كتاب Power Plant Engineering
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Power Plant Engineering

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عدد المساهمات : 16283
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Power Plant Engineering  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Power Plant Engineering    كتاب Power Plant Engineering  Emptyالسبت 01 أغسطس 2020, 12:39 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Power Plant Engineering
A.K , Raja
Director and Head Department of Electrical Engineering
Saroj Institute of Technology k Management
Lucknow
Amit Prakash Srivastava
Sr. Lecturer and Head Department of Mechanical Engineering
Saroj Institute of Technology k Management
Lucknow
Manish Dwivedi
Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering Department
Saroj Institute of Technology k Management
Lucknow  

كتاب Power Plant Engineering  P_p_e_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface . (v)
Syllabus . (vii)
Chapter 1: Fundamental of Power Plant . 1
1.1 Introduction . 1
1.2 Concept of Power Plants . 1
1.3 Classification of Power Plants . 2
1.4 Energy . 3
1.5 Types of Energy . 4
1.6 Power . 5
1.7 Power Development in India . 5
1.8 Resources for Power Generation . 7
1.9 Present Power Position in India . 9
1.10 Future Planning for Power Generation . 9
1.11 Power Corporations in India . 11
1.11.1 National Thermal Power Corporation . 11
1.11.2 National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation . 11
1.11.3 Rural Electrification Corporation . 12
1.11.4 Damodar Valley Corporation . 12
1.11.5 North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited . 12
1.11.6 Bhakra Beas Management Board and Beas Construction Board . 13
1.11.7 Power Engineers Training Society (PETS) . 13
1.11.8 Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), Bangalore . 13
1.11.9 Nathpa, Jhaicri Power Corporation Limited . 13
1.12 Review of Thermodynamics Cycles Related to Power Plants . 14
1.13 Classification of Power Plant Cycle . 15
1.13.1 Carnot Cycle . 15
1.13.2 Rankine Cycle . 15
1.13.3 Reheat Cycle . 16
1.13.4 Regenerative Cycle (Feed Water Heating) . 16
1.13.5 Binary Vapour Cycle . 17
1.13.6 Reheat-Regenerative Cycle . 17
1.13.7 Formula Summary . 181.14 Fuels and Combustion . 18
1.15 Steam Generators . 18
1.16 Steam Prime Movers . 19
1.17 Steam Condensers . 19
1.17.1 Surface Condensers . 20
1.17.2 Jet Condensers . 22
1.17.3 Types of Jet Condensers . 22
1.18 Water (Hydraulic) Turbines . 23
1.18.1 Impulse and Reaction Turbines . 23
1.19 Scienc Vs. Technology . 25
1.19.1 Scientific Research . 25
1.19.2 Science and Technology Infrastructure . 26
1.20 Facts Vs. Values . 26
1.21 Atomic Energy . 26
1.22 Highlights of the Nuclear Power Programme . 27
1.23 Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited . 27
1.24 Ocean Engineering Applications . 28
Chapter 2: Non-Conventional Energy Resources and Utilisation . 33
2.1 Introduction . 33
2.2 Energy Science . 33
2.3 Various Energy Science . 33
2.4 Energy Technology . 35
2.5 Energy Technology and Energy Sciences . 36
2.6 Law of Conservation of Energy . 37
2.7 Facts and Figures about Energy . 37
2.8 Indian and Global Energy Sources . 38
2.8.1 The Sun . 38
2.8.2 etroleum . 39
2.8.3 Natural Gas . 43
2.8.4 Coal . 44
2.8.5 Nuclear Energy . 45
2.8.6 LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) . 46
2.8.7 Alcohol . 46
2.8.8 Gasohol . 46
2.8.9 Hydro Power . 46
2.9 Energy Exploited . 46
2.10 Energy Demand . 48
(viii)2.11 Energy Planning . 49
2.12 Introduction to Various Sources of Energy . 51
2.12.1 Conventional Sources of Energy . 51
2.12.2 Non-Conventional Sources of Energy . 51
2.13 Introduction to Various Non-Conventional Energy Resources . 52
2.14 Bio-Gas . 53
2.14.1 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bio-Conversion Process . 53
2.14.2 Raw Materials . 55
2.14.3 Properties of Bio Gas . 56
2.14.4 Bio Gas Plant Technology . 56
2.15 Wind Energy . 58
2.15.1 Wind Machine Fundamentals . 59
2.15.2 Aerofoil Design . 60
2.15.3 Wind Power Systems . 62
2.15.4 Economic Issues . 63
2.15.5 Selection of Wind Mill . 64
2.15.6 Recent Developments . 65
2.16 Solar Energy . 66
2.16.1 Solar Radiations . 67
2.16.2 Solar Thermal Power Plant . 68
2.16.3 Solar Energy Storage . 70
2.16.4 Recent Developments in Solar Power Plants . 72
2.17 Electrochemical Effects and Fuel Cells . 73
2.17.1 Reversible Cells . 73
2.17.2 Ideal Fuel Cells . 74
2.17.3 Other Types of Fuel Cells . 75
2.17.4 Efficiency of Cells . 76
2.18 Thermionic Systems and Thennionic Emission . 78
2.18.1 Thermoionic Conversion . 79
2.18.2 Ideal and Actual Efficiency . 80
2.19 Thermoelectric Systems . 82
2.19.1 Principle of Working . 82
2.19.2 Performance . 83
2.20 Geo Thermal Energy . 86
2.20.1 Hot Springs . 87
2.20.2 Steam Ejection . 87
2.20.3 Site Selection . 88
(ix)2.20.4 Geothermal Power Plants . 88
2.20.5 Advanced Concepts . 95
2.21 Ocean Energy . 97
2.21.1 Power Plants Based on Ocean Energy . 98
2.22 Other Energy Technology . 101
2.22.1 Liquid Fuel . 101
2.22.2 Fuel Cell Technology . 103
2.22.3 Hydrogen Energy . 104
2.22.4 Hydrogen Energy Technology . 104
2.22.5 Battery Operated Vehicles . 106
2.22.6 Bio Fuel Technology . 107
2.22.7 Hydroelectric Power . 107
2.22.8 Innovative Heat Exchanger to Save Energy . 108
Chapter 3: Power Plant Economics and Variable Load Problem . 120
3.1 Terms and Factors . 120
3.2 Factor Effecting Power Plant Design . 122
3.3 Effect of Power Plant Type on Costs . 122
3.3.1 Initial Cost . 122
3.3.2 Rate of Interest . 123
3.3.3 Depreciation . 123
3.3.4 Operational Costs . 124
3.3.5 Cost of Fuels . 125
3.3.6 Labout Cost . 125
3.3.7 Cost of Maintenance and Repairs . 125
3.3.8 Cost of Stores . 125
3.3.9 Supervision . 126
3.3.10 Taxes . 126
3.4 Effect of Plant Type on Rates (Tariffs or Energy Element) . 126
3.4.1 Requirements of a Tariff . 126
3.4.2 Types of Tariffs . 126
3.5 Effect of Plant Type on Fixed Elements . 129
3.6 Effect of Plant Type on Customer Elements . 129
3.7 Investor’s Profit . 129
3.8 Economics in Plant Selection . 130
3.9 Economic of Power Generation . 131
3.10 Industrial Production and Power Generational Compared . 132
3.11 Load Curves . 132
(x)3.12 Ideal and Realized Load Curves . 133
3.13 Effect of Variable Load on Power Plan Design . 133
3.14 Effect of Variable Load on Power Plant Operation . 134
Chapter 4 : Steam Power Plant . 142
4.1 Introduction . 142
4.2 Essentials of Steam Power Plant Equipment . 142
4.2.1 Power Station Design . 144
4.2.2 Characteristics of Steam Power Plant . 144
4.3 Coal Handling . 145
4.3.1 Dewatering of Coal . 149
4.4 Fuel Burning Furnaces . 150
4.4.1 Types of Furnaces . 150
4.5 Method of Fuel Firing . 151
4.5.1 Hand Firing . 151
4.5.2 Mechanical Firing (Stokers) . 153
4.6 Automatic Boiler Control . 156
4.7 Pulverized Coal . 157
4.7.1 Ball Mill . 158
4.7.2 Ball and Race Mill . 159
4.7.3 Shaft Mill . 161
4.8 Pulverized Coal Firing . 161
4.9 Pulverized Coal Burners . 163
4.9.1 Cyclone Fired Boilers . 166
4.10 Water Walls . 166
4.11 Ash Disposal . 167
4.11.1 Ash Handling Equipment . 168
4.12 Smoke and Dust Removal . 172
4.13 Types of Dust Collectors . 172
4.13.1 Fly Ash Scrubber . 174
4.13.2 Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) . 175
4.13.3 Types of FBC Systems . 176
Chapter 5 : Steam Generator . 179
5.1 Introduction . 179
5.2 Types of Boilers . 179
5.3 Cochran Boilers . 181
5.4 Lancashire Boiler . 183
(xi)5.5 Locomotive Boiler . 185
5.6 Babcock Wilcox Boiler . 187
5.7 Industrial Boilers . 189
5.8 Merits and Demerits of Water Tube Boilers over Fire Tube Boilers Mertis . 189
5.9 Requirements of a Good Boiler . 190
5.10 High Pressure Boilers . 190
5.10.1 La Mont Boiler . 191
5.10.2 Benson Boiler . 191
5.10.3 Loeffler Boiler . 192
5.10.4 Schmidt-Hartmann Boiler . 193
5.10.5 Velox Boiler . 193
Chapter 6 : Steam Turbine . 195
6.1 Principle of Operation of Steam Turbine . 195
6.2 Classification of Steam Turbine . 196
6.3 The Simple Impulse Turbine . 200
6.4 Compounding of Impulse Turbine . 201
6.5 Pressure Compounded Impulse Turbine . 202
6.6 Simple Velocity-Compounded Impulse Turbine . 203
6.7 Pressure and Velocity Compounded Impulse Turbine . 204
6.8 Impulse-Reaction Turbine . 205
6.9 Advantages of Steam Turbine over Steam Engine . 206
6.10 Steam Turbine Capacity . 206
6.11 Capability . 207
6.12 Steam Turbine Governing . 207
6.13 Steam Turbine Performance . 207
6.14 Steam Turbine Testing . 208
6.15 Choice of Steam Turbine . 208
6.16 Steam Turbine Generators . 208
6.17 Steam Turbine Specifications . 209
Chapter 7 : Fuels and Combustion . 217
7.1 Introduction . 217
7.2 Coal . 217
7.3 Coal Analysis . 219
7.3.1 Proximate Analysis . 219
7.3.2 Ultimate Analysis . 219
7.3.3 Heating Value . 219
(xii)7.4 Coal Firing . 221
7.5 Mechanical Stokers . 222
7.6 Pulverized-Coal Firing . 224
7.7 Cyclone Furnaces . 230
Chapter 8 : Diesel Power Plant . 234
8.1 Introduction . 234
8.2 Operating Principle . 236
8.3 Basic Types of IC Engines . 236
8.3.1 Two-Stroke, Spark Ignition Gas Engines/Petrol Engines . 237
8.3.2 Diesel Engines/Heavy Oil Engines . 237
8.3.3 Duel Fuel Engines . 237
8.3.4 High Compression Gas Engines . 238
8.4 Advantage of Diesel Power Plant . 238
8.5 Disadvantage of Diesel Power Plant . 238
8.6 Application of Diesel Power Plant . 238
8.7 General Layout of Diesel Power Plant . 239
8.8 Performance of Diesel Engine . 239
8.8.1 Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) . 239
8.8.2 Indicated Hourse Power (IHP) . 239
8.8.3 Brake Horse Power (B.H.P.) . 240
8.8.4 Frictional Horse Power (F.H.P.) . 240
8.8.5 Indicated Thermal Efficiency . 240
8.8.6 Brake Thermal Efficiency (Overall Efficiency) . 240
8.8.7 Mechanical Efficiency . 240
8.9 Fuel System of Diesel Power Plant . 241
8.10 Lubrication System of Diesel Power Plant . 242
8.10.1 Liquid Lubicricants or Wet Sump Lubrication System . 244
8.10.2 Solid Lubricants or Dry Sump Lubrication System . 246
8.10.3 Mist Lubrication System . 246
8.11 Air Intakes and Admission System of Diesel Power Plant . 246
8.12 Supercharging System of Diesel Power Plant . 247
8.12.1 Types of Supercharger . 248
8.12.2 Advantages of Supercharging . 249
8.13 Exhaust System of Diesel Power Plant . 249
8.14 Cooling System of Diesel Power Plant . 250
8.14.1 Open Cooling System . 251
8.14.2 Natural Circulation System . 251
(xiii)8.14.3 Forced Circulation Cooling System . 251
8.15 Diesel Plant Operation . 252
8.16 Efficiency of Diesel Power Plant . 253
8.17 Heat Balance Sheet . 255
Chapter 9 : Gas Turbine Power Plant . 267
9.1 Introduction . 267
9.2 Classification of Gas Turbine Power Plant . 267
9.2.1 Open Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant . 268
9.2.2 Closed Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant . 269
9.3 Elements of Gas Turbine Power Plants . 272
9.3.1 Compressors . 272
9.3.2 Intercoolers and Heat Exchangers . 273
9.3.3 Combustion Chambers . 274
9.3.4 Gas Turbines . 276
9.4 Regeneration and Reheating . 276
9.4.1 Regeneration . 276
9.4.2 Reheating . 278
9.5 Cogeneration . 279
9.5.1 Cogeneration—Why . 279
9.5.2 Cogeneration Technologies . 280
9.6 Auxiliary Systems . 282
9.6.1 Starting Systems . 282
9.6.2 Ignition Systems . 283
9.6.3 Lubrication System . 283
9.6.4 Fuel System and Controls . 285
9.7 Control of Gas Turbines . 286
9.7.1 Prime Control . 286
9.7.2 Protective Controls 287
9.8 Gas Turbine Efficiency . 289
9.8.1 Effect of Blade Friction . 291
9.8.2 Improvement in Open Cycle . 291
9.9 Operations and Maintenance Performance . 292
9.9.1 Operation . 292
9.9.2 Maintenance Performance . 293
9.10. Troubleshooting and Remedies . 294
9.11 Combined Cycle Power Plants . 295
9.12 Applications of Gas Turbine . 296
(xiv)9.13 Advantages of Gas Turbine Power Plant . 296
9.14 Disadvantages . 297
Chapter 10 : Nuclear Power Plant . 307
10.1 Introduction . 307
10.2 General History and Trends . 308
10.2.1 Major Events . 308
10.2.2 What Might Change the Current Situation ? . 309
10.2.3 Technical History and Developments . 311
10.2.4 Developments After WW-2 . 311
10.3 The Atomic Structure . 312
10.4 Summary of Nuclear Energy Concepts and Terms . 314
