كتاب Modern Automotive Technology - Fundamentals, service, diagnostics
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 كتاب Modern Automotive Technology - Fundamentals, service, diagnostics

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Modern Automotive Technology - Fundamentals, service, diagnostics
2nd English edition
The German edition was written by technical instructors, engineers and technicians
Editorial office (German edition): R. Gscheidle, Studiendirektor, Winnenden – Stuttgart

كتاب Modern Automotive Technology - Fundamentals, service, diagnostics  M_a_t_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


AAS Adaptive air suspension
A/C Air conditioning
A/F Air/fuel (mixture)
ABA Active brake assist
ABC Active body control
ABS Antilock braking system
ABV Automatic braking-force
distribution
(German: Auto matische
Bremskraft verteilung )
AC Alternating current
ACC Adaptive cruise control,
automatic cruise control
ACEA Association des
Constructeurs Européens
d'Automobiles
ACS Automatic clutch system
AD Analogue-digital
(converter)
ADC Analog digital converter
ADSL Asymmetrical digital
subscriber line
AFS Airflow sensor
AFRP Aramid fibre reinforced
plastic
AGM Absorbed glass mat
battery
AHL Automatic headlight
leveling
ALDBFR Automatic loaddependent brake force
regulator
ALSD Automatic limited-slip
differential
AM Amplitude modulation
API American Petroleum
Institute
APB Automatic parking brake
ARS Angle of rotation sensor
ASC Anti-stability control,
acceleration skid control
ASHEV Axle split hybrid electric
vehicle
ASTM American Society for
Testing and Materials
ATC Adaptive transmission
control
ATF Automatic transmission
fluid
AWD All-wheel drive
AYC Active yaw control
BAS Brake assist system
BDC Bottom dead centre
BDW Brake disc wiping
BEV Battery powered electric
vehicle
CA Crankshaft angle
CS Camshaft
CAN Controller area network
CAT Catalytic converter,
catalyst
CB Centre bore, Common
ball
CBS Combined brake system
CC Cruise control
CDI Capacitive discharge
ignition
CFPP Cold filter plugging point
CFRP Carbon fibre reinforced
plastic
CH Combination hump
CIH Camshaft in head
CIP Continuous improvement
process
CN Cetane number
CNG Compressed natural gas
CPOD Child Seat Presence and
Orientation Detection
CPU Central processing unit
CR Common rail
CRDI Common rail direct
injection
CB Centre bore
CS Crankshaft
CV Commercial vehicle
CV Check valve
CVlft Check valve left
CVrt Check valve right
CVT Continuously variable
transmission
DA Drive axle
DC Direct current
DCT Dual clutch transmission
DI Direct injection
DIN Deutsches Institut für
Normung
DIP Distributor injection pump
DME Digital motor electronics
DOHC Double overhead camshaft
DOT Department of
Transportation
DPNR Diesel particulate NOx
reduction system
DSC Dynamic stability control
DSG Direct-shift gearbox
DSP Dynamic shift program
selection
DVD Digital versatile disc
EBA Electronic brake assist,
emergency brake system
EBS Electronic braking system
Ec Exhaust valve closes
ECE Economic Commission
for Europe
ECM Electronic clutch
management
ECS Electronic clutch system
ECU Electronic control unit,
engine control unit
EDC Electronic diesel control,
electronic damper control
EDP Electronic data processing
EDTC Engine drag torque
control
EEPROM Electrically erasable
programmable read-only
memory
EGR Exhaust gas recirculation
EGS Electronic gearbox
control unit (German:
Elektronisches
Getriebesteuerger?t)
EH Extended hump
EHB Electro-hydraulic braking
system
EI Emissions inspection,
electronic ignition
ELSD Electronic limited-slip
differential
EMC Electromagnetic
compatibility
EMS Electronic engine
management system
Eo Exhaust valve opens
EOBD European on board
diagnostics
EP Exhaust passage, extreme
pressure, epoxy resin
EPS Electronic power steering
ESI Electronic service
information
ESP Electronic stability
program
ETC Electronic throttle control
ETN European type number
EV Exhaust valve
FA Front axle
FB Function button
FC Fuel cell
FF Free-form (reflector)
FH Flat hump
FL Front left
FOC Fibre optic cable
FOT Fibre optic transceiver
FR Front right
GD/GND Ground
GDI Gasoline direct injection
GFRP Glass fibre reinforