كتاب Reciprocating Compressors
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 كتاب Reciprocating Compressors

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Reciprocating Compressors    كتاب Reciprocating Compressors  Emptyالسبت 01 أغسطس 2020, 1:18 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Reciprocating Compressors
Heinz P. Block and John J. Hoefner  

كتاب Reciprocating Compressors  R_c_o_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Acknowledgements, Vii
Preface, Ix
1 Reciprocating Compressors and Their Applications 1
Introduction. WhatIs a Compressor? How Compressors Work.
Methods of Compression. Types of Compressors. Compressor
Definitions. Pressure. Pressure Definitions Associated with
Compressors. Theory of Reciprocating Compressors.
Characteristics of Reciprocating Compressors. Compressor Type
Selection, ReciprocatingCompressor CylinderArrangements.
2 DESIGN ANDMATERIALS FOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
COMPONENTS 44
Materials of Construction. Non-Lubricated or Oil-Free Cylinder
Construction. Piston Rod Column or Frame Loading. Disturbing or
Shaking Forces. Foundations for Reciprocating Compressors.
Compressor Piping and Pulsation. Design Overview of Labyrinth
Piston Compressors.
3 OPERATION ANDMAINTENANCE OF RECIPROCATING
COMPRESSORS 107
Lubrication of Reciprocating Compressors. Operational Problems
and Maintenance of Compressor Valves.Compressor Piston Rod
Packing. Compressor Control Systems. Compressor Cylinder
Cooling. Non-LubricatedCompressor Maintenance. LabyrinthPiston Compressors.
4 OVERHAULAND REPAIR OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS 227
Rule of Thumbfor General Running Clearances. Compressor
Alignment. Web Deflection Measurements. CompressorCylinderAlignment. Foundation Problems and Repairs.
Compressor
Bearing Maintenance and Replacement. Cylinder Repair and
Maintenance. Compressor Piston Maintenance.Rebuilding
Compressor Pistons. InstallingPistons Bn Piston Rods. Setting
Piston End Clearances. Inspection and Reconditioning Piston
Rods. Manufacture of Compressor Piston Rods. Other Compressor
Component Repairs. Compressor Part Replication.
5 TROUBLESHOOTING COMPRESSOR PROBLEMS
Introduction. Compressor Problems. Typical Compressor
Problems. Troubleshooting Lubrication Systems. Significance of
Intercooler Pressures. Interstage Pressures. Belt Drives. Motor
Controls. Diagnostic Tests. Evaluating Reciprocating Compressor
Condition Using Ultrasound and Vibration Patterns. Compressor
Service Technician Reports. Basic Air Compressor System
Evaluation.
Introduction. Compressor Maintenance. Emergency Repairs
Should Be Minimized.Effectivenessof PreventiveMaintenance.
Compressor Preventive Maintenance Program. Spare Parts. Vendor
Selection. Personnel Training. Maintenance Contractors. Predictive
Maintenance. Integrated Condition Monitoring Systems.
7 SAFETY IN OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 30
Basic Safety Rules. Lock-Out/Tag-Out Program. Safe Maintenance
Procedures Restated. Valve Installation. Fires and Explosions.
Summary. AirPiping.
APPENDIX: RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CALCULATIONS, 389
INDEX, 408
Index
Absolute pressure, 9,11, 12 oil-free, 71 Bearing
ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene piping, 383 assembly, 254-255
styrene copolymer), 383, pressure testing, 167, 168 bores, connecting rod, 252,
385,387 radiatorsystem, 212 254
Acceleration, 92, 93, 136,365 receiver, 34 bronze backing, 255
Accelerometer, 332,364,365 standard, 9 clearance, 229,230
Access opening, 110 trapped, 383 crankpin, 48, 227
ACFM (actual cubic feet per Alarms, 375, 380 crush, 253,254,255, 297
minute), 10 Altitude, 25-27 lubrication of, 108,
Acid Amonton's Law, 3 111-113
number, total, 113 Analysis, oil, 361 main,47,253
washing, 247 Analyst, machinery, 304 maintenance and
Acoustic Analyzer, 330 replacement, 251-256
emissions, 361 oscilloscope, 361 saddle, 110, 301
length, 100 Annular cup, 167 shell, 252
velocity, 100 Anti-extrusion ring, 179 tri-metal, 47,48
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Anti-foaming qualities, 113 Bedplate saddle alignment, 252
copolymer (ABS), 383, Anti-galling compound, 286 Belt
385,387 API 618,56 alignment, 306
Activating, 195 Asbestos, 72,148 guard, 384
Aftermarket suppliers, 352 Assembly Bend, reverse, 240,243
Aftercooler, 34 errors, 359 Bent rods, 294
Air, 2 valve, 161-162, 165 Bendy-Nevada, 244,364
compressor evaluation, Autoignition, 379, 380 Beta 250 Engine/Compressor
337-339 Automatic Analyzer, 330,332
concentrations of suspended control, 195 Blade, 9
particles in, 81 valve, 31 Block system, divider,
cylinder, 337 Availability, 39 12CM24
delivery, none, 314 Blow-by, 182, 184,280,
filter/filtration, 80-82, 129 Babbitt,282 329,334
free, 9 face, 48 Blower, 1
insufficient, 314 rebabbitting,255,284, 297 Bluing, 186
leakage, 304, 339 spray, 283-284 Bolt
in lube line, 124 Ball check, double, 124 anchor, 249-251
noise, 329 Barometer, 12 foundation, 248
4O8Index 4O9
stud, 378 Carryover Component design and
torque, 267, 373 liquid, 151, 155 material, 44-106
vaive cover, 377 oil, 31 Compressibility factor, 2
Bore, cylinder, 264 Case histories, 335-337 Compression/compressor
clearance, 228 service condition changes, adiabatic, 10
diameter, 260, 278 336-337 air-cooled, 29
finish, 77, 259 Castellated fastener, 296 alignment,216,230-231
increase in size, 281 Casting, core shift during, 279 angle, 43
inspection, 256 Cement, room temperature application range, 36
interference fit, liner vulcanizing(RTV), 265 axial, 9
OD, 262 Centralized system, 114 balanced-opposed, 95,96
measurement, 257 Certification, 300-301 bearing maintenance and
reboring, 259-261 Charles'Law, 3 replacement, 251-256
wear, 258 Check booster, 32
Bow, 240,241 ball, double, 124 calculation, 86
Bowls, carbonic, 384 valve, terminal, 124 capacity, 14-16, 304-305
Boyle's Law, 2,3 Chemical centrifugal, 9
Break-in (see also Wear-in), cleaning, 265,266 classification, 28
183,184,217 washer, 151 control, 192-208
Breakdown maintenance, 340, Chrome plating, 292,293,294, cycle, ideal, 33
341,342 299, 300 cylinder (see Cylinder)
Bronze Cleaners, 265,266,380 definition, 9
backing, for bearings, 255 Clearance, 227, 228 displacement of, 9
bushing, 298 bearing, 229, 230 double-acting, 13, 34, 34
packing rings, 294 bore, 228, 268 duplex, 43
Budget cuts, 351 crosshead pin, 230 dynamic, 6,9
Bumping, before starting, 373 cylinder, 18 efficiency, 10, 17
Burnishing, 181 diametrical, 78 foundationsfor
Bushing, 277, 297,298 effect on capacity, 19 reciprocating, 96-99
Business-rating organization, end, 177,190,228,272,280 four-cornered
353 estimating, 228-229 motor-driven, 43
Butt cut ring, 275 gap, 80, 178 gas-driven, 43
Bypass control, 196-199 journal, 227 heavy duty, 30
loss, 18 helical, 8
Calculations, 86 measuring, 229 horizontal opposed, 43
Capacity piston end, 288-289 hyper, 54,55
actual, 10 piston ring, 269-272,274 indicatorcard, 16
air, requirement piston-cylinder, 268-269 isothermal, 10
determination, 338 pocket, 51,82 L-type integral, 43
control, 38,51, 192 quantitativeeffect of, 19 labyrinth piston, 102-106,
effect of clearance on, 19 rider ring, 269, 275 217-226
loss, 304-305, 318 side, 180, 191, 192,228, liquid piston, 8
power vs., 27 272, 273 methods of, 6
reduction, 304 space, 18 mini-lube, 72
soil-bearing, 98 top, 252 - mixed flow, 9
unloading, 194 volume,32 moderate duty, 29
Carbon, 151, 329 Client list, 354 multi-stage, 34
Carbonaceous products, Coefficient of expansion, 181, non-lubricated or oil-free,
381,382 182,217 71-90,215-217,
Carbonic bowls, 384 Coking, 156 221,29441O Reciprocating Compressors: Operation andMaintenance
Nuovo Pignone, 54 jacket, 209, 216, 370 design, 31
oil-driven, 43 overcooling, 210 floating coupling, 65,
oxygen, 71, 103 problems, 375 68-70
p-V diagram, 103 system, 210-212, 214 guide repair, 298
packing, 168 towers, 375 jack/jam screw, 67
part replication, 301-302 water, 209-210,212-215, nodular iron, 48
piping and pulsation, 216,264,375 pin, 86, 88, 228,230, 254,
99-102 Connecting rod, 47, 252, 254 297, 298
polytropic, 10 Core shift during casting, 279 repair, 297-298
portable, 34 Correct parts, 352 set screw, 66
principal types of, 8 Copper disc, in crosshead, 66 shoe, shimming
process, 5 Copper-based compounds, 295 guidelines, 246
purpose of, 1 Corrective maintenance, 342 CRT, 332
ratings, 337 Corrosion, 151, 152, 155 Crush, 253,254,255,297
ratio, 10,20,26,382 Cost Cup-type packing, 189
reciprocating, 13,32,92, first, 41 Cut threads, 294,295
96-99, 107-131, 138 life cycle, 352 Cut-type rider ring, 274
regulation, 194 maintenance, 350-351 Cylinder
selection, 34,36,38 power, 41 alignment, 242-246
semi-radial, 42 wasted energy, 338 arrangement, 42
single-acting, 13, 14,30, Cotter pin, 296 bore (see Bore)
32,34 Counter, mechanical, 122 clearance, 18
single-cylinder, 92 Counterbore, 276-277,286 combination, 42
single-frame straight-line, 42 Counterweight, 90, 93,95 cooling, 209-2! 5, 216
sliding vane, 8 Couple, 93, 96 double-acting, 50,101
soot-blowing, 381 Cracks, 240,249, 263, 264, gasket, 265
spiral lobe, 8 282,292,295,298,299 head, 50
terminology, 32-34 Crank bearing failure, 254 high-pressure, 52,53
two-impeller straight-lobe, 8 Crankangle patterns, hyper, 53-54,55
two-stage, 34 332-334 inspection, 256-257
V-oriented, 13, 14,42 Crankcase, 47, 110 jacket cooling, 209
water-cooled, 30 deflection, 239 low-pressure, 51
work, 135 gas-tight, 219 lubricated, construction
Y-lype, 42,95, 96 lubrication of, 108-109, of, 73
Computer interface, 367-368 112-113 lubrication, 125-126, 373
Concrete, 247,250 oil, 128 material,50-54
Condensation pressure-tight, 219 medium-pressure, 51
(see also Moisture), 126, Crankpin bearing, 48, 227 micro-lube, 73
130,210,211,215 Crankshaft, 47 mini-lube, 73
Connecting rod, 45,297 deflection, 231,232, non-lubricated or oil-free,
Contamination, 40,183 248,253 71-90
Contractors, maintenance, journals, 299 oiling of, 257
356-358 nodular iron, 47 reboring, 259-261
Continuity, 39 repair, 298, 300 recycle, 52
Continuous bow, 240 straightness, 252 single-acting, pressure wave
Cooled packing, 170 Crankweb, 231 generated by, 100
Cooling Crosshead, 45,48, 86, 87 tail rod, 52-53,63, 64, 71,
arrangement, 29 clearance, 228 89-90
cylinder, 209-215 connection, 65,69 temperature, 182
effect, 17 copper disc, 66 truncated, 63-64Index 41 1
Damped force, 97 Embrittlemenl, hydrogen, 155 series, 210,211
Damping, 138, 140, 144 Emergency repairs, 342-343 switches, 122
Deceleration, 93 Emulsion, 112 Fluid
Deflection End clearance, 177,272,280 damping, 144
crankshaft, 232,248 Energy, 7,338 loss, 16,17
maximum specifications, Environmental effects of Fluorocarbon, 127
241-242 maintenance, 155-156 Flushing of oil systems, 373
web (see Web deflection) Epoxy, 216, 242,247,250, Flutter, 145, 152, 153, 156
Demulsification, i 12 251,374 Flywheel, 372
Deposits, 37, 126, 128, 182, Equipment improvement, Force
212,379 347-348 centrifugal, 93,94,95
Depressurization, 371 Etch testing, 299 couple, 93,96
Descaling, 212 Etching, reverse, 293 combined gas and inertia, 86
Design and materials, 44-106 Evaluating inspection data, damped, 97
Detector, g-switch, 364 348-350 disturbing or shaking, 90-96
Detonation waves, 381 Excessive deposits, 379 external, 92
Detuning, 101, 102 Expansion coefficient, 181, first order, 90
Dial indicator, 232 182, 217 gas, 86,92
Diaphragm, 195-198 Expert system, 342 inertia,28,86,90,91,93,95
Diester, 111, 127, 382 Explosions, 187,374, internal,92
Differential pressure, 1,12 378-382, 386 primary, 93,94-95
Diffuser, 9 reciprocating, 93
Dirt intrusion,359 Facilities, 353-354 resultant, 95
Disassembly/assembly, 373 Failure second order, 90
Distance piece, 219 analysis, valve, 150-154 secondary, 93
Distortion, 252 grouping, valve, 154 slamming, 156
Discharge piston, 278-279,295 Forced coolant system, 214
pressure, 12 Fan, 1 Force-feed system, 114,
temperature, 21,24, 209 Fatigue, 150, 153 128-129
valve, 31, 32, 385 Feeder system, 120-124 Foreign material, 150-152,
Displacement Feed rate, 117-120, 126 155,379
piston, 10, 15 Pel-Pro, 295 Fouling service, 224
positive, 8 Filing, 190 Foundation, 94,96-99, 243
pump, 1 SO Films, on discharge valve bolt, 248, 374
Distance piece, 218, 219 surfaces, 379 condition, 40
Divider block system, Filter/filtration, 28, 81,124, cracks, 249-250
120-124 129,216,329,380 need, 37
Drain water, 372 Fingers, 166-167,196, 197 oil leaks, 249
Driver, 30 Finish, surface, 217 oil-degraded, 248
Downtime, 222,223 Fires and explosions, 378-382 problems, 247-248
Drain line, 264 Flame hardening, 64,290 repair, 249-250
Dye penetraet, 256,265,276 Flash point, 113, 379 sag, 240
Dynamic Data Manager®, 367 Flood system, 109 Frame, 47
Floor space, 37,40 load, 10, 86
Efficiency, 10, 17, 18,21 Flow limitation, 82
Ejector, 6 cooling system, 214 oil circulation, 373
Elasticity, 97 parallel, 211 repair, 301
Electric installation, 384 pattern failure, 153 vibration monitoring,
Electrical codes, 384 rate of cooling liquid to 364-368
Electronic monitor, 122 packing, 170 Free air, 9412 Reciprocating Compressors: Operation and Maintenance
Free thickness, 247 piston, 275-278,290-294
flow, non-compressing Guard program, 352
control, 196 belt, 384 report, 324
gap, 271 flywheel, 372 valve seat, 264
Freezing, 264 plate, 149 Interface, computer, 367-368
Frequency port, 137 Interference fit, 262
dominant, 99 Intercooler/intercooling, 34,
resonant, 100 Heat 44,208,209,382
vibratory, 97 checks, 293 pressure deviation,
Fretting, on bearing shell exchanger, 212,215 318-325,326
backs, 252 transfer, poor, 253 Interstage
Friction, 65 Healers, 296 piping, 216
Full-load operation, 37 Holding Fixture, 164 pressure, 24
Hoerbiger, 163-164 Isothermal compression, 10
G-switch/detector, 364 piston rod, 285
Gap (see also Clearance), Hole, vent, 276 Jack/jam screw
80,178 Hollow piston, 276,372 piston, 67
free, 271 Honing, 217,258,259,261 crosshead, 67
piston ring, 261 Horsepower, 17, 26, 194 valve, 159, 161, 198,
Garter spring, 167, 186-188, Housekeeping, 374 265, 267
191 Jacket
Gas ICFM (intake cubic feet per cooling, 209,265
characteristics, 39 minute), 10 water, 209, 210,265
chemically active, 126 Impact Journals, 299,300
damping of, 140 fatigue, 153 clearance, 227
definition, 1, 3 wrenches, 373 crankshaft, 299
delivery, insufficient, 305 Impacting, multiple, 156 grinding,299
dirty, 151 Impurities, 155 runout, 254
discharge temperature, 209 Indicator
escape of, 186 card, 16, 31, 103 K value, 212
force, 86 diagram, 187 Kerosene, 374, 376, 380
hydrocarbon, 125-126 Indikon system, 233 test, 166
ideal, 2 Inertia (see Force) Keyphasor®, 244, 268
inert, 125 Infrared devices, 162,323 Knocking noise, 305-306,326
laws, 1, 2 Injection, pressure, 242
leakage, 372-373 Injector pump, 121 Laitance, 247
mixture, 2 Inlet Lamp, preloading monitor, 237
perfect, 2 filter, 28 Labyrinth (see also
pressure on piston rings, 272 pressure, 12 Compression/compressor
trapped, 372 pressurized, 120 groove, 218
Gasket, 161, 265 valve, 31 principle, 102, 187
Gasoline, 374, 376 Inspection, 217 tooth design, 218
Gauge pressure, 9 cleaning and, 373-374 Laser profile readings, 248
Gerhardt pump, 121 data, evaluating, 348-350 Laser-optical instruments,242
Groove, 269,270, 274 dye penetrant, 265, 276 Lead wire, 229
Grout, 240, 243, 247, 374 final report, 355 Leakage, 16, 17, 323, 329
deterioration, 230 forms, 267,277,348-350 air, 304,338,339
epoxy, 247, 251, 374 magnetic particle, 299 gas, 372-373
loosening, 240 parts, 352 packing, 172, 183-184,
regrouting, 247,248-249 periodic, 359 188-189Index 41 3
path, !66 delivery, incorrect, 318 reactive, 341
piston ring, 21 divider block, 120-124 routine, 342
LDPE (Low density excessive, 120 valve, 131-167
polyethylene), 54 feed adjustment, 257 Manual control, 195
Length, acoustic, 100 feeder system, 120-124 Match-marked packing/ring,
Life cycle costs, 352 film, 111-112 184, 191
Lift foundation oil leaks, 249 Materials, 47-70
control of, 141 full pressure circulation, cylinder, 50-54
high, 140, i45 110-111 foundation bolt, 248
limitation, 150 gases, chemically active, 126 liner, 54-56
range of, 144 improper, 156, 251 piston rod, 61-70
valve, 137, 149-150 inspection, 127-129 piston, 56-61
Limitation, 5, 194 prelube, 185 valve, 146-148
Liner, 54-56, 260 pressure, 317 Measurement, cylinder
installation, 262-263 rate of, 113, 117 bore, 257
interference fit, 262 safety, 374 locations, 257
Ni-Resist, 56 sampling of, 361 Mechanical
