 481f
general features, 342–344,
343f
key terms, 346
material content, 475, 476f
rectifiers, 480f, 480–481, 481f
testing, 479, 480f
PNP, 490, 491f, 495
PNPN, 501, 507
Polarity, 136, 145
Positive temperature coefficient
(PTC), 342, 346
Potential relay
general features, 263f,
263–264, 265f
key term, 268
starting relay type, 260586 INDEX
Power, 20f
Power connector, 195,
195f, 196
Power consumption, 126
Power factor, 76, 76f, 77
Power factor correction
motor, 84–85, 85f, 86f
parallel circuit, 84, 84
pure-capacitive circuit, 83f,
83–84
Power supply, 533, 545
Power transistor, 248, 249f, 351
Pressure, 348
Pressure regulator, 349,
350f, 352
Pressure switch control relay.
See PSCR (Pressure switch
control relay)
Pressure switches
construction, 300
operations, 298
settings, 300, 300f
Primary control
key term, 357
oil burner components,
354, 354f
oil burner operation, 355f,
355–356, 356f, 357f
oil-fired control system, 353
Primary winding
autotransformers, 221, 226
current transformers,
227–228, 228f
Programmable controllers,
557–558
Programmable logic
controller (PLC)
basic components, 533
CPU, 533f, 533–534, 534f
general features, 532–533
I/O capacity, 537, 537f
I/O rack, 536–537, 537f
input module, 537–538, 538,
539f, 540f
internal relays, 543
key term, 545
off-delay circuit, 543f,
543–544, 544f
original use, 532
output module, 538–539,
541f, 542f
power supply, 433
programming terminal, 533,
533f, 534 535f, 536,
536f, 537f
symbols, 536, 537f
timers/counters, 543
Programmable logic controller
(PLC) programming
circuit operation, 547, 548f
entering a program, 554
key terms, 556
program conversion, 551f,
551–552, 552f, 553f
program development,
548–551, 549f, 550f, 551f
programming considerations,
554, 555f
programming task,
546–547, 547f
Programmable thermostat, 288f,
288–289, 289f, 296
Programming terminal, 545
Proton
atomic structure, 7, 7f, 8f
electrical charge, 6
key term, 14
law of charges, 7, 7f
size, 6, 7f
PSCR (Pressure switch control
relay), 111–113, 112f, 115
Psig (pounds per square inch
gauge), 442, 450
Pulse generator, 526–528, 527f,
528f, 529
Pulse width modulation (PWM),
140, 140f, 141f, 145
Pure-capacitive circuit, 81, 81f, 88
Pure-inductive circuit, 77
Pure resistive circuit, 72, 75, 77
Pushbuttons, 92, 93f
Q
“Quantum jumps,” 8
R
“Ramping,” 143–144
Rapid cool down, 196
Ratchet wheel, 235, 235f, 236f
Reactance, 74, 77
Reciprocal, 44
Reciprocal method, 35
Rectifier, 480, 482
Red tape, 56
Reed relay, solid state relay, 249f,
249–250, 251
Refrigeration controls
condenser flooding, 453f,
453–455, 454f, 455f, 456f
fan cycle control, 455–457,
457f
general features, 452–453
shutters, 458, 460
variable speed control,
457–458, 458f, 459f
Relay
basic starting types, 260
solenoid principle, 244f,
244–246, 245f, 246f
term, 243, 244f, 246, 247
Relay schematic, 546, 547f,
548f, 556
Reliability, 469–470
Replaceable-line type fuse, 58, 58f
Resistance
combination circuits, 38–41,
39f, 40f
key terms, 22
measurement, 17, 17f
parallel circuits, 37–38,
38f, 42
series circuit, 35
Resistance-start, 130
Resistance-start induction run
motor, 118, 119–122, 120f,
121f, 122f
Resistance temperature detector
(RTD), 342, 342, 346
Resistive heating element,
274, 281
Resistive load, 72
Resistor/reactor starting,
165–166, 167f
Resistors
color coding, 466f,
466–467, 467f
fifth band colors, 469–470
general features, 464–466,
465f
