كتاب Hydraulic Structures
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Hydraulic Structures
Fourth Edition
P. Novak, A.I.B. Moffat and C. Nalluri
School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences,
University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
and
R. Narayanan
Formerly Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, UMIST,
University of Manchester, UK  

كتاب Hydraulic Structures  H_s_e_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xi
Preface to the third edition xiii
Preface to the second edition xv
Preface to the first edition xvii
Acknowledgements xix
List of tables xx
List of main symbols xxii
Part One Dam engineering 1
1 Elements of dam engineering 3
1.1 General 3
1.2 Introductory perspectives 4
1.3 Embankment dam types and characteristics 12
1.4 Concrete dam types and characteristics 16
1.5 Spillways, outlets and ancillary works 20
1.6 Site assessment and selection of type of dam 23
1.7 Loads on dams 35
References 39
2 Embankment dam engineering 42
2.1 Introduction 42
2.2 Nature and classification of engineering soils 42
2.3 Engineering characteristics of soils 472.4 Principles of embankment dam design 60
2.5 Materials and construction 73
2.6 Seepage analysis 78
2.7 Stability and stress 82
2.8 Settlement and deformation 97
2.9 Rockfill embankments and rockfill 100
2.10 Small embankment dams, farm dams and flood banks 103
2.11 Tailing dams and storage lagoons 107
2.12 Geosynthetics in embankment dams 108
2.13 Upgrading and rehabilitation of embankment dams 109
Worked examples 111
References 116
3 Concrete dam engineering 122
3.1 Loading: concepts and criteria 122
3.2 Gravity dam analysis 133
3.3 Buttress dam analysis 155
3.4 Arch dam analysis 157
3.5 Design features and construction 164
3.6 Concrete for dams 170
3.7 The roller-compacted concrete gravity dam 174
3.8 Upgrading of masonry and concrete dams 180
Worked examples 182
References 188
4 Dam outlet works 191
4.1 Introduction 191
4.2 The design flood 192
4.3 Flood routing 195
4.4 Freeboard 197
4.5 Sedimentation in reservoirs 200
4.6 Cavitation 204
4.7 Spillways 206
4.8 Bottom outlets 231
Worked examples 234
References 239
5 Energy dissipation 244
5.1 General 244
5.2 Energy dissipation on spillways 245
5.3 Stilling basins 249
5.4 Plunge pools 259
5.5 Energy dissipation at bottom outlets 261
Worked examples 262
References 264
vi CONTENTS6 Gates and valves 267
6.1 General 267
6.2 Crest gates 268
6.3 High-head gates and valves 275
6.4 Tidal barrage and surge protection gates 277
6.5 Hydrodynamic forces acting on gates 279
6.6 Cavitation, aeration, vibration of gates 283
6.7 Automation, control and reliability 284
Worked example 285
References 287
7 Dam safety: instrumentation and surveillance 289
7.1 Introduction 289
7.2 Instrumentation 291
7.3 Surveillance 304
7.4 Dam safety legislation 306
7.5 Reservoir hazard and risk assessment 309
References 315
Part Two Other hydraulic structures 319
8 River engineering 321
8.1 Introduction 321
8.2 Some basic principles of open-channel flow 322
8.3 River morphology and régime 327
8.4 River surveys 331
8.5 Flow-measuring structures 337
8.6 River flood routing 338
8.7 River improvement 342
Worked examples 353
References 360
9 Diversion works 364
9.1 Weirs and barrages; worked examples 364
9.2 Intakes; worked examples 392
9.3 Fish passes 410
References 416
10 Cross-drainage and drop structures 418
10.1 Aqueducts and canal inlets and outlets; worked examples 418
10.2 Culverts, bridges and dips; worked examples 428
10.3 Drop structures; worked example 448
References 458
CONTENTS vii11 Inland waterways 461
11.1 Introduction 461
11.2 Definitions, classification and some waterways 463
11.3 Multipurpose utilization of waterways 466
11.4 Transport on inland waterways 469
11.5 Canalization and navigation canals 471
11.6 Resistance of ships 473
11.7 Wave action on banks 475
11.8 Locks 477
11.9 Thrift locks 486
11.10 Lifts and inclined planes 488
11.11 Lock approaches 490
11.12 Inland ports 491
Worked examples 493
References 494
12 Hydroelectric power development 496
12.1 Introduction 496
12.2 Worldwide hydroelectric power development
in perspective 497
12.3 Power supply and demand 497
12.4 Some fundamental definitions 498
12.5 Types of water power development 499
12.6 Head classification of hydropower plants 502
12.7 Streamflow data essential for the assessment of
water-power potential 502
12.8 Hydraulic turbines and their selection 505
12.9 Other components of hydropower plants 517
12.10 Surge tanks 525
12.11 Small hydraulic power plant development 529
12.12 Other energy resources 530
Worked examples 533
References 546
13 Pumping stations 548
13.1 Introduction 548
13.2 Pumps and their classification 548
13.3 Design of pumping mains 554
13.4 Classification of pumping stations and intakes 557
13.5 Sump design 559
13.6 Screening devices 562
13.7 Benching 562
13.8 Surges 562
13.9 General design considerations of pumping stations
and mains 566
viii CONTENTSWorked examples 568
References 574
14 Waves and offshore engineering 575
14.1 Introduction 575
14.2 Wave motion 576
14.3 Range of validity of linear theory 584
14.4 Waves approaching a shore 586
14.5 Wave breaking 588
14.6 Wave reflection 591
14.7 Basin oscillations 592
14.8 Wave diffraction 593
14.9 Wave prediction 594
14.10 Wave statistics 599
14.11 Forces on cylindrical structures 602
14.12 Vortex-induced oscillations 612
14.13 Oscillations of cylinders in waves 617
Worked examples 618
References 624
15 Coastal engineering 627
15.1 Introduction 627
15.2 Coastal defence 629
15.3 Wave forces on coastal structures 636
15.4 Wave run-up 641
15.5 Wave overtopping 645
15.6 Rubble-mound breakwaters 647
15.7 Sea outfalls 653
15.8 Coastal management 662
Worked examples 663
References 670
16 Models in hydraulic engineering 674
16.1 Hydraulic models 674
16.2 Structural models 683
Worked example 687
References 688
Author index 691
Subject index 69
Added mass 613
Aeration 215–21, 225, 247–8, 377,
379
of gates 283
self- 210, 215–21
Aerator 219–21, 220
Air
concentration 217–21, 237–9
duct (vent) 220, 230, 231, 283
entrainment 215–21
Air vessel 563–6, 564–5
Apron
concrete- 370–5
flexible- 377, 384–6
sloping 257, 368
Aqueduct 418–20, 419
Armorflex 351, 352
Armouring 70–2, 647–52, 642,
648–50, 652
Baffle 254–5, 255
Bank
erosion 347–9
protection 350–1, 352
revetment 350–1
stability of 326
Barge
pushed 464, 463–4, 470
resistance of 473–5, 475
towed 470
Barrage
components of 366–9
tidal 277–9
see also Weir 364–79
Basin oscillations 592–3, 592
Beach nourishment 636
Beach shape 633
Bed
level 332–3
load 326–7, 336–7
see also Sediment
load meter (sampler) 336–7
shear stress 325–6
topography 332–3
Benching 562
Bishop solution 86–7, 88
Bottom outlet 20, 21, 70, 78, 231,
233, 234
Boundary layer (on spillways)
216
Breaking wave 588–90, 589, 610,
629–30, 636, 639, 643
Breakwater 636, 641–5
Bridge 434–41
afflux 434–8
contraction 434–8, 435, 437
pier shape 436, 437
scour 439–41
scour protection 441
Canal
connection with river 345, 347
inlet 420
intakes 392–400
navigation 471–3
outlet 401–5, 401, 403–5, 420–7
transition 421–6, 422, 424
see also Waterways
Canalization 47
cascade 228–30, 246, 455, 456
Cavitation 204–6, 205
number 204, 205
on gates 283
on spillways 208, 226
in stilling basins 252–4
in turbines 510–11, 511
CFD 676
Channel conveyance 324
Chute 213–21, 214, 216
inclined drop 455
Coastal
defence 629–31
management 662–3
model 633–4, 676, 682–3
Coefficient
area reduction 125–6
contraction 280–1
discharge 207–9, 223, 280–1
drag 602–9, 605
drainage 126
friction 323
head loss 245
inertia 606
lift 607–9, 607
porewater pressure 48, 49, 49,
84
seismic 94–5, 130, 131
velocity 245–8, 247
Cofferdam 193, 365, 365
Computational modelling 674–6
Crest (of spillway, weir) 206–9,
207, 209, 222, 223, 367–8
Critical failure surface 83, 84
Cross drainage works 418–27
see also Aqueduct; Canal,
inlet; Canal, outlet; Culvert;
Bridge; Dip
Crump weir 337–8, 339, 355
Culvert 21, 70, 101, 428–34,
429–32
alignment 430
entrance 430–2, 429–32
outlet 70, 432
scour below outlets 432–4
Dams, concrete 4, 16–20, 17, 18,
122–90
abutment 17, 157, 158–9, 159
arch 16–17, 17, 157–61, 160, 161
arch analysis 159, 161–4,
186–7
arch geometry 158–61, 159,
160, 161, 186–7
buttress 16, 17, 18, 156, 185
buttress analysis 155–7, 185–6
concrete for 168, 168, 169, 170,
170–9, 173, 176, 177, 178–9
construction 168–9, 168, 170,
170
cupola 16, 17, 157–8, 160–1,
167
cutoff 156, 165, 166
design criteria and
assumptions 133–4, 155, 157,
161–4
elastic ring theory 161–3, 163,
186–7
flare 148–9, 148
galleries 156, 161, 166, 167
gravity 16, 17, 18, 123, 174, 176
gravity analysis 133–51, 135,
139, 140, 143, 144, 148, 149
grouting 156, 165, 166
heightening 152–5, 152, 154
joints 161, 167, 167, 169, 170
load combinations 131–3, 132
Subject index
Page references in bold refer to tables and page references in italic refer to figures.SUBJECT INDEX 697
load transfer 168
loads 35–8, 36, 38, 122–31, 123,
125, 132, 166, 168
monoliths 17, 167, 167, 169,
170
overturning stability 135, 155,
182–4
prestressing 152–3, 152, 185–6,
185
profiles 17, 18, 149–50, 149
pulvino 161, 168
RCC 175–6, 176, 177
RCC dams 174–9, 176
rehabilitation 180–1
relief drains 22, 125, 125–6,
156, 165, 166, 180–1
river diversion 21, 169
seepage and uplift 36, 37,
124–6, 125
seismicity and seismic analysis
37–8, 128–31, 129, 131
sliding stability and shear
resistance 136–42, 137, 138,
139, 140, 141, 143, 182–6
stabilizing 152–5, 152, 154, 154,
182–6, 182, 185
stability 134–43, 135, 137, 138,
139, 140, 141, 143, 182–6
stress and stress analysis 133–4,
143–8, 144, 147, 150–1, 157,
161–4, 163, 182–4, 186–7
upgrading 180–1
zoning of concrete 156, 168,
168
see also Dams, embankment;
Dams, general
Dams, embankment 4, 12–16, 13,
14, 15, 42–121
amenity 105–6
construction 76, 78
core 12, 13, 14, 15, 60, 61, 65,
66–7, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80–1,
89, 100, 101
cracking 61, 74, 89–91
crest 67, 73
cutoffs, cutoff efficiency 68–9,
69, 76, 77, 80–1, 80, 111–2,
111
defect mechanisms 62–5, 62,
64, 65
deformation 97–8, 102–3,
114–16
design considerations 62–73
design features 66–73
drains, drainage 64, 65, 68–9,
69, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80
dykes 106–7
earthfill 4, 12, 13, 13, 14, 12–15,
54–9, 57, 73–8, 74, 75, 77
see also Engineering soils
elements 60–1
erosion, external 62, 63, 64,
70–3, 109
erosion, internal 16, 62, 63, 64,
65, 74, 78, 81–2, 89–90
face protection 63, 64, 70–2, 77,
101, 109
fill materials 57, 66–7, 73, 74,
75, 76, 100, 102–3
filters, transitions 14, 15, 64, 65,
66, 67, 73, 76, 77, 81–2, 101,
109
flood control banks 106–7
flownet 78–9, 80, 111–12
foundation preparation 76
freeboard 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 77,
101
geosynthetics, geomembranes
108–9
hydraulic fracturing 62, 74,
89–90, 99
interfaces 89–91, 102
membrane 13, 14, 15, 61, 101,
108–9
outlet works 70, 78
overtopping 16, 18, 62, 63, 64
performance indices 98–9
piping, see Erosion, internal
profiles 14, 15, 60–1, 77, 101
rehabilitation 109–10
river diversion 76
rockfill 4, 7, 12, 12–15, 14, 15,
75, 77, 100–3, 101
seismicity and seismic analyses
91–7
seepage 38, 38, 63, 64, 68–9,
78–9, 80, 80–1, 99, 111–12
settlement 62, 63, 64, 65, 67,
97–8, 99, 102–3, 114–16
shoulder 13, 14, 15, 60–1, 66–7,
73, 75, 76, 77, 101
small 103–6
spillway options 20–1, 34, 67
stability 60, 62, 63, 65, 82–8, 84,
85, 86, 87, 88, 113
stability analysis 82–8, 87, 88,
113
stability, critical conditions 84,
85, 85, 86
stability, factors of safety 82–4,
85, 86, 113
storage lagoons 107–8, 291
stress analysis 88–9
tailings 107–8, 291
types 14, 15, 60–1, 77, 101
upgrading 109–10
upstream face protection 70–2
zoning 60–1, 66–7, 77
see also Dams, general;
Engineering soils
Dams, general
ancillary works 19, 20–2, 78,
169
CADAM 313
CME 92, 93, 128, 132
construction materials 31, 34
cutoffs 22, 64, 68–9, 69, 77,
80–1, 111–12, 156, 165, 166
dambreak analysis 312–14
defects 110, 181, 294
environmental issues 9–11
failures 289, 290, 291
FEA 39, 89, 151, 164
FMECA 310–11
foundation investigations
28–31
foundations 15, 18, 19, 28–35,
32, 32, 34, 68–9, 69, 76,
136–7, 137, 138
geological/geotechnical
assessment 26–8
grouting 22, 64, 68, 69, 77,
111–12, 156, 161, 165, 166
hazard analysis 309–12
history 7–9
hydraulic gradient 32
ICOLD 5
IMPACT 313
inspection 305–6, 308
instrumentation 76, 291–303,
294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300,
302, 302, 305
internal drains/galleries 14, 15,
22, 35, 36, 38, 73, 76, 77, 101,
109, 124–6, 125, 156, 161,
165, 166
inundation mapping 313–14
legislation 306–9
loads, loading concepts 35–9,
36, 38
materials for construction 31,
34
MCE 92, 93, 128
monitoring 291–3, 294, 301–4,
304, 305
outlet works 19, 21, 70, 78
PRA 310
project stages 23–5, 24
QRA 311–12
Reservoirs Act (UK) 308–9
risk assessment 309–12
river diversion 21, 76, 169
safety 289–91
SEE 92, 93, 128, 132
seismic analysis 36, 37–8, 91–7,
94, 128–31, 129, 132, 133
selection of type 31–5, 33, 34
site appraisal/evaluation 23–31,
24
spillway 16, 19, 20–1, 35, 63, 64,
67, 206–31
statistics 4, 5–7, 5, 6
stilling basin 20, 35, 249–57
structural models 683–7
surveillance 304–6, 304, 305
types 3, 4, 4, 12–20, 13, 14, 15,
17
WCD 9–10
see also Dams, concrete;
Dams, embankment
Darcy–Weisbach equation 323
Demand (power) 497–8, 498
Density currents (in reservoirs)
203
Diffraction of wave 593–4
Diffusion analogy (flood routing)
340–1
Dike (dyke) 348, 348
Dimensional analysis 678
Dimensionless number 678–81
Dip 442
Discharge
coefficient 207–9, 223, 280–2,
281
dominant 331, 331
measurement 333–5, 337–8
Distortion (in hydraulic models)
677
Draft tube 516–17, 516
Dredging 203–4
Drift angle 472, 473
Drop inlet 431, 432
Drop structure 448–57
cascade type 455, 456
farm drop 457
inclined (chute) 455
piped 456
raised crest type 454–5, 454
rapid fall type 455
Sarda type 451–3, 451–2
vertical (common, straight)
449–50, 449
well drop 456, 456
YMGT type 453–4, 453
Efficiency
cutoff 80–1, 111–12
hydraulic (of hydroelectric
plant) 499, 507, 507–8, 508
manometric (of pumps) 551
Einstein–Brown equation 326Embankment, see Dams,
embankment
Emergency
gate 267, 274
spillway 20–1, 67
Energy
dissipation 20–1, 244–62
at bottom outlets 261–2
on spillways 228, 245–6, 245,
dissipator (stilling basin)
249–57
see also Stilling basin
Engelund–Hansen equation 326
Engineering soils
apparent cohesion 49, 50, 52
characteristics 47–59, 47, 52, 57
classification 43–5, 44, 45
clays/cohesive 43, 44, 45, 47,
51–2, 52, 57, 74, 75
cohesive/frictional 50, 51, 51
collapse compression 59
compaction 47, 54–6, 55, 59, 74,
75, 100
compressibility 52–3, 56, 57, 75
consistency 44, 52
consolidation 48, 52–3
effective stress 46–7, 46, 48, 50,
50, 57, 59
geostatic (total) stress 46, 46
load response 47–9, 49, 50, 51,
52–3
nature of 42–3
partial saturation 58–9
permeability 53–4, 56, 57, 59
phreatic surface 46, 64 78, 79,
80, 113
piezometric level 46, 80, 112
plasticity 43, 44, 56, 91
pore pressure
coefficients/parameters 48–9,
83–4
pore pressure ratio 83–5, 87,
113
porewater pressure 45–7, 46,
49, 83–5, 86, 102
representative characteristics
47, 57, 74, 75
shear strength 49–52, 50, 51,
52, 57, 59, 75
shearing resistance, angle of
49, 50, 57, 75
types 42–3, 44, 45
see also Dams, embankment
Erodibility index 258
Erosion
downstream of stilling basin
64, 257–8
internal, see Dams,
embankment
permissible velocities 442, 442
see also Scour
Euler number 679
Fargue laws 344
Fascines 351, 352
Fetch 198–9, 199, 595–8, 596, 597
Filter 73, 81–2, 351, 377, 377,
384–8, 385–8
see also Dams, embankment
Fish
barrier dam 414
Denil pass 413
ladder (pool and traverse pass)
411–13, 412
lift 413–14, 414
pass 410–15
screen 414–15, 415
sound barrier 415
trap 414
Flip bucket 247, 248–9
Flood