special, 262 shutdown, 129-131 action, abnormal, 152-154,
Liquid, 28 splash, 108-109 156-158
carryover, 151, 155 system, 114,122, 128 counter, 122
films on discharge valve synthetic, 126-127 efficiency, 10
surfaces, 379 viscosities, 125 force-feed system, 114
knockout, 212 wear, 182 interlock binding, 328
piston compressor, 8 scarification,247
slug, 151,155, 306 Machinery analyst, 304 Metal
Load Magnaflux, 290,293 etch testing, 299
crosshead pin, 89 Magnaglow, 290 locking, 301
factor, 36, 37 Magnet, 328 spray, 264, 300
frame, 10, 82, 86 Magnetic particle stitching, 263-264,298,301
reversal at pin, 88 inspection, 299 Metallurgical upgrading, 155
rod, graphic Magnetism, residual, 328 Mill test reports, 355
representation, 87 Maintenance, 127, 351 Misalignment, 230,243, 251
tension, 84 bearing, 251-256 Moisture (see also
unit loading of soil, 98 breakdown, 340,341, 342 Condensation), 34,113,
Loading diagram, crosshead condition-based, 359 182,210,211,216
pin, 88 contractors, 356-358 Molecular weight, 17
Loading, non-reversal, 64 corrective, 342 Moment, 93
Lock nut, 165,366 cost, 220-223, 343, Monitor/monitoring
Log, daily, 217, 300 350-351 electronic, I22
Low density polyethylene hints, 376 frame vibration, 364
(LDPE), 54 improvement, 345 lamps, preloading, 237
Lubrication/lubricator (see levels of, 341-342 proximityprobe, 244
also Oil), 45,107-131 periodic inspection, 359 rod piston, 368
box, 114, 120, 121, 185 piston, 268-282 system, integrating
consumption, excessive, 317 predictive, 340,342,347, condition, 362-368
cracked, 374 359-362 temperature, 362
crankcase or bearing, preventive, 340-368 vibration,361
108-i 11 program development, valve cover temperature, 323
cylinder and packing, 345-346 Motor controls, 326
1 1 I I 1 6 , 125-126 program objectives, 345 Multipleimpacting,156414 Reciprocating Compressors; OperationandMaintenance
Multiple-service unit, 41 Overlapping seal joint, 176 tangent, 170,171, 172,176,
Muhistaging, 5,21,22,37 Overlays, 292 177,179, 180
Oxidation, 112-113, 117, 380 type, 176-180
NOT (non-destructive testing), Oxygen compression, 103 Paint, 216
276, 299, 353 Parallel
Nickel aluminide bond, 283 p-V (see Pressure-volume) cooling system, 210
Nitriding, 56 Packing, 118, 167-192,243 flow, 211
Noise and vibration, arrangement, 169 Particulate matter, 185
305-307,329 box lubrication, 185 Parts, 351
Non combustible cleaner, 380 case, 172,173, 191 PEEK (polyether-ethercooled, 170 ketone), 148
Oil (see also Lubrication/ cup-type, 189 Phosphate, 127
lubricator) double-acting, 184 Piling, 98
air stream, in contact with, garter spring breakage, Pin, 48, 88
381-382 186-188 Pipe vibration, 101-102
barrier, 247 gumming of, 114 Piping
analysis, 129 leakage in, 183-184, ABS, 385,387
carryover, 31 188-189 air, 383
change, frequency of, 113 maintenance, 189-190 interstage, 216
consumption, 117 Micarta, 185 plastic, 383, 385,387
container, 129 mislocated, 184 pulsation and, 99-102
contamination, 40 oversized rod, 186 PVC, 385, 386, 387
crankcase, 128 problem, 180-185 support, 102
cup, 169 rate of leakage, 188 Piston
deflector, 74,77, 169 reconditioned, 189 aluminum, 57, 282
detergent-type, 113 servicing, 190-192 defects, 278
feed, !17-120, 126, 129 spare set, 190 displacement, 10,15
filter, 110 tapered rod, 185-186 end clearance, 288-289
lubricating, 46 type, 169-176 failure, 278,279
method of application, 114 undersized rod, 186 gap, 281
non-detergent mineral, 112 vacuum, 173 hollow, 276,372
oxidation, 112, 117, 380 wear, 64, 180, 181 inspection, 256,275-278
periodic analyses weepage, 188 installingon piston rod,
pocket, 109 wiper, 192 284-288
pressure safety device, 110 Packing rings, 170 labyrinth, 73,102-106,220
scraper, 46,65, 192, 243 anti-extrusion, 179 lightweight, 58
splasher, 109 back-upset, 178, 179 loose, 306
synthetic, 126,383 bore, 191 maintenance, 268-282
system flushing, 373 breakage, 186-188 material, 56-61
wiper, 169, 192, 193 breaker, 187 non-floating, 71
Oil-mist environment, 130 bronze, 294 non-lubricated cylinder, 78
Once-through system, 113 damage, 187, 188 nuts, 285,295-296
Opening impact, 137 end clearance, 190 oversize, 278, 280-282
Oscilloscope, 361,365 explosion, 187 problems, 275
Out of round, 258,259 face, 191 rebuilding, 282-284
Outlet temperature, water, 210 pressure, 177, 178, 180 safety, 372
Overall efficiency, 10 radial, 172, 176, 180 scuffed, 282
Overcooling, 210 seal, 171, 176 section, 121
Overhaul, 224, 227 side clearance, 180 slap, 31
Overheating, 251 style, 189 three-piece, 77, 80, 81Index 415
truncated, 30, 81 oversized, 186 breakdown, 175
two-piece, 277 packing (see Packing) buildup, 101
worn, 282 reconditioning, 292-294 depressurization, 371
Piston rings, 215 rolled thread, 294,295 differential, 1,12
bull, 216 runout, 243-244,245 discharge, 12
carbon, 71 set screw, 66 drop, 17
carrier, 57 stretch, 84 energy, 7
clearance, 228, 272, 273 surface hardness, 77 excess, 39
distance, 68, 74 tandem, 63 explosion, 187
gap, 228, 261 tapered, 58, 185-186 gas, on piston rings, 272
force fit, 79 truncated, 63 gauge, 9
guide, 216 types of, 62-64 injection, 242
installation, 274-275 undersized, 186 inlet, 12
leakage, 21 verifying trueness, 291 ' insufficient, 314
oil scraper, 65 wiper packing, 192,193 interstage, 24, 39, 325
oversize, 261 Plasma spray, 64, 292 lubrication system, 45,
pre-stretehed, 79 Plastic 120-124
renewing, 280 pipe, 385, 387 packing, 72, 190-192
slap, 72 composite, 146, 148 range, 28
Teflon, 80,82,178, 179, Plastigage, 229 ratio, 325
183,282 Plate, valve, 82, 149, 164 safety device, 110
width, 78 guard or stop, 149 sensing element, 196
Piston rods, 61-70 ported, 143 static, 7
bent, 294 Plating, 292,293,294,299,300 suction, 12
castellated, 66 Plug unloader, 51, 141 total, 12
coatings, 294 Plunger, 54 true, 11
column, 82 Pocket, oil, 109 wave, 100, 101
connection, 58 Polarization, 377 Pressure-tight crankcase, 219
cooled, 64 Polyalkylene glycol, 127 Pressure-volume
cut threads, 294,295 Polyalpha-olefin, 111,127 diagram, 31,103, 134, 331
deflection, 84 Polyether-ether-ketone, 148 patterns, 330-332
die cut threads, 294 Polymers, 72,103,224 Pressured header-type
failure, premature, 295 Polytropic compression, 10 system, 114
finish, 77 Poppet valve, 144,145 Pressurized inlet, 120
flame-hardened, 290 Porosity, 293 Pre-stressing, 68
floating coupling, 68-70 Porous chrome, 293 Probes, 364,368
holding fixture, 285 Portable compressor, 34 Problems (see Troubleshooting)
inspection and Ported plate valve, 143 Process condition, 39
reconditioning, Positive, 8, 114 Proximity probe, 244-245,
290-294 Power 364,368
installing pistons on, capacity vs., 26 PTFE (see Teflon)
284-288 limit, 194 Pulsation, 99, 102, 152, 153
interference fit, 58 saving, 22, 23 control, 102
jack, jam screw, 67 Prelube, 185 dampener, 28
load, 82-84, 87 Pre-stress, 296 effect of, 102
maintenance of packing, Pressure, 11,28 form, 99-100
189-190 absolute, 9, 11, 12 Pumps
manufacture of, 294-296 atmospheric, 12 divider block system, 121
material, 64-65,294 back, 187 Gerhardl, 121
multi-bolt, 61, 68 balance ring set, 180 injector, 121416 Reciprocating Compressors: Operation and Maintenance
portable, 124 Rider band, 71,78,216,228, standstill, 173
positive displacement, 110 244, 245, 274, 275, Static-Pac™, 174
with pressurized supplies, 283-284,306 Sealing element, 139, 146, 149
116 carbon type, 71 Seat, valve, 132, 148, 157,
sight glass, 114-116 life of, 78 165,264-265
stroke, 318 Teflon, 78 gasket, 157, 161, 264
vacuum, 32 wear, 244, 245 inspection, 264
Purging, 124 Ring (see also Packing ring, land, 137
PVC pipe, 385,386,387 Piston ring, Valve ring), lift, 137
172, 176, 179, 180 Segment reversal, 184
Qualifications, technical, 354 Rod (see also Piston rods), 291 Secondary vibration period, 90
Quality control, 354 Rotary positive displacement, 8 Semi-radial compressor, 42
Rotor weave, 306 Sensing, 195
Radiator system, air, 212 RTV (room temperature Separator, 155
Ratings, 337 vulcanizing cement), 265 Series
Rebuilding Runout, 243-244,254 cooling system, 210
pistons, 282-284 Rupture, 374, 380 flow, 210,211
valves, 162-167 Rust inhibitor, 112-113 Shaking force, 90-96
Reciprocating compressor Ryton, 185 Shaft, bowed condition, 240
(see Compression/ Shimming guidelines,
compressor) Safety, 340, 369-387 crosshead shoe, 246
Reconditioning, 162-167, 190 air piping, 383-387 Shoe, 45
Record keeping, 158, 346 basic rules, 369 Shutdown, 129-131, 372, 375
Reference points, for wire devices, 370 Sight
alignment, 242 fires and explosions, glass, pumps with, 114-116
Regrinding, 292 378-383 well, 115
Regrouting, 247,248-249 lock-out/tag-out program, Sight-feed glass, 128
Relaying, 195 369-376 Slamming, 152,153,156
Relief precautions, 384-385 Sleeve (see Liner)
groove, 274 solvent, 383 Sliding vane compressor, 8
valve, 319, 325, 370,384 valve, 376-378, 383 Slippage, 16, 17,21
Remachining, 165 Sag, foundation-related, 240 Slipper, 45
Removal of deposit, 128 Sampling of lubricating oil, 361 Sludge, 126, 151
Repair, 227,255-256,282, Scale, 212 Slug, liquid, 151, 155, 306
283, 296-301 Scarification, mechanical, 247 Soap solution, 380
certification, 300-301 Scoop, 109 Soil, 97
cold, 263 Scoring, 184 characteristic, 97
connecting rod, 297 Scraper (see Oil scraper) condition, 40
crankshaft, 298 Scrapping, piston rod, 291 unit loading, 98
crosshead, 297-298 Scratches, 258 Soil-bearing capacity, 98
frame, 301 Scribing tool, 288 Solenoid, 195
weld, 299 Scrubber, 151 Solenoid-operated valve, 216
Replacement bolts, torque, 373 Scuffed pistons, 282 Solid rider ring, 275
Report, written,354-355 Scuffing, 184,258 Solvent, safety, 383
Resonance, 97, 152, 153 Seal Soot-blowing compressor, 381
Reservoir, 108 concrete, 247 Spare
Reverse contactless, 218 parts, 222,351-352
bend, 240 epoxy, 247 valve, 152
engineering, 352 piston ring, 211-212 Specifications, written, 354
etching, 293 ring, single-acting, 176 Spectrographic analysis, 36!Index 417
Spilled oil, 374 Tapered piston rod, 185-186 Top clearance, 253
Spiral lobe compressor, 8 Technical qualifications, 354 Torque, 90, 286, 295
Splash lubrication, 108-109 Teflon (PTFE), 72,73,79, 80, application, 287
Spray 185,216,217,275 bolt, 267
metal, 264,292,300 expansion coefficient, 182, crosshead nuts, 296
plasma, 64, 292 217 piston nuts, 285, 295
Spring well, 144 block, 217 procedures, 295
Spring, 148, 149, 165 guide, 82 proper, 267
diaphragm, 196, honing, 77 values, 373
garter, 167, 186-188,191 rider band, 78,282 wrench, 295
Spring-loaded finger, 196 ring, 80, 178,179, 183 Total
Squealing noise, 307 virgin, 77 energy. 7
Standard air, 9 Temperature pressure, 12
Standstill seal, 373 cylinder, 182 Trabon system, 122
Static-Pac™, 174 differential, 363 Tramming tool, 288
Static discharge, 21,24,209 Training programs, 346,
pressure, 7 effect on pressure rating of 355-356
system, 214 piping, 386 Transducer, 23,233,367
Step joint ring, 275 excessive, 382 Tri-metal, 255
Sticking, 136, 156 high, 209, 382 Troubleshooting, 303-339
Stitching, 263-264, 298 infrared, measuring air delivery, none, 314
Stoning, 190 device, 162 air delivery, insufficient,
Stop plate, 149 limitation, 24 314
Storage, 130 monitor, 362 case histories, 335-337
Straightening, 300 operating, limit, 382 diagnostic tests, 326-329
Strain gauge, 232 trends, 362 failure to run, 307
Strainer, 110 Tension calculation,86 intercooler, 316-318
Stress Terminating system, 113 interstage pressures, 325
corrosion, 155 Testing/tests loose lock nut, 366
relief, 299 air pressure, 167, 168 loss of capacity, 304-305
Stretch method, 295 diagnostic, 326-329 lubricationsystems,
Suction kerosene, 166 317-318
piping, 216 metal, 299 motor controls, 328
pressure, 12 mill report, 355 motor overheats, 316
valve, 32, 196, 198, 318 non-destructive (NDT), noise and vibration,
Supervisory interaction, 358 276,299,353 305-307
Surface tissue paper, 197 piston, 275
finish, 217 valve, 166-167 pressure higher than
preparation, 247 Thermal syphon system, 214 normal, 325
Survey, vendor, 355 Thermodynamics, laws of, 2,6 pressure, insufficient, 314
Switch, flow, 122 Thermography, 323 receiver safety valve
Thermostat, 211,212 blows, 315
Tail rod, 52-53, 63, 64, 71 Thermosyphon, 170, 212 relief valve,319,325
non-lubricated cylinder, Thread, 294, 295, 377 runs hot, 315
89-90 Tight wire method, 242 runs too long to reach
Tangent ring, 170, 171, 172, Time-pressure diagram, 154 pressure, 315
176, 177, 179, 180 Tissue paper test, 197 unit will not shut off, 315
Taper Tolerance, 227 unit blows fuse, 316
fit, 285 Tool, hydraulic, 68 unit will not start, 316
wear, 258 Tooling, 346 unloader erratic, 315418 Reciprocating Compressors: OperationandMaintenance
valve, 264 disassembly, 159-161, safety, 376-378,383
valve problems, 157 163-165 schematic, 135
v-belt drives, 327 disc, 144 sealing element, 132,
True pressure, 11 discharge, 31, 32,385 146,149
Trunk piston design, 30 double block and bleed seat, 132, 137, 148, 157,
Tungsten carbide overlay, 292 combination, 373 165,264
Two-impeller straight-lobe double-deck, 144 semi-polarized, 377
compressor, 8 energy expended, 135 single-bolt restraint, 162
Two-piece piston, 277 failure, 150-154, 382 slip, 21
Two-stage compressor, 34 faulty, 305 solenoid-operated, 216
feather, 139 spare, 152
Ultraprobe, 330 fouling of, 114 spring, 149,165
Ultrasonic/ultrasound, 255, function of, 133 sticking effect, 136
329-334 guard port, 137 suction, 32,196, 198
detection device, 330 high-security restraint, 164 surfaces, liquid films on, 379
patterns, 332 high-speed, 144 temperature monitoring,
pickup, 334 holding fixture, 163-164 323,362-363
pressure-volume patterns, inlet, 31 terminal check, 124
330-332 installation,376-378 testing, 166-167
trace, 333 jam screw, 159,161, theory and design, 132
vs. crankangie patterns, 265,267 troubleshooting, 131-167,
332-334 land, 137 158-159,264,324
Undercutting, 264 leaking,324, 333 type, 138, 145
Unloader, 82 lift, 137, 149-150 unloading assembly, 198
assembly, 197 location chart, 158-159 velocity, 17, 136
bypassing, 326 loose or broken, 306 yoke, 159, 161
finger, 196, 197 loss, 17 Vapor, 3
mechanism, 196 maintenance and Velocity, 7
non-lubricated, 82 operational problems, acoustic, 100
plug-type, 51, 141 131-167 low-impact, 145
valve, 196, 198 malfunctions,334 valve, 17, 136
material, 146-148 Vendor selection, 353-355
V-belts, 326,327 monitoring, 323 Vent, 111
V-blocks, 285,286, 290,295 multi-bolt restraint, 162 arrangement, 173
V-oriented compressor, 13, non-interchangeable, hole, 276
14,42 376-377,378 provision, 173
Vacuum, 13 non-lubricated, 82 Vented packing case, 173
packing, 173 operational problems and Venting, of pistons, 372
pump, 32 maintenance, 131-167 Vibration, 323
Valves, 82, 131 performance problems, 324 damaging, 374
assembly, 161-162, 165 plate, 82, 143, 149, 164 frequency, 97
acceleration, 136 polarization, 377 monitoring, 361
analysis, 329 poppet, 144,145 noise and, 305-307
automatic, 31 reconditioning and periods, 90
channel, 82, 139-140 rebuilding, 162-167 safety, 374
component, 148 rectangular, 139, 140 switches, 375
concentric ring, 141 reed, 139, 141 sympathetic, 329
cover, 159, 161,265,323, relief, 319,384 vs. crankangie patterns,
325,377 restraint, 161, 162, 163 332-334
design, 132, 138 ring, concentric, 141 Viscosity, 111, 113, 125, 126Index 419
W arrangement, 97 Waves measurement, 231-242
Washer, chemical, 151 composite, 99 permissible, 232
Washing, acid, 247 detonation, 381 readings, 248
Watchman Lubemation pressure, 100, 101 Web opening, 232
system, 122-123 sine, 99 Weepageof packing, 188
Water, 111,112 Wear, 150, 180, 181,182, 183, Weight, 11, 93
conditions, inadequate, 265 184,244, 245,252 molecular, 17
cooling, 264 barrel-shape, 258 Welding, 297,298,299
cooling system component, 113 Wells
closed, 212, 213 cylinder bore, 258 sight, 114-116
open, 211 out-of-round mode, 258,259 spring, 144
raw, 211 quantitative data, 359 Wing, 54
recommendation, 212 taper mode, 258 Wire
drainage, from jackets, 372 Wear-in (see also alignment, 242
jacket, 209,216,265,370 Break-in), 186 edge, 190
cooling effect, 265 Weaving of motor rotor, 306 lead, 229
covers, 265 Web deflection method, 242
quantity, 214, 215 causes of, 234-235 Worn pistons, 282
relief, 370 digital indicator, 232, 233
temperature electronic, 234,237
cooling, 209, 210 hot, 235, 237 XY-proximity probe, 364
low, 212 interpreting readings,
outlet, 210 238-241
treated, 212 maximum specifications, Yarn, asbestos, 72
Water-separating ability, 112 241-242 Yoke, valve, 159, 161


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