standard values, 467,
468f–469f, 469
value resistors, 469, 469f
Reverse biased, 479, 482
Reversing valve
general features, 322f,
322–323, 323fINDEX 587
key term, 325
operation, 323, 324f, 325, 325f
Reversing valve solenoid,
heat-pump, 389, 398
Romex, 61
Romex cable
insulator, 12, 13f
two-conductor, 56–57
Room air conditioners
electric resistance heating
element, 378–380, 379f
legends, 376, 377f
major components,
376–377, 378f
troubleshooting, 381–382
Rotating fi eld speed, 130
Rotating magnetic field
brushless DC motors
key term, 196
key term, 158
three-phase motor, 148–152,
149f, 150f, 151f, 152f
Rotation, 124
Rotor
alternator, 51
brushless DC motors, 194, 194f
electrical services key term, 61
synchronous motor, 186–187,
187f, 188f, 189f, 190f, 191f
testing, 183, 183f
wound rotor induction motor,
179–180, 180f
Rotor bars, 160–161, 178
Rotor slip, 272f, 272, 273
Rubber, 12
Run capacitors, 128f, 128–129,
129f
Run timer, 281
Run winding
consequent pole motor,
135–136, 136f
dual voltage motors,
124–125, 125f
key term, 130
motors, 119–120, 120f, 121f
PSC, 127, 127f
split-phase motors
key term, 130
S
Safety, 2, 4, 80
Safety check, 2
Sail switch, 304–306, 305f, 307
Scale divider, 32, 32f
Schematic diagram
boiler schematic,
100–102, 101f
commercial air conditioning
unit, 383, 385f
commercial defrost timer, 280f
compressor circuit, 110–113,
111f, 112f
control transformer, 257, 258f
defrost timer, 275, 275f,
276f, 277f
diac symbol, 510f
diode symbol, 479
fan control circuit,
107–108, 108f
gas control circuit, 349, 350f
heat-pump, 390f, 391f,
392f, 393f
heat-pump system, 391–394,
395f, 396f, 397f
high-voltage spark ignition
control circuit, 349, 351f
key term, 105
legends, 376, 377f
oil-fired control system, 354,
354f, 355f, 356f
oil-pressure failure
switch, 318f
packaged units, 400, 401f
potential relay, 264, 265f
programming task, 546, 547f,
548f, 551
PSC, 126f
reading rules, 96, 96f
room air conditioner,
376–380, 378f, 379f
Scotsman Company ice making
unit, 439, 439f
solid-state starting relay,
266, 266f
squirrel-cage induction
motor, 164
start-stop push button, 98f,
98–100, 99f
term, 90, 95
thermostat, 102f, 102–104,
103f, 104f
transformer, 253f
transistor symbols, 490, 491f
triac symbol, 512, 513f
wound rotor induction motor,
179–180, 180f
Scotsman Company ice making
unit, 436, 437f, 438f, 439f,
439–440, 441f, 442f, 443f
Sealing, 181, 184
Secondary winding
autotransformers, 221, 226
current transformers, 228
Self-induction, 206, 206f, 218
Self-transformer, 22, 226
Semiconductor
atom, 473, 473f
key term, 477
materials, 472, 473–475
structure, 473–474, 474f,
475f, 476f
triac, 513, 513
Sequence timer, 389, 389f, 398
Series, 44
Series circuit
current flow/voltage drop,
35–36, 36f
resistance/inductance, 75f,
75–76
Shaded-pole induction motor
key term, 134
mechanism, 132f
operating features, 133, 134f
rotation, 133, 133f
speed, 133, 133f
Shading coil, 131–133, 132,
133f, 134
Shell transfer, 204–205,
205f, 218
Shells, 8, 9, 9f
Shielded cable, 558, 558f, 560
Short cycling
causes of, 327–328
description, 327
key term, 337
Short-cycle timer
electronic, 330–331, 332f,
333, 333f
line monitor, 333–334, 334f,
335f, 336, 336f
Short-cycling timer
general features, 328f,
328–329
key term, 337
operation, 329f, 329–330,
330f, 331f, 332f588 INDEX
Shotgun method, 372–374
Shutters, 458, 460
Silicon, 473–474, 477
Silicon bilateral switch (SBS),