banks 106–7, 345–6, 345
design 20, 192–5, 194
probable maximum 192–3, 194
risk (of exceeding design
flood) 193
routing in reservoirs 195–7
routing in rivers 338–42
surcharge 180–2
Flow
gauging 333–5
induced vibrations 272, 284,
576, 612–18
measuring structures 337–8,
339, 340–1
modular 356, 358
non-modular, correction factor
359, 359
open channel 322–5
parameter 326
uniform, non-uniform,
unsteady 322–5
Flownet 78–9, 80, 111–12
Flumes 337–8, 339, 341
Flushing (of reservoirs) 203
Freeboard 62, 63, 64, 67, 77, 101,
197–200
Froude number 679
Fuse plug 21, 230
Gabion 350–1, 352
Gate
aviation 283
automation 284–5
bulkhead 267
cavitation 283
control 284–5
crest 268–74
cylinder 275
drum 270
emergency 267–8, 282
fabric (inflatable) 274
flap (pivot leaf) 271–2, 273
floating 267
forces on 279–83
high head 275–7
lift (vertical, plain) 268–70,
269, 275
maintenance 267–8, 285
overflow 280
overspill fusegate 274
radial (Tainter) 270, 271, 275
regulating 267
reliability 284–5
roller 272, 273
sector (drum) 270
surge protection 277–9
underflow 280
vibration 284
wicket 280
Gebers equation 474
Generators 522–3
Geotextiles 350–1
geotubes 351
Groyne 347–8, 348–50, 634–6,
635
Harbour (coastal) 592
Harbour (inland port) 491–2
Head
on crest (of spillway) 206–7,
206
design 207, 208
effective (hydroelectric plant)
499
Headrace 518–19
Hickox equation 210
Hooke’s law 684
Hydraulic jump
air uptake 234, 252, 283
stilling basin 249–54, 250,
262–4
Hydroelectric power
demand 497–8
supply 497–8
see also Power (load); Power
plant; Turbine
Hydroinformatics 674
Ice load 36, 37, 123, 127–8, 132
ICOLD, see Dams, general
Inland port 491–2
In-line oscillaitons 615
Inlet head loss 232
Intake 392–405
alignment 394–7
entrance loss 394–6
location 394–7
sediment exclusion 393–9, 393,
395–9
Jambor sill 367–8
JONSWAP 199, 598–9
Keulegan–Carpenter number
603–7
Lacey and Pemberton equation
329
Level crossing 420, 420
Lift (navigation)
inclined 488, 490
rotating 488–9
vertical 488–9, 489
Lighter 470
Littoral drift 629–30, 630
Lock (navigation)
approach (basin) 490–1, 491
culvert 480, 482
direct filling (emptying)
478–80, 478–81
gate 479–80, 479–81
high head 480–8, 487
indirect filling (emptying)
481–3, 483
low head 478–80
thrift 486–8, 487
Log-normal distribution 600
Longshore current 629–30, 630
Manometric head 551, 554–5,
553, 555
Mass curve 504, 535
Mattress 350–1, 352
Mayer–Peter and Muller
equation 326
Meandering (stream) 327–8, 327
Model
coastal 633, 676, 682–3
computational 674–6
concrete dam 685–6
distortion 677, 679
embankment 686–7
hybrid 675
hydraulic (physical, scale)
674–83
mathematical 674–6
numerical 674–6
scale, see Hydraulic (model)
scale effect 677, 679
698 SUBJECT INDEXof concrete drums 685–6
of embankments 686–7
of seismic response 687
structural 683–7
undistorted/distorted 677
Modular flow 280, 355–7, 356
Morison equation 603–6
Morphology 327–31
Multistage (river) channels 343
Muskingum–Cunge (flood
routing) method 341–2
Nappe 206, 206
Natural frequency 612
Navier–Stokes equation 678
Navigation canal 471–3
see also Waterways
Non-modular flow 281, 282,
356–9, 356, 358–9
correction factors 382, 443, 359,
359
Open channel flow 322–5
Outlet
canal 401–5, 401, 403–5, 420–1
valve 275–7
Overfall spillway 21, 206–10,
206–7, 209
Oxygen uptake at barrages 377–9
Parshall flume 337–8, 339, 341
Penstock design 519–20, 520
Pier shape factor 436–8, 437
Pierson–Moskowitz spectrum
598–9
Pipeline
forces on 602–10
selection 555–6, 555
self burial 611
stability 610–11
Piping 62, 63, 64, 370
Plunge pool 259–60
Poisson’s ratio 173, 179, 685
Power duration curve 503–4, 504
Power house 523–4
Power (load)
base 497
demand 497–8, 498
factor 497
supply 497–8
tidal 530–2, 531
wave 532
Power plant 499–502
diversion canal 500, 500
high-head 502
low head 502
medium head 502
pumped storage 500–2, 501
run-of-river 499, 499
small plants 529–30
see also Turbine
Pump
air lift 550
booster 566–7, 566
for boreholes 559
characteristics 556–7, 556
classification 548–54
deep well 559
duty point 555
jet 550
manometric head 551–3
operation 551–2
in parallel/series 552
priming 554
reciprocating 549, 549, 550
rotodynamic 549, 549, 550, 551
specific speed 550, 551
suction lift 552–3
sump 556, 556, 558, 559–61,
562
system characteristic 554–5,
555–6
Pumping demand 556
Rack 393, 394–7, 396, 397
Refraction coefficient 586–8
Regime (equations) 329–30, 376
depth 329–30
scour 376
width 329–30, 376
Regulator 367
Renewable energy 529–32
tidal power 530–2, 531
wave power 532
Reservoir
flood standards 191–5, 194
flushing 203
freeboard 197–200, 199
half-life 202, 236
life 202
routing 195–7, 234–5
sedimentation 200–4, 202–3
Reynolds number 679
Rip current 630, 630
River
bend 328, 328
braided 327, 327
crossing 327–8, 329
improvement 342–52
model 682–3
morphology 327–30
surveys 331–7
training 342–9, 344, 346, 348
Roller bucket 254–5, 255
Saint Venant equation 324
Scale
effect 679–81
factor 680
Scour
around bridge pier 439–41
below culvert outlets 432–4
downstream of stilling basin
257–8
(in)plunge pools 259–60
regime 376
Screening devices 562
Sea outfalls 653–62
diffuser 658–62, 659
initial dilution 654–5, 655
ports 653–4, 658
Sea wall 636–47, 637, 639, 640,
642
Sediment
concentration 201, 336
density 201, 325
load 36, 36, 37, 123, 127, 132,
336–7
sampler 336–7
suspended 325
threshold of motion 325–6
transport 325–7, 336–7
Sedimentation (in) reservoir
200–4, 202–3
Seiche 197–8, 628
Seismic
dynamic response analysis
95–6
load 36, 36, 37–8, 93–6, 94, 123,
128–31, 132
pseudostatic analysis 94–5, 94,
130–1, 131
Self-aeration 210, 215–19
Shields equation 325
Ship, resistance of 473–5, 475
Shoaling coefficient 588
Significant wave height 198–9,
199, 595–602
Significant wave period 595–9
Silt
control 397–9
ejector 398–9, 398–9
excluder 397–8, 397
load 36, 36, 37, 123, 127, 132
settling basin 399–400, 400
Similarity
approximate 678–9
dynamic 678
geometric 678
kinematic 678
mechanical 678
theory of 678–9
see also Model
Siphon barrel 425–6
SMB method of wave prediction
595–6
Snell’s law 587
Specific speed
pump 550, 550–1
turbine 506–7, 507
Speed factor 507
Spillway
aeration 215–21
auxiliary 21, 230
bellmouth, see Shaft (spillway)
cavitation 204–6, 210
chute 213–21, 214
crest 207–9, 207, 209
emergency 21, 191
free 191
gated 191, 208–9, 209
labyrinth 230
morning glory, see Shaft
(spillway)