10.4.1 Summary of Features . 314
10.4.2 Fission . 314
10.4.3 Critical Mass . 315
10.4.4 Alpha Radiation . 315
10.4.5 Beta Particles . 315
10.4.6 Gamma Particles . 315
10.4.7 Uramium Fission . 315
10.4.8 Half Life, T . 316
10.5 Ethical Problems in Nuclear Power Regulation . 316
10.6 Chemical and Nuclear Equations . 316
10.7 Nuclear Fusion and Fission . 317
10.7.1 Fusion . 318
10.7.2 Fission . 319
10.8 Energy From Fission and Fuel Burn Up . 320
10.9 Radioactivity . 320
10.10 Nuclear Reactor . 322
10.10.1 Parts of a Nuclear Reactor . 322
10.10.2 Nuclear Fuel . 322
10.10.3 Moderator . 324
10.10.4 Moderating Ratio . 324
10.10.5 Reflector . 325
10.10.6 Reactor Vessel . 325
10.10.7 Biological Shieding . 326
10.10.8 Coolant . 326
10.10.9 Coolant Cycles . 326
10.10.10 Reactor Core . 326
(xv)10.11 Conservation Ratio . 327
10.12 Neutron Flux . 327
10.13 Clasification of Reactors . 327
10.14 Cost of Nuclear Power Plant . 327
10.15 Nuclear Power Station in India . 328
10.16 Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) . 331
10.16.1 Importance of Heavy Water . 332
10.17 Site Selection . 333
10.18 Comparison of Nulcear Power Plant and Steam Power Plant . 334
10.19 Multiplication Factor . 334
10.20 Uranium Enrichment . 334
10.21 Reactor Power Control . 336
10.22 Nuclear Power Plant Economics . 336
10.23 Safety Measures for Nuclear Power Plants . 337
10.24 Site Selection and Commissioning Procedure . 338
10.25 Major Nuclear Power Disasters . 338
10.26 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant . 339
10.26.1 Reactor Design: RBMK-1000 . 340
10.26.2 Control of the Reactor . 340
10.26.3 Chernobyl Reactor Operations . 340
10.26.4 Accident/Safety Plans . 340
10.26.5 Evacuation . 340
10.27 Safety Problems in Chernobyl Reactor Design . 340
10.27.1 System Dynamics . 340
10.27.2 Another Safety Problem with the Design . 341
10.28 Other, Earlier, Soviet Nuclear Accidents . 341
Chapter 11 : Hydro-Electric Power Plants . 343
11.1 Introduction . 343
11.2 Run-Off . 345
11.3 Hydrograph and Flow Duration Curve . 347
11.4 The Mass Curve 347
11.5 Selection of Site for a Hydro-Electric Power Plant . 348
11.6 Essential Features of a Water-Power Plant . 349
11.7 Calculations of Water Power Plants . 351
11.8 Classification of Hydro-Plant . 352
11.8.1 Storage Plants . 352
11.8.2 Run-of-River Power Plants . 354
(xvi)11.8.3 Pumped Storage Power Plants . 354
11.9 Power House and Turbine Setting . 355
11.9.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Underground Power-House . 359
11.10 Prime-Movers . 362
11.11 Specific Speed of Turbine . 367
11.12 Draft Tubes . 370
11.12.1 Methods to Avoid Cavitation . 375
11.12.2 Types of Draft Tubes . 375
11.12.3 Different Types of Draft Tubes . 377
11.13 Models and Model Testing . 378
11.14 Selection of Turbine . 381
Chapter 12 : Electrical System . 386
12.1 Introduction . 386
12.2 Generators and Motors . 386
12.2.1 Rotors . 387
12.2.2 Stators . 389
12.2.3 Ventilation . 390
12.2.4 Hight-Voltage Generators . 392
12.3 Transformers . 392
12.3.1 Constructional Parts . 393
12.3.2 Core Constructions . 393
12.3.3 Windings . 397
12.4 Cooling of Transformers . 402
12.4.1 Simple Cooling . 403
12.4.2 Mixed Cooling . 403
12.4.3 Natural Oil Cooling . 403
12.4.4 Forced Oil Cooling . 405
12.4.5 Internal Cooling . 406
12.5 Bus-Bar . 409
12.5.1 Single Bus-Bar System . 409
12.5.2 Single Bus-Bar System with Sectionalisation . 409
12.5.3 Duplicate Bus-Bar System . 410
12.6 Busbar Protection . 411
12.6.1 Differential Protection . 411
12.6.2 Fault Bus Protection . 412
(xvii)Chapter 13 : Pollution and its Control . 414
13.1 Introduction . 414
13.2 Environment Pollution due to Energy Use . 414
13.3 Environment Pollution due to Industrial Trial Emissions . 415
13.4 Environment Pollution to Road Transport . 415
13.5 Harmful Effects of Emissions . 415
13.5.1 Buildings and Materials . 416
13.5.2 Soil, Vegetation and Animal Life . 416
13.5.3 Human Beings . 416
13.6 Steps Taken so far and their Impact . 416
13.7 Noise Pollution and its Control . 417