354, 357
Silicon carbide (SiC), 483–484, 484f
Silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs)
multispeed motors
key term, 145
variable frequency, 138–139,
139f
variable frequency drives,
141–142, 142f, 144f
Silicon steel, 217, 218
Silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR)
AC circuit, 503, 503f, 504f
characteristics, 501–502, 502f
construction, 501, 502f
DC circuit, 502, 502f, 503f
key term, 507
phase shifted, 504, 505f
testing, 504–506, 505f,
506f, 507f
thyristors, 500
Silver, 9, 64, 473
Single-phase, 61
Single phase service, 55f, 55–56
Single-phase motors
capacitor-start induction run,
118, 119–120, 120f,
122–123, 123f
dual voltage, 124–126,
125f, 126f
overload protection, 237–240,
239f
PSC, 119, 126f, 126–127,
127f, 128f
resistance-start induction run,
118, 119–122, 120f, 121f,
122f
shaded-pole induction motor
key term, 131
testing, 123–124, 124f
types of, 118–119
Single-pole breaker, 56, 56f, 61
Single-pole single throw (SPST)
switch, 92, 92f
Slip ring
key term, 184
synchronous motor, 188f
wound rotor induction motor,
179–180, 180f
Solar cells, 11
Solder-melting type, 234–236,
235f, 236f, 242
Solenoid, 247
Solenoid coil, 323, 324f, 325
Solenoid principle, 244f,
244–246, 245f
Solenoid valve, general features,
321–322, 322f, 325
Solid state devices, 472, 478
Solid-state hard starting kit,
266–267, 267f, 268
Solid-state relay, 248–250, 249f,
250f, 251, 260
Solid-state starting relay, 264,
266, 266f, 268
Split-phase motors
classifications, 118–119
key term, 130
production, 119
testing, 123–124, 124f
Squirrel-cage induction motor
code letters, 162–164,
163f, 164f
electrical symbol, 164f
key term, 178
name, 159, 160f
operation principle, 159–162,
161f, 162f
starting methods, 165
testing, 164–165, 165f
three-phase motors, 148
Squirrel cage rotor
general features, 159, 160f
shaded-pole induction motor,
133, 134f
split-phase motors, 121,
121–122, 122f
Staging thermostat, 289-290, 296
Star, 61
Star connection, 51f, 51–53
Start winding
dual voltage motors,
124–126, 125f
key term, 130
motors, 119–120, 120f
permanent split-capacitor
motor, 127, 127f
Start-stop push button circuit, 98f,
98–100, 99f
Starting relay, 260, 268
Stationary contact
electrical symbols, 92, 92f
schematics/wiring design
key term, 105
Stator
alternator, 51, 51f
electrical services key term, 61
motor winding, 119–120, 120f
squirrel-cage induction motor,
159, 160f
wound rotor induction motor,
179, 180f
Stator poles, 135–136
Stator winding
testing, 123–124, 124f
three-phase motors, 153–155,
153f, 154f, 155f
Step-down, 226
Step-down transformer
autotransformer, 221–222, 222f
isolation transformers key
term, 218
Step starting, 181–183, 182f, 184
Step-up, 226
Step-up transformer, 218
Switch(es)
differential pressure, 317–318
DIP, 196
electrical symbols, 92, 92f
fan control circuit, 107
fan-limit, 314, 315f
fans, 311–313, 312f, 313f
oil-pressure failure, 317
Synchronous condenser, 189, 192
Synchronous motor
brushless exciter, 190f,
190–191, 191f
fi eld discharge resistor,
188, 188f
general features, 186–187,
187f
key term, 192
operation, 188
power factor correction,
188–189
power supply, 189
starting, 187, 187f
testing, 189, 189f
three-phase motors, 148
Synchronous speed
determining factors, 152–153
key term, 158
magnetic rotation, 152INDEX 589
T
Tape, 56
Tape wound, 205f, 205–206, 218
Tapped, 135–136, 136f, 145
Temperature
measurement, 338
metal expansion, 338–340,
339f, 340f
wire/voltage key terms, 70
Temperature measure
bellows-type thermostat,
344, 345f
PN junction, 342–344, 343f
thermistor, 342
Temperature variation, 194
Terminal board, 392, 395f, 398
Terminal markings, 392–393,
397f, 398
Termination temperature, 68, 70
Test points, 434
Testing
capacitor, 86-87
current relay, 263
defrost timer, 278–279
dielectric test set, 87, 87f
diodes, 479, 480f
hot-wire relay, 262
LED, 484, 485f
overload protection, 238
potential relay, 264
resistor reliability, 469–470
single-phase motors,
123–124, 124f
slit-phase motors,
123–124, 124f
solid-state relay, 266
squirrel-cage induction motor,
164–165, 165f
stator winding, 123–124, 124f
synchronous motors,
189, 189f
thermostats, 291–292,
294f, 295f
transformers, 215–216,
216f, 257
transistor, 491f, 491–493,
492f, 493f
triac, 515f, 515–516, 516f
UJT, 498, 498f, 499f
voltage, 69
wound rotor induction motor,
183, 183f
Thermistor
key term, 268
solid-state starting relay,
264, 266
types of, 342
Thermocouple
common types, 341f
flame sensor, 348, 348f
key terms, 346
voltage production, 340–341,
341f
Thermopile, 341, 341f, 346
Thermoplastic, 12
Thermostat(s)
bimetal, 282–283, 283f, 285
bin, 440
blower fans, 285, 285f
cabinet, 426
circuit operation, 102f,
102–104, 103f, 104f
defrost heater, 426
differential, 290f, 290–291
electronic programmable,
289, 289f
general features, 282
heat-pump, 389
heating and cooling,
284–285, 285f
key term, 296
line voltage, 287, 287f, 288f
mercury contact, 283–284,
284f
programmable, 288f,
288–289, 289f
room air conditioner, 378
staging, 289-290
terminal identification, 291,
292f, 293f, 294f
testing, 291–292, 294f, 295f
Thompson, J. J., electron, 7–8
Three phase, 51, 61
Three phase connection
delta connection, 51, 53, 54f
open-delta system, 54–55, 55f
wye connection, 51f, 51–53,
52f, 53f
Three-phase motors
key term, 158
overload protection, 237, 237f,
238f, 239f
synchronous, 148, 186–187.
See also Synchronous motor
types, 148
wound rotor induction motor,
148, 179–180, 180f, 184
Three-phase squirrel-cage
induction motor, 383, 386
Three-pole breaker, circuit breaker
type, 56, 56f, 61f
Three wire control circuits, 90,
91, 91f, 105
Thyristors, 500
Time delay circuit, general
features, 318–319, 320
Time delay contact
boiler circuit, 102
thermostat, 102, 104
Time delay relay (TDR), 404
Timer clock, commercial defrost
timer, 279, 280f, 281
Timer motor, 329f, 329–330,
330f, 331f, 332f, 337
Tolerance, 467, 470
Torque, 130, 161
Toroid core, 205f, 205–206,
218
Toroid transformer, 229, 229f
Transformers
basic law, 201, 201f
classifications, 200
delta connection, 54, 54f
formulas, 201, 201f,
223–225, 224f
general description, 200
inductive circuits, 73
operation, 252–253, 253f
operation principle, 253, 253f
power loss, 217, 217f
ratings, 216
single phase service, 55–56
term, 252, 259
testing, 215-216, 216f, 257
voltage/current relationship,
253f, 253–255, 254f, 255f
Transistor
general features, 490, 491f
identifying leads, 494, 494f
IGBTs, 139–140
material content, 475, 476f
operation, 493–494, 494f
testing, 491f, 491–493,
492f, 493f
variable frequency drives,
138–139, 139f590 INDEX
Triac
AC switch, 513
AC voltage control, 513–514,
514f
general features, 512–513,
513f
key term, 251
phase shifting, 514f, 514–515
primary control component,
354
refrigeration control,
457–458, 458f
