كتاب Precision Machining Technology
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 كتاب Precision Machining Technology

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عدد المساهمات : 16101
التقييم : 27567
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Precision Machining Technology
Peter J. Hoffman
Berks Career & Technology Center, West Campus, Leesport, PA
Eric S. Hopewell
Berks Career & Technology Center, West Campus, Leesport, PA
Brian Janes
Bowling Green Technical College, Bowling Green, KY

كتاب Precision Machining Technology  P_m_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface . xv
Acknowledgments . xviii
From the Authors xx
About the Authors . xxi
SECTION 1
Introduction to Machining . 3
Unit 1 Introduction to Machining 4
Learning Objectives 4
Key Terms 4
Introduction 5
Machining Defined . 5
History of Machining 5
Simple Machine Tools 5
Industrial Revolution . 6
20th-Century Machining 7
The Role of Machining in Society 8
People, Manufacturing, and Machining . 8
Major Machine Tools 11
Sawing Machines . 11
The Drill Press . 13
The Lathe 13
The Milling Machine . 13
Abrasive Machining 15
Electrical Discharge Machining 16
Laser Machining . 16
Water Jet Machining . 17
Summary 19
Review Questions 19
Unit 2 Careers in Machining 20
Learning Objectives 20
Key Terms 20
Introduction . 21
Modern Machining Careers 21
Operator . 21
Set-up Technician . 21
Contents
Conventional Machinist . 22
CNC Machinist 22
Programmer . 24
Die Maker, Mold Maker, Toolmaker 24
Supervisory Positions . 25
Related Careers . 25
Mechanical Designer . 25
Engineering Positions 25
Machine Tool Service Technician . 26
Quality Control Technician/Inspector 26
Industrial Salesperson . 27
Summary . 27
Review Questions . 27
Unit 3 Workplace Skills . 28
Learning Objectives 28
Key Terms 28
Introduction 29
Personal Skills 29
Mechanical Aptitude . 29
Manual Dexterity and Eye-Hand Coordination . 29
Problem-Solving, Troubleshooting,
and Decision-Making Skills . 29
Focus and Concentration with Attention to Detail . 29
Persistence and Patience 30
Personal Responsibility and Reliability . 30
Ability to Perform Multi-Step Processes 30
Ability to Use Technical Reference Materials . 30
Interpersonal Skills 30
Significant Memory Use . 30
Technical Skills 30
Ability to Interpret Engineering Drawings . 30
Knowledge of English and Metric
Systems of Measurement . 31
Proficient Math Skills 31
Use of Hand Tools, Measuring Tools,
and Machine and Cutting Tools . 31
Understanding of Metals and Other Materials
and Their Properties 31
Computer Technology . 31
Training Opportunities/Methods . 31
Secondary School (High School) Programs 31
Post-Secondary Training 32
Employer-Provided Training . 32
Apprenticeships 32
NIMS . 33
Job Seeking . 33
Career Plan . 33
Resume 33
References 36
Cover Letter 36
Career Portfolio . 38
Finding Opportunities 38
Interviewing . 38
Summary . 40
Review Questions . 40
SECTION 2
Measurement, Materials,
and Safety 42
Unit 1 Introduction to Safety 44
Learning Objectives 44
Key Terms 44
Introduction 45
General Safety Guidelines 45
OSHA and NIOSH 45
General Clothing
for a Machining Environment 46
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 46
Eye Protection . 47
Hearing Protection 47
Respirators . 48
Gloves 48
Hard Hats . 49
Housekeeping . 49
Guards and Barriers 50
Handling and Lifting 51
Compressed Air Safety 51
Lockout/Tagout . 52
Tagout . 52
Lockout 52
Hazardous Materials . 53
Hazardous Material Labeling 53
iv Contents
SDS . 56
Fire Safety 60
The Fire Triangle 60
Fire Extinguishers 60
Safety Documentation 61
Summary . 62
Review Questions . 63
Unit 2 Measurement Systems
and Machine Tool
Math overview . 64
Learning Objectives 64
Key Terms 65
Introduction 65
Measurement Systems of the
Machining World 65
The English System (Inches) 65
The Metric System or SI . 65
Machining Mathematic Concepts
and Operations . 65
Fractional Operations 65
Fractional/Decimal Conversion . 68
Basic Algebra 68
Ratios and Proportions 70
English/Metric and Metric/English
Conversions 70
Basic Geometry 71
Angles . 72
Cartesian Coordinates . 76
Basic Trigonometry . 77
Summary 81
Review Questions . 82
Unit 3 Semi-Precision
Measurement 83
Learning Objectives 83
Key Terms 83
Introduction 84
What Is Semi-Precision
Measurement? 84
Rules 84
Reading English Rules 85
Reading Metric Rules . 86
Calipers 88
Adjustable Squares 91
The Combination Set 91
Precision Transfer or Helper-Type
Measuring Tools . 133
Small Hole Gages . 133
Telescoping Gages 134
Adjustable Parallels 134
Dial and Digital Indicators . 135
Applications of Plunge-Type Indicators . 136
Applications of Test Indicators . 136
Sine Tools 140
Sine Bars and Sine Blocks 140
Sine Plates . 140
Sine Vises . 141
Surface Finish Measurement 141
Surface Roughness Comparator . 143
Profilometer . 143
Optical Comparators . 143
Toolmaker’s Microscope 144
Coordinate Measuring Machine . 145
Summary 145
Review Questions 146
Unit 5 Quality Assurance,
Process Planning,
and Quality Control 147
Learning Objectives . 147
Key Terms . 147
Introduction . 148
Quality Assurance 148
The Process Plan 148
Material Selection 148
Machine Selection and Workholding 148
Tooling Selection 148
Speed and Feed Calculation 150
Other Information 150
Quality Control . 150
Sampling Plan . 150
Inspection Plan 150
Statistical Process Control (SPC) . 150
Summary 156
Review Questions 156
Unit 6 Metal Composition
and Classification 157
Learning Objectives . 157
Key Terms . 157
Angular Measurement . 92
Protractors 92
Bevels . 92
Die Maker’s Square 95
Fixed Gages . 95
Radius and Fillet Gages 95
Angle Gages . 96
Screw Pitch Gage . 96
Summary . 97
Review Questions . 97
Unit 4 Precision Measurement . 99
Learning Objectives 99
Key Terms 100
Introduction 100
What is Precision Measurement? . 100
Care of Precision Tools 100
Straight Edges 101
Precision Fixed Gages 101
Thickness Gages . 101
Pin or Plug Gages . 101
Ring Gages 103
Snap Gages . 105
Surface Plates 106
Solid Squares 107
Gage Blocks . 108
Selecting Gage Blocks for Builds . 109
Vernier Measuring Tools . 111
Vernier Calipers . 111
Vernier Height Gage . 111
Vernier Depth Gage . 112
Vernier Gear Tooth Caliper 112
Vernier Protractor 112
Reading Vernier Scales . 113
Micrometers 117
Outside Micrometer Caliper 117
Reading Outside Micrometer Calipers 121
Calibration of the Outside
Micrometer Caliper . 122
Inside Micrometers . 125
Depth Micrometers . 127
Dial and Digital Measuring Tools 128
Dial and Digital Calipers . 128
Dial and Digital Height Gages 130
Dial and Digital Depth Gages 130
Dial and Digital Bore Gages . 132
Unit 8 Maintenance, Lubrication,
and Cutting Fluid
overview . 190
Learning Objectives 190
Key Terms 190
Maintenance 191
Lubrication 191
Moving Parts and Wear Surfaces 193
Cutting Fluids . 193
Oil-Based Cutting Fluids 194
Chemical-Based Cutting Fluids 195
Measuring Cutting Fluid Mixtures . 196
Refractometer 196
Cold Air Guns . 196
Solid and Semi-Solid Cutting Compounds . 196
Methods of Application . 197
Summary . 198
Review Questions . 199
SECTION 3
Job Planning, Benchwork,
and Layout 200
Unit 1 Understanding Drawings . 202
Learning Objectives 202
Key Terms 202
Importance of Engineering Drawings . 203
Components of Engineering Drawings 203
Title Block . 203
Orthographic Projection 203
Line Types 207
Basic Symbols and Notation . 211
Tolerance 211
Bilateral Tolerances 211
Unilateral Tolerances . 211
Limit Tolerances . 213
MMC and LMC . 213
Tolerance Specifications 214
Classes of Fit . 214
Allowances 214
Classifications of Fits . 217
Introduction . 158
Ferrous Metals 158
Wrought Iron . 158
Plain Carbon Steels . 158
Alloy Steels 159
Tool Steels 160
Cast Iron 164
Stainless Steels . 164
Nonferrous Metals . 167
Aluminum Alloys 167
Magnesium Alloys 168
Copper Alloys . 169
Titanium Alloys 170
Superalloys 170
Summary 174
Review Questions 174
Unit 7 Heat Treatment of Metals 175
Learning Objectives . 175
Key Terms . 175
Introduction . 176
Hardening 176
Direct Hardening 176
Surface Hardening 176
Case Hardening 176
Tempering 179
Annealing . 179
Normalizing 179
Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Metals 179
Aluminum Alloys 179
Heat-Treating Furnaces 180
Box Furnaces 180
Production and Specialty Furnaces . 180
Atmospheric Furnaces 181
Furnace Controls 182
Heat-Treatment Safety . 182
Hardness Scales and Testing . 182
Rockwell Hardness Scales 182
Brinell Hardness Scale . 186
Cross-Reference of Brinell and Rockwell
Hardness Values . 188
Summary . 188
Review Questions . 189
Tongue-and-Groove Pliers . 252
Side Cutting Pliers . 252
Diagonal Cutters 252
Hammers . 252
Ball Peen 252
Soft Face 252
Wrenches . 253
Open-End Wrench . 254
Box-End Wrench 254
Double-Ended Wrench . 254
Adjustable Wrench 254
Socket Wrench . 255
Spanner Wrench . 255
Hex Key Wrench . 255
Bench Vise . 256
Bases . 256
Jaws . 257
Clamps . 258
C-Clamp . 258
Parallel Clamp . 258
Hinged Clamp . 258
Hacksaws . 258
Hacksaw Blades 258
Hacksaw Use 258
Files 259
File Classification . 259
Special Files 260
File Selection 261
General File Use 261
Filing Tips . 263
Deburring 263
Abrasives . 263
Summary . 264
Review Questions . 265
Unit 4 Saws and Cutoff Machines . 266
Learning Objectives 266
Key Terms 266
Introduction 267
Power Hacksaws . 267
Band Sawing Machines 267
Horizontal Band Saws . 267
Vertical Band Saws 269
Saw Blade Characteristics and Applications 271
Blade Material 271
Tooth Set . 273
Blade Pitch or TPI 273
Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing (GD&T) . 220
Datum . 220
Feature Control Frame . 220
Interpretation of Geometric Tolerances 220
Summary . 229
Review Questions . 230
Unit 2 Layout . 232
Learning Objectives 232
Key Terms 232
Introduction 233
Layout Fluid (Layout Dye) 233
Layout Fluid Remover . 233
Semi-Precision Layout 234
Scribers 234
Layout with a Combination Set 235
Divider 235
Trammel . 236
Prick and Center Punches . 236
Hermaphrodite Caliper 238
Plain Protractor . 238
Surface Plate . 238
Surface Gage 238
Workholding Accessories 240
Precision Layout . 241
Height Gage 241
Precision Angular Layout 241
Basic Layout Construction and Math 242
The Layout of Square Shapes . 245
Layout Procedure Guidelines . 248
Summary . 248
Review Questions . 249
Unit 3 Hand Tools . 250
Learning Objectives 250
Key Terms 250
Introduction . 251
Screwdrivers . 251
Phillips 251
Straight . 251
Offset 251
Torx 251
Pliers . 251
Slip Joint Pliers . 251
Needle Nose Pliers 251
Locking Pliers . 252
Threading and Tapping 298
Basic Thread Terminology 298
Thread Designations . 301
Tap Drills . 301
Tapered Pipe Threads . 302
Tap Styles . 302
Tap Use . 307
Die Use . 309
Summary 310
Review Questions 311
SECTION 4
Drill Press . 313
Unit 1 Introduction to
the Drill Press 314
Learning Objectives . 314
Key Terms . 314
Introduction . 315
Upright Drill Press 316
Drill Press Controls 317
Gang Drill Press 318
Radial-Arm Drill Press 319
Micro Drill Press 319
Summary . 320
Review Questions . 320
Unit 2 Tools, Toolholding,
and Workholding
for the Drill Press . 321
Learning Objectives . 321
Key Terms . 321
Introduction 322
Types Of Cutting-Tool Materials 322
Drill Bits 322
Twist Drills . 322
Spotting and Center Drills . 325
Reamers . 326
Reamer Parts 326
Reamer Sizes 327
Countersinks and Counterbores . 327
Toolholding . 329
Morse Taper-Shank Toolholding 329
Straight-Shank Toolholding . 331
Blade Width . 274
Blade Thickness or Gauge 274
Rake 274
Gullet 275
Tooth Patterns 275
Band Saw Blade Welding . 275
Band Length 275
Band Welding 276
Band Saw Blade Mounting/Removal . 278
Blade Speed 279
The Abrasive Cutoff Saw 279
Metal Cutting Circular (Cold) Saws . 281
Summary 281
Review Questions . 282
Unit 5 offhand Grinding . 283
Learning Objectives 283
Key Terms 283
Introduction 284
Grinder Uses 284
Abrasive Belt and Disc Machine Uses 285
Grinding Wheels . 285
Abrasive Type 285
Wheel Grit (Abrasive Grain Size) 286
Wheel Size 286
Maximum Wheel Speed . 286
Grinding Wheel Storage 287
Pedestal Grinder Setup 287
Grinding Wheel Ring Testing 287
Grinding Wheel Mounting 288
Tool Rest and Adjustment . 288
Spark Breaker and Adjustment 289
Grinding Wheel Dressing 289
Grinding Procedures 291
Summary 291
Review Questions . 292
Unit 6 Drilling, Threading,
Tapping, and Reaming 293
Learning Objectives 293
Key Terms 293
Introduction 294
Benchwork Holemaking Operations . 294
Twist Drilling . 294
Counterboring, Countersinking, and Spotfacing . 295
Reaming . 296
Summary . 364
Review Questions . 365
Unit 2 Workholding and Toolholding
Devices for the Lathe 366
Learning Objectives 366
Key Terms 366
Introduction 367
Workholding . 367
Jaw-Type Chucks 367
Collets . 371
Faceplate . 374
Workholding Between Centers . 374
Mandrels . 378
Auxiliary Workpiece Supporting Methods . 379
Holding Cutting Tools 381
Rocker-Type Toolholding . 381
Quick-Change Toolholding . 382
Indexable Tool Posts 383
Holemaking Toolholding 383
Summary . 384
Review Questions . 385
Unit 3 Machining operations
on the Lathe . 387
Learning Objectives 387
Key Terms 387
Introduction 388
Depth of Cut, Speed, Feed,
and Time Calculation 388
Depth of Cut . 388
Speed . 389
Feed . 389
Roughing and Finishing . 389
Machining Time Calculation . 390
General Lathe Safety . 391
Facing and Turning Operations 391
Facing and Turning Tools 391
Internal Toolholders for Carbide Inserts 399
Turning 404
Shouldering 407
Filing and Polishing . 411
Center and Spot Drilling 414
Center Drills . 414
Spotting Drills 414
Workholding 331
Drill Press Vise 332
V-Block 332
Angle Plate . 334
Hold-Down Clamps . 334
Summary . 336
Review Questions . 336
Unit 3 Drill Press operations 337
Learning Objectives . 337
Key Terms . 337
Introduction 338
General Drill Press Safety . 338
Speed and Feed 338
Cutting Speed and RPM Calculation 338
Feed Rates for Drill Press Operations . 341
Locating Holes on the Drill Press . 342
Center Drilling and Spot Drilling . 344
Drilling . 345
Through and Blind Holes 346
Reaming 348
Counterboring and Spotfacing . 348
Chamfering and Countersinking . 350
Tapping 350
Summary . 353
Review Questions . 353
SECTION 5
Turning 355
Unit 1 Introduction to the Lathe . 356
Learning Objectives 356
Key Terms 356
Introduction . 357
Headstock . 357
Spindle . 358
Quick-Change Gear Box . 360
Lathe Bed . 360
Carriage . 360
Saddle 360
Leadscrew and Feed Rod 362
Apron . 362
Tailstock . 363
Lathe Size 363
Swing . 363
Bed Length . 363
Unit 5 Taper Turning 446
Learning Objectives 446
Key Terms 446
Introduction 447
Typical Taper Specifications . 447
Angular Specification 447
Rate-of-Change Specification . 447
Taper Dimensions and Calculations 448
Converting TPI or TPF to an Angular Dimension . 451
Converting an Angular Dimension to TPI or TPF . 451
Taper Turning Methods . 451
Tool Bit Method 451
Compound-Rest Method . 451
Taper Attachment Method . 454
Offset Tailstock Method 456
Summary . 459
Review Questions . 459
SECTION 6
Milling 461
Unit 1 Introduction to the
Vertical Milling Machine . 462
Learning Objectives 462
Key Terms 462
Introduction 463
Base and Column 464
Knee . 464
Saddle 465
Table 465
Turret . 466
Ram 466
Head . 467
Spindle . 467
Quill . 469
Head Movements . 471
Optional Features . 472
Summary . 475
Review Questions . 475
Unit 2 Tools, Toolholding,
and Workholding for the
Vertical Milling Machine . 476
Learning Objectives 476
Key Terms 476
Holemaking on the Lathe . 415
Drilling 415
Reaming 416
Counterboring and Countersinking 416
Boring . 416
Internal Shouldering . 418
Thread Cutting with Taps and Dies 419
Form Cutting 419
Grooving and Cutoff (Parting) . 420
Knurling . 422
Summary . 425
Review Questions . 425
Unit 4 Manual Lathe Threading 427
Learning Objectives 427
Key Terms 427
Introduction 428
Screw Thread Terminology . 428
Class of Fit 429
Determining Thread Data 430
Major Diameter for External Threads . 430
Minor Diameter for Internal Threads . 430
Compound-Rest In-Feed . 430
Pitch Diameter 430
Producing Threads on the Lathe . 432
Lathe Setup . 432
Installing the Workpiece . 432
Setting the Quick-Change Gear Box . 433
Setting the Compound Rest 433
Setting the Spindle Speed . 435
Installing and Aligning the Cutting Tool . 435
Lathe Threading Operation 436
Referencing the Cutting Tool . 436
Threading Dial and Half-Nuts . 436
Threading Tool In-Feed and Positioning 437
Methods for Terminating a Thread 438
Thread Measurement . 440
Thread Ring and Plug Gages . 440
Thread Micrometer 440
Three-Wire Method . 441
Thread Form Measurement 442
Other Thread Forms 442
Acme Thread . 442
Tapered Pipe Threads . 442
Buttress Threads 443
Summary . 444
Review Questions . 444
Speeds and Feeds for Milling Operations . 502
Holemaking Operations . 504
Locating to a Layout 504
Locating from an Edge . 504
Locating the Center of an Existing Part Feature . 505
Boring 506
Milling Basics . 509
Squaring a Block 510
Milling Side A . 510
Milling Side B . 512
Milling Side C . 512
Milling Side D . 513
Milling Sides E and F . 514
Squaring a Block Using an Angle Plate 517
Angular Milling 517
Milling with Angled Cutters . 517
Milling Angles by Positioning the Workpiece 518
Milling Angles by Tilting the Machine Head . 521
Milling Steps, Slots, and Keyseats 522
Basic Step Milling . 522
Slot Milling 523
Milling Radii 528
Milling External Radii . 529
Milling Internal Radii (Fillets) 530
Pocket Milling 531
Summary . 533
Review Questions . 534
Unit 4 Indexing and Rotary
Table operations 535
Learning Objectives 535
Key Terms 535
Introduction 536
Parts of The Rotary Table 536
Rotary Table Setup 536
Workpiece Setup for the Rotary Table . 537
Rotary Table Operations . 538
Angular Positioning for Milling and Drilling . 538
Milling Outside and Inside Radii 539
The Indexing Head . 539
Parts of the Indexing Head . 540
Indexing Head Setup 540
Indexing Head Operations . 540
Direct Indexing Head Operations . 541
Simple Indexing 542
Summary . 544
Review Questions . 544
Introduction 477
Cutter Shanks and Arbors 477
Cutting-Tool Materials 477
Carbide Inserts . 477
Proper Cutting-Tool Storage . 481
Endmills 481
Roughing Endmills 482
Ballnose Endmills 482
Radius Endmills . 482
Corner-Rounding Cutters . 482
Chamfer Endmills 483
Tapered Endmills . 483
Flat-Surface Milling Cutters 484
Specialty Milling Cutters 485
T-slot Cutters . 485
Dovetail Cutter 485
Woodruff Keyseat Cutter 485
Slitting Saws . 485
Form Milling Cutters 486
Toolholding . 486
Endmill Toolholders . 486
Drill Chucks . 487
Morse Taper Adapters 487
Shell Mill Arbors 487
Stub Arbors . 488
R-8 Collets 488
Workholding . 488
Hold-Down Clamps . 488
Milling Vises 490
Chucks/Collet Fixtures 492
Vacuum Plates, Magnetic,
and Adhesive-Based Workholding . 492
Fixtures 494
Summary . 494
Review Questions . 495
Unit 3 Vertical Milling
Machine operations . 496
Learning Objectives 496
Key Terms 496
Introduction 497
General Milling Machine Safety . 497
Tramming The Vertical Milling Machine Head 497
Aligning Workholding Devices 499
Aligning a Milling Vise 499
Aligning Other Workholding Devices and Large
Workpieces 501
Dressing Aluminum Oxide
and Silicon Carbide Wheels 566
Dressing Diamond and CBN Wheels . 568
Grinding Parallel Surfaces 568
Grinding the Magnetic Chuck 570
Grinding Perpendicular Surfaces . 570
Grinding Angles . 571
Side Grinding . 572
Dressing the Wheel for Side Grinding 572
Performing Side Grinding . 573
Grinding Cylindrical Work . 575
Grinding Problems . 575
Burning of the Work Surface 575
Scratches on the Work Surface . 576
Waviness or Chatter on the Work Surface 576
Summary 577
Review Questions 577
SECTION 8
Computer Numerical Control . 578
Unit 1 CnC Basics 580
Learning Objectives 580
Key Terms 580
Introduction . 581
The CNC Machine Control Unit 582
CNC Motion Control . 582
Drive Screws . 582
CNC Guideways . 583
Servo Motors . 584
Coordinate Systems 585
The Cartesian Coordinate System 585
The Polar Coordinate System 586
Positioning Systems . 587
The Absolute Positioning System 587
The Incremental Positioning System . 587
Codes . 587
G-Codes 587
M-Codes . 588
Other Word Address Commands . 588
Binary Code 590
Conversational-Type Programming 590
Parts of a CNC Program 590
Safe-Start . 590
Material Removal . 591
Program Ending . 591
SECTION 7
Grinding . 547
Unit 1 Introduction to Precision
Grinding Machines 548
Learning Objectives 548
Key Terms 548
Introduction 549
Surface Grinders . 549
Horizontal Spindle Surface Grinders 549
Vertical Spindle Surface Grinders . 550
Cylindrical Grinders . 551
The Centerless Grinder 552
Tool and Cutter Grinders 553
The Jig Grinder 553
Summary . 553
Review Questions . 554
Unit 2 Grinding Wheels
for Precision Grinding . 555
Learning Objectives 555
Key Terms 555
Introduction 556
Wheel Shapes 556
Grinding-Wheel Specifications . 557
Abrasive Type . 557
Grit Size (Grain Size) . 558
Grade . 558
Structure 558
Bond Type . 558
Superabrasives 559
Summary . 560
Review Questions . 560
Unit 3 Surface Grinding operations 561
Learning Objectives . 561
Key Terms . 561
Introduction 562
General Surface Grinder Safety . 562
Mounting the Grinding Wheel . 562
Workholding Devices . 563
Magnetic Devices 563
Angle Plates, V-Blocks, and Collet Blocks 566
Vises . 566
Wheel Dressing . 566
Canned Cycles . 622
Holemaking Canned Cycles 622
Tapping Canned Cycles 624
Rough and Finish Turning Canned Cycles . 626