13.8 Green House Gases and their Effects . 418
13.9 Fossil Fuel Pollution . 419
13.9.1 Urban Air Pollution . 419
13.9.2 Acid Rain . 420
13.9.3 Global Climate Change . 420
13.9.4 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion . 420
13.9.4 Acid Fog . 420
13.10 Pollution due to Combustion of Fuel . 421
13.10.1 Gas Fuel . 421
13.10.2 Methane . 421
13.10.3 Alkanes . 422
13.11 Pollution due to Gas Combustion . 422
13.11.1 Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHCS) . 422
13.11.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) . 422
13.11.3 Nitric Oxide (NOx) . 422
13.11.4 Soot . 424
13.12 Pollution due to Liquid Fuel . 424
13.12.1 Atomization . 424
13.12.2 Vaporization . 424
13.12.3 Modes of Combustion . 424
13.13 Pollution due to Solid Fuel . 425
13.14 Air Pollution by Thermal Power Plants . 428
13.15 Water Pollution by Thermal Power Plants . 428
13.16 Environment Concerns and Diesel Power Plants . 429
13.17 Nuclear Power Plant and the Environment . 431
(xviii)13.17.1 The Fuel Cycle . 432
13.17.2 Wastes . 433
13.18 Radiations from Nuclear-Power Plant Effluents . 434
13.19 Impact on Pollution and Air Qality in Delhi . 434
13.19.1 Environmental Concerns . 435
13.19.2 Pollution Levels . 435
13.19.3 Measurs to Combat Pollution . 436
13.20 Method for Pollution Control . 440
13.21 Control of Marine Pollution . 441
Appendix . 443
Glossary . 445
Bibliography . 455
Index . 462
(xix)
Index
A
Acid fog 421
Acid vapours 421
Aeroelectric plant 65
Air pollution 415, 429
Alcohol 46
Alkanes 423
Alpha 327
Alpha decay 322
Anaerobic digestion 54
Anderson cycle 100
Anode 74
Anthracites 44
Artificial winds 65
Atmosphere 415, 419, 435, 441
Atmospheric pollution 415
Atom 313
Atomic energy 26
Atomic mass unit 313
Atomic minerals division 339
Atomic number 314
Atomization 425
Auxiliary systems 283
Axial flow compressor 273
B
Batch type biogas plant 57
Bearings 285
Beta decay 322
Beta particles 316, 327
Bhakra Beas Management Board 13
Binary cycle power plant 93
Binary vapour cycle 17
Bio-gas engine 238
Biofuels 53
Biological processes 34
Biological sciences 34
Biomass 34, 54
Biomass power 54
Biomass pyrolysis 76
Biopower 53
Bioproducts 53
Bleeding of steam 16
Block rate tariff 128
Bluff body method 276
Boiler 18
Bolts 390
Booms 351
Brake horse power 241
Breaker 411
Breeder reactor 328
Bus-bars 410, 412
Bushings 402
C
Camshaft 244
CANDU 333
Capacity factor 313
Carbon monoxide 423
Carburetion 235
Carnot cycle 15
Cased turbines 358
Cathode 74, 78
Cavitation Factor 374
Cell potential 74
Cell voltage 76
Central electricity authority 339
Central Electrochemical Research Institute 103
Central flow condenser 20
Central Power Research Institute 13
Centrifugal compressor 273
Centrifugal force 108
Centrifugal type super chargers 249
Centrifuge 337INDEX 463
Chain reactions 45
Channel systems 97
Chemical energy 4
Chemical reactions 34
Chemo electricity 73
Chernobyl 339, 340
Chlorinated diphenyl 409
Chronological load curves 133
Civilization 33
Clamped 396
Closed cycle gas turbine plant 270
CNG 43
Coal 44, 428
Coal particles 427
Cogeneration 280, 281
Coil design 408
Cold reserve 122
Combined cycle 297
Combustion 326, 237, 275, 424
Combustion chamber 269
Combustion of fuels 415
Combustion of the fuel 18
Common rail injection 242
Compressor 268
Condenser 19
Conductors 399, 402
Conical draft tube 376
Connecting rod 235
Conservators 408
Control rods 326
Converter reactor 328
Coolant 326, 327, 333
Cooling 388, 285
Cooling of transformers 403
Cooling system 406
Core-type transformers 398
Cores 395
Cost of fuels 125
Cost of nuclear power plant 328
Crankshaft 246
Critical mass 316
Cross-over coils 398
Crude oil 102
Current 387
Cylinder 235, 237
Cylindrical concentric helix windings 398
D
Damodar Valley Corporation 12
Daughter nucleus 322
Dawn flow condenser 20
Decomposition 44
Deep mining 44
Demand 35
Demand factor 122
Demographic pressure 442
Depreciation 124
Deuterium 313, 314
Diesel 253
Diesel cycle 14
Diesel engine 235, 236, 238, 430
Diesel power plant 131
Direct cooling 393