solid state relay, 249, 249f,
speed control, 271f,
271–272, 272f
testing, 515f, 515–516, 516f
thyristors, 500
Troubleshooting
ammeter, 369–371, 372f
basic questions, 360
commercial air conditioning
unit, 386–387
heat-pump controls, 398–399
hopscotch method, 365, 366f,
367f, 368f
measuring instruments, 361
ohmmeter, 365–369, 369f,
370f, 371f, 372f
packaged units, 411–412
room air conditioners,
381–382
shotgun method, 372–374
voltmeter, 363f, 363–365,
364f, 365f, 366f
True power, 18, 18f, 22
Turns ratio
clamp-on ammeter,
30–31, 31f
isolation transformers,
201, 201f
key term, 34
transformer calculations, 208f,
208–210, 209f, 210f
Two-conductor, 61
Two-conductor romex cable,
56–57
Two-phase power, 119,
119f, 130
Two-pole breaker, 56, 56f, 61
Two-speed compressors,
136, 145
Two-wire control circuits, 90–91,
91f, 105
U
Ultraviolet radiation (UV), 348
Unijunction transistor (UJT)
characteristics, 497
circuit operation, 497, 498f
construction, 496, 497f
general features, 496
key term, 500
testing, 498, 498f, 499f
Unity, 76, 77
V
Valence electrons
electron shell, 9, 10f
insulators, 12
key term, 14
Valence shell, 9, 14
Variable frequency, 145
Variable frequency drives
adjustment role, 143–144
induction motors, 138f,
138–141, 139f, 140f, 141f
SCRs/GTOs, 141–143, 142f,
143f, 144f
Variable resistor, 271, 271f, 273
Variable speed, 196
Variable speed air handlers, 194
Variable-speed motors
impedance, 272
key term, 273
use of, 270
voltage control, 271f,
271–272, 272f
VARs (Volt-Amps Reactive), 76, 77
Vector addition, 52, 52f
Volt-amps, 76, 76f, 77
Volt-Amps Reactive circuit. See
VARs (Volt-Amps Reactive)
Volt-omh-milliammeter (VOM),
32–33, 34
Voltage
human body impact, 4
key term, 22
inductive circuits, 73f,
73–74, 74f
pure-capacitive circuit, 81, 81f,
82–83, 83f
pure resistive circuit, 72, 73f
Voltage drop
combination circuits, 40
electrical circuits key term, 44
parallel circuits, 37
rating, 66, 70
series circuit, 35–36, 36f
speed control, 270
spikes, 202, 203f
term, 16, 361
tests, 69
transformer formulas, 201
Voltage follower, 521, 529
Voltmeter
key term, 34, 374
measurement instruments,
24–28, 25f, 26f, 27f
reading steps, 28f, 28–29
trouble shooting, 363f,
363–365, 364f, 365f, 366f
trouble shooting instrument,
361f, 361–362, 362f
Volts-per-turn method,
223, 226
W
Warning tag, 2, 2f
Watchdog timer, 554, 556
Water solenoid valve, 439,
439f, 450
Wattage,17–18, 18f, 22
Wattage rating, 466f, 466–467,
467f, 470
White tape, 56
White wires, 56
Wire(s)
area, 64, 64f
circuit conductors, 56
insulation, 66
material, 64
resistance factors, 63
size, 63
temperature, 64f, 65f, 66, 67f
termination temperature, 68
voltage rating, 66
Wire resistance formula, 64
Wire wound, 470
Wire wound resistors, 464, 465f
Wiring diagrams
compressor circuit, 113
fan control circuit, 108–110,
109f, 110fINDEX 591
schematics/wiring design key
term, 105
start-stop push button, 100,
100f
term, 90, 96
Wood, 12
Wound rotor induction motor
key term, 184
motor operation, 180–181
schematic symbol, 180, 181f
step starting, 181–183, 182f
testing, 183
three-phase motors, 148,
179–180, 180f
Wye, 61
Wye connection
three phase, 51f, 51–53, 52f, 53f
three-phase motors, 153
wound rotor induction motor,
179–180, 180f
Wye-delta starting, 165,
168–170, 169f, 170f,
171f, 172f
Z
Zero switching, 250, 251
Zinc selenide (ZnSe)  


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