overfall 21, 206–10, 206, 209
service 191
shaft 21, 221–5, 222–5
side channel 21, 210–13, 211
siphon 226–7, 227
ski jump 246–8, 247
stepped (cascade) 228–30, 246
submerged (bottom, orifice)
230, 232, 233
tunnel 230
Spiral casing (turbine) (scroll
case) 512–15, 513–15
Stilling basin 20, 35, 249–59, 250,
255–6
abruptly expanding 257
forces on floor 253–4
hydraulic jump 249–54, 250,
262–4
roller bucket 254–5, 255
spatial (hydraulic) jump 256,
257
with baffles 254–5, 255
Storage recovery 203–4
Strouhal number 608, 612, 679
Sump 559–60, 561
Superpassage 419–20
Surge tank 525–9
differential 528, 528–9
simple 527, 528
throttled 527, 528
with expansion chamber 527–8,
528
with venturi mounting 528, 529
Surges
hydroelectric plants 525–9
protection gates 277–9
pumping stations 562–6
SUBJECT INDEX 699Suspended load 201
meter, sampler 336
Swedish circle solution 85–6
Tail race 524
Talweg 328
Thijsse egg 345, 347
Threshold of movement 325
Tidal barrage 277–9
Training (of river) 342–50
Transformer 522–3
Transmission line 522
Trap efficiency (of reservoirs)
201–2, 202
Tsunamis 628
Tunnel (spillway) 67, 221–2, 225,
225
Turbine
bulb 506
cavitation 510–12, 511
draft tubes 516–17, 516
Francis 506
governor 521–2, 521
impulse 505, 505
Kaplan 506
Pelton 505–6, 505
performance rating 507–8, 508
radial flow 506
reaction (pressure) 505–8, 508
runaway speed 508, 510
runner 512
scroll casing 512–15, 513–15
setting 510–11
specific speed 506–7, 509, 510
langential flow 506
Undistorted model 577, 580
Uplift
area reduction coefficient
125–6
load 36, 37, 123, 124–6, 125
Valve
cone dispersion 276, 276
disc (butterfly) 275
hollow jet 277, 277
Howell Bunger, see Cone
dispersion (valve)
needle 276–7
pressure producing 275
sphere (rotary) 275
tube 276
Vane (river training) 347–8, 350
Velocity
fall (sediment) 201, 325
measurement 333
shear 322–3
Vortex
formation 223, 225, 560
induced oscillation 612–17
suppression 223, 224, 225, 560,
617
Waterways
classification 463–4
constricted 471–3
European 465–6, 465
UK 436, 464–5
USA 466, 467
utilisation of 466–9, 469
width 472–3, 473
Wave
Airy 577, 581, 588
breaking 588–90, 589, 609,
636–40
celerity 579–80, 580
cnoidal 577, 577, 585
crest 576, 577
deep water 580, 582, 584, 588
diffraction 593–4, 593
energy 582–3
force 602–10, 637–41
frequency 579
group velocity 584
height (significant) 71, 198–9,
199, 595–6, 599–602
interference 213–15, 214
linear theory 577, 584–5
number 579
overtopping 16, 18, 62, 63,
645–7
period 576, 581, 595
prediction 594–9
reflection 591
roll (translation) 215
run-up 197, 200, 641–5
shallow water 580, 582, 584,
588
shock number 215
sinusoidal 576, 579
solitary 577, 577
spectrum
JONSWAP 199, 598–9
Pierson–Moskowitz 598–9
standing 591, 591, 637–41
statistics 599–602
steepness 577, 585, 588
Stokes 577, 577, 585
translation, translatory 215
Weber number 203, 647
Weibull distribution 601
Weir
broadcrested 339
coefficient 339
compound 340
foundation 369–75
sharpcrested 339, 340
see also Barrage
Wind
set-up 197–8
speed 198–9, 199
Young’s modulus (molecules of
elasticity) 684–5
Zoning of dams
concrete 168, 168, 176, 179
embankment


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