Direct cycle 327
Disc coils 399
Distributors System 243
Dish/engine system 68
Diversity factor 122
Domestic wastewater pollution 436, 438
Double circuit system 327
Downstream surge tanks 362
Draft tube liners 378
Dry steam power plant 91
Dry sump lubrication system 247
Dual cycle 14
Duel fuel engine 238, 239
Dump power 122
E
Economics 297
Economy 132
Effect of variable load on power plant design 135464 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
Efficiency of a diesel engine plant 254
Efficiency of cells 78
Einstein equation 315
Ejector condenser 23
Elbow type draft tube 377
Electric circuits 394
Electric energy 344
Electric vehicles 311
Electrical energy 34
Electrical generator 235
Electricity 4, 5, 311, 335
electrode current density 76
Electrolysis 76
Electromagnetic 34
Electromagnetic 336
Electron 79
Electron volt 317
Emission 79
Empirical formulas 347
Energy 1, 3, 33, 38, 321, 326, 415, 426
Energy conservation process 37
Energy consumed 129
Energy exploited 46
Energy load curve 133
Energy science 33, 34, 36
Energy sources 38
Energy strategies 49
Energy technologies 35, 36
Energy transformations 33
Engines 431
Enrichment 321
Environmental effects 415
Environmental pollution 429
Equinoxes 68
Evaporation condenser 20
Exhaust 237
Exhaust system 250
Exothermic or endothermic 318
Exploitation 28
Exploration 28, 42
F
F.H.P. 241
Fact 26
Fans 389, 392
Farakka 50
Fault bus protection 413
Filter 242, 247
Fire point 409
Firm power 122
First law of thermodynamics 14
Fission 315, 318, 320, 321, 324, 326, 327, 335,
338, 435
Fixed cost 123
Fixed dome type digester 57
Fixed element 130
Flame zones 422
Flash point 409
Flash steam power plant 92
Flat demand rate 128
Fossil fuels-oil 46
Float systems 97
Floating gas holder type 58
Flux 394, 399
Forced circulation cooling system 252
Forced cooling 406
Forced ventilation 391
Fossil fuel 37, 421
Fossil-superheat hybrid systems 94
Four stroke engines 237
Francis turbine 365, 367
Fuel 18, 242
Fuel cell 103, 104
Fuel pumps 238
Fuel system 286
Full pressure system 246
Fusion 318, 319, 320
G
Gamma 316
Gamma particles 316INDEX 465
Gamma radiation 316, 322
Gas engines 235
Gas power cycles 15
Gas turbine 268, 274, 275, 276, 283, 286, 290 ,
293, 297
Gaseous diffusion method 335
Gasoline 46
Gasoline engine 235
Gear 285
Generator 357, 387
Generator cooling 387
Geological resources 45
Geothermal 88
Geothermal-Preheat Hydrid Systems 94
Geysers 89
Glow plug 236
Gravitational potential energy 4
Greenhouse effect 311, 419, 421
H
Half life 317
Hazardous waste management 438
Heat 422
Heat balance 419, 256
Heat balance diagram 254
Heat engine 80
Heat exchanger 274, 278
Heat pumps 311
Heavy hydrogen 314
Heavy water 333
Heliostat field 69
Helium 313
High head plants 354
High lube oil temperature 290
High-level jet condenser 22
High-level wastes 434
Homegrown 86
Hopkinson demand rate 129
Hospital waste disposal 439
Hospital waste pollution 437
Hot dry 88
Hot reserve 123
Hybrid 98
Hybrid geothermal power plant-fossil system 94
Hydel power 7
Hydel-power plants 9
Hydracone or moody draft tube 377
Hydraulic accumulator 284
Hydraulic energy 24
Hydraulic power plant 126
Hydraulic turbines 23
Hydro potentials 50
Hydro-plants 353
Hydrocarbons 42, 43
Hydroelectric generation 308
Hydroelectric power 107
Hydrogen 38, 104
Hydrogen-cooled machine 393
Hydrogen cooling 393
Hydrogen cyanide 424
Hydrogen nucleus 314
Hydrogen pressures 392
Hydrogen storage 105
Hydrograph 348
Hydrological cycle 344
Hydropower 107
I
I.C. engine 14, 235, 248
Ideal cell potentials 75
Ideal fuel cell potentials 75
Igneous rock 87
Ignition 283
Ignition system 284
Impulse turbine 24, 25, 364
Indian atomic energy programme 27
Indicated horse power 240
Indicated mean effective pressure 240
Individual pump injection 243
Industrial air pollution 437
Industrial non-hazardous waste management 438
Industrial production 133466 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
Industrial wastewater 436
Industrial wastewater pollution 438
Initial cost 123
Injection process 236
Injector 236, 287
Innertkirchen power house 362
Innovative heat exchanger 108
Insulating properties of oil 409
Insulation 400
Integrated duration curve 133
Intercooler 274
Internal combustion engine 78
Investor’s profit 130
Isolators 411
Isotopes 314
J
Jet condensers 22
K
Kaiga Atomic Power Plant 332
Kakarpar Nuclear Power Plant 332
Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Station 329
Kaplan turbine 366
Kinetic energy 4, 5, 24, 79
Korba 50
Kursh power station 342
L
Labour cost 125
Laminations 395
Laws of chemical combination 313
Light water 332
Light water reactors 332
Lliquid fuel 101, 427
Load curve 122
Load demand 133
Load duration curve 122
Load factor 11, 121
Long wall method 44
Low compression gas engine 238
Low head power plants 354
Low level jet condensers 22
Low lube oil pressure 289
Low wind speed turbines 65
Low-level wastes 434
LPG 46
Lubricant 244
Lubrication system 235, 253, 284, 285
Lubrication system of diesel power plant 243
M
Magnesium 389
Magnetic circuits 394
Magnetic field 336
Main bus-bar 411
Mass curve 348
Mass numbers 318
Maximum demand 129
Maximum efficiency 250, 384
Mechanical protection 400
Medium head plants 355
Meteorology 347
Methane 422
Microturbines 54
Mnemonic 74
Moderated reactor 433
Moderating ratio 325
Moderator 325, 326, 327, 333
Modular systems 54
Modulating control 290
Molecular theory 313
Mother science 34
Motor 387
Multiplication factor 335
N
Naphtha 101
Narora Atomic Power Plant 331
Narora Nuclear Power Station 329
Nathpa Jhakri Hydro-electric Project 14
National Chemical Laboratory 103INDEX 467
National economy 33
National Hydroelectric Power Corporation 11
National Thermal Power Corporation 11
Natural circulation cooling system 252
Natural gas engine 238
Natural uranium 323, 332, 45
Neutron 342
NGRI 96
NHPC 96
Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute 106
Nitric oxide 423
NJPC 13
Noise 418
North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd. 12
Nozzles 24, 238
NTPC 51
Nuclear 313
Nuclear energy 4, 308, 309, 310
Nuclear duel 9, 323
Nuclear power 45, 308
Nuclear Power Corporation 339
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited 28
Nuclear power plant 131, 324, 328, 333, 335, 432
Nuclear power reactors 27
Nuclear power stations 10
Nuclear reactions 318
Nuclear reactor 45, 323, 328, 337
O
Ocean development 29
Ocean regime 28
Ocean thermal energy 97
Oil 40, 42
Oil engines 235
Oil for transformer 408
Oil formation 41
Oil pressure 247
Onductors 390
OPEC 40, 42
Open cycle gas turbine 269
Open-cycle gas turbine power plant 269
Operational costs 123, 125
Organic wastes 55
Otto cycle 14
Output of reaction turbine 371
Output of reaction turbine with draft tube 371
Over potentials 74
Oxidative pyrolysis 422
P
Parabolic-trough systems 68
Part load efficiency 384
Peak load 133
Pelton turbine 364
Percentage method 124
Performance of the diesel engine 240
Petro-geothermal 88
Petrol 46
Petroleum products 47
PHWRs 27
Physics 33
Pilot oil 239
Piston 235
Piston cylinder type 249
Plant capacity factor 121, 123
Plant factor 121
Plant operating factor 121
Plant use factor 123
Polarization 77
Pollution 436
Pollution from thermal power plants 437
Positron 314
Post-flame zone 422
Potential 24
Potential energy 5, 344, 352
Power tower system 68
power 1, 5, 23, 337, 365, 269, 381
Power demand 50
Power engineers training society 13
Power generation 8, 52, 82, 297
Power houses 356468 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
Power industry 49
Power plant 1, 2, 131, 331, 418
Power transformers 418
Precipitation 346
Pressure gauge 246
Pressure ratio 238
Pressure-regulating valve 246
Pressurized-water reactor 433
Primary energies 48
Prime control 287, 288
Prime mover 18, 19, 23, 363
Prime power 122
Process of depletion 46
Propeller turbine 366
Propeller type 61
Protective control 288
Pumped storage plant 108
Pumping plant 355
Pyrolysis 54
R
Radiant energy 4
Radiations 67, 435
Radioactive 315
Radioactive decay 315
Radioactivity 318, 321, 322, 435
Radioisotopes 322
Rain fall 346