Threading Canned Cycles . 626
Tool Nose Radius Compensation . 629
Summary . 634
Review Questions . 635
Unit 4 CnC Turning:
Setup and operation 636
Learning Objectives 636
Key Terms 636
Machine Control Panel . 637
Workholding Setup 638
Machine and Work Coordinate Systems . 641
Power-Up and Homing . 641
Work Offset Setting 642
Cutting Tools for Turning 643
Cutting-Tool Installation 643
Cutting-Tool Offsets for Turning 643
Program Entry for Turning . 645
Turning Machine Operation . 646
Program Prove-Out . 646
Auto Mode 647
Summary . 647
Review Questions . 648
Unit 5 Introduction to CnC Milling . 649
Learning Objectives 649
Key Terms 649
Introduction 650
Types of CNC Milling Machines . 650
ATC Types . 650
Toolholding . 653
CNC Spindle Types . 653
Tool Attachment Styles 654
Workholding . 658
Process Planning . 662
Summary . 662
Review Questions . 663
Unit 6 CnC Milling: Programming 664
Learning Objectives 664
Key Terms 664
Summary . 593
Review Questions . 593
Unit 2 Introduction to CnC Turning . 594
Learning Objectives 594
Key Terms 594
Introduction 595
Types of Turning Machines 597
Turret-Type Machines 597
Gang-Tool-Type Machines . 597
CNC Lathes . 598
Swiss-Type Turning Center 598
Tool-Mounting 600
Cutting Toolholders . 600
Workholding . 605
Workholding Collets 605
Workholding Chucks 606
Process Planning . 606
Summary . 607
Review Questions . 607
Unit 3 CnC Turning: Programming . 609
Learning Objectives 609
Key Terms 609
Introduction 610
Coordinate Positioning for Turning . 610
Types of Motion for Turning . 610
Rapid Traverse for Turning—G0 . 610
Linear Interpolation for Turning—G1 610
Circular Interpolation for Turning—G2 and G3 611
Non-Axis Motion Commands . 614
Spindle Speed for Turning 614
Tool-Change Commands 615
Sequence Numbers . 615
Program Stop Commands . 615
Summary of Safe-Start, Spindle-Start,
and Tool-Change/Offset Commands 615
Machining Operations 616
Coolant M-Codes . 616
Facing . 616
Drilling Operations . 616
Straight Turning . 616
Taper Turning 620
Contour Turning 620
Roughing Operations 620
Finishing 622
Program Entry . 711
Machine Operation . 711
Program Prove-out 711
Auto Mode . 712
Summary 712
Review Questions 713
Unit 8 Computer-Aided Design
and Computer-Aided
Manufacturing . 714
Learning Objectives . 714
Key Terms . 714
Introduction . 715
Cad Software Use . 715
Geometry Types . 715
Software Types . 716
Cam Software Use 716
Toolpaths 716
Machining Verification/Simulation . 720
Post-Processing 720
Summary . 720
Review Questions 721
Appendix A . 722
Appendix B . 733
Appendix C 734
Appendix D 735
Appendix E 736
Appendix F 738
Glossary . 739
Index 762
Introduction 665
Coordinate Positioning for Milling 665
Speeds and Feed Rates for Milling 666
Spindle Speed . 666
Feed Rates 666
Sequence Numbers 666
Types of Motion for Milling 666
Rapid Traverse—G0 . 666
Linear Interpolation—G1 668
Circular Interpolation . 670
Machining Operations 677
Coolant M-Codes . 677
Facing . 677
Two-Dimensional Milling . 678
Holemaking Operations . 679
Canned Cycles 681
Cutter Radius Compensation . 694
Summary . 697
Review Questions . 698
Unit 7 CnC Milling:
Setup and operation 699
Learning Objectives 699
Key Terms 699
Machine Control Panel . 700
Workholding Setup 702
Machine and Work Coordinate Systems . 702
Power-Up and Homing . 702
Work Offset Setting 703
Workpiece Z-axis Offset Setting . 704
Workpiece X-axis and Y-axis Offset Setting . 704
Cutting Tools 707
Cutting-Tool Installation . 707
Cutting-Tool Offset Types 707


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