Ramagundam 50
Rana Pratap Sagar (Rajasthan) Nuclear Station 329
Rankine cycle 14
Rate of interest 124
Rates 127
Reaction turbine 24, 25
Reactor core 327
Reactor plant 329
Reactor vessel 329
Reciprocating oil engines 235
Reflector 326
Reformation of hydrocarbons 76
Regeneration 16, 277
Regenerator type heat exchanger 274
Regenerators 274
Reheat cycle 16, 279
Reheat-regenerative cycle 17
Renewable 3
Renewable energy 52
Renewable energy technology 311
Reserve capacity 121
Reservoir 92, 108, 349, 350,
Retention 57
Reversible cell 74
Road transport 436
Road vehicles 416
Rockefeller’s standard oil trust 40
Roots blowers 249
Rotational speed 382
Rotor 388, 389
Rotor winding 388
Run-of-river plant 355
Run-off 347
Rural Electrification Corporation 12
S
Safeguard 334
Safety system 338
Sandwich coils 398
Sandwich windings 399
Science 25, 33
Scientific research 26
Second law of thermodynamics 14
Sectional or continuous disc coils 399
Semi-pressure system 245
Shell type transformers 396, 399
Short wave radiation 68
Shut down type control 289
Single bus-bar system 410
Single circuit system 327
Single stage continuous type biogas plant 56
Singrauli 50
Sinking fund method 124
Slip rings 389INDEX 469
Sludging 409
Small end bearings 246
Smoke 417
Solar collector 71
Solar energy 52
Solar farm power plant 69
Solar photovoltaics 72
Solar radiation 68
Solar thermal applications 72
Solar ventilation system 71
Solid fuel 426
Solid Waste Management 438
Soot 425
Soot, dust 432
Space colling 72
Space heating 71
Spare 411
Spare bus-bar 411
Spark plug 236
Special alloy steel 394
Specific speed 368, 383
Spent fuel 434
Spinning reserve 123
Splash system 245, 246
Standardization 310
Stator 390, 392
Stator windings 393
Steam 18
Steam generator 18
Steam power plant 14, 135
Steam turbines 294
Step meter rate 128
Stirling engine 282
Storage plants 353
Straight line meter rate 128
Straight line method 124
Stresses 388
Structural material 326
Sulphur 418
Sun 38, 68
Sun energy 442
Supercharging 248, 249
Supervision 127
Surface condenser 20, 21
Swirl flow method 276
Synthetic oil 409
T
Tabbed tank 405
Tanks 408
Tapping switches 394
Tarapur Nuclear Power Station 329
Tariff 127
Taxes 127
Technology 25, 35
Temperature gradient 388
Terminals 394
Thermal conductivity 392
Thermal diffusion 336
Thermal efficiency 131, 277, 278
Thermal energy 4, 33
Thermal generation 51
Thermal neutrons 324
Thermal NO 424
Thermal pollution 441
Thermal power 337
Thermal power plants 429
Thermal power stations 430
Thermal reactor 45
Thermionic converter 78
Thermionic generator 80
Thermodynamics 14, 33
Thermonuclear 319
Third law of thermodynamics 14
Three Mile Island 339
Three Mile Island accident 312
Tidal power 441
Total energy 321
Transformer 394, 403
Transformer cores 395
Transformer tanks 408
Transformers 400470 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
Transformers 363, 395, 397, 406
Turbine 23, 268, 342
Turbine bearings 435
Turbine overspeed 289
Turbine overtemperature 289
Turbo type super chargers 249
Turbo alternators 392
Two state continuous type biogas plant 56
Two stroke cycle engines 247
Two stroke engines 237
Types of tariffs 127
U
Underground power house 359
Unit method 125
Unit power 379
Unit quantity 380
Unit speed 379
Uranium 9
Uranium enrichment 335
Uramium fission 316
Utility factor 121
V
Valence electron 314
Valence shell 314
Values 26
Valves 251
Vane blower 249
Vaporization 425
Vaporization process 427
Vapour power cycle 15
Variable load 135
Vegetation 347
Vehicular pollution 437
Viscosity 408
Voltage-current density characteristics 77
Volumetric efficiency 250
W
Waste water 338, 430
Water coolers 391
Water gas reaction 342
Water pollution 436
Water reactor 433
Water turbine 23, 24
Water vapour 421
Water cooling 393
Waveform 388
Wet sump lubrication 246
Wind turbine 59, 61
Windings 390
Windmill 59, 62
Working fluid 98
World energy production 37
World oil reserves 38
Wrapped conductor 400
Z
Zeroth law of thermodynamics 14
Zirconium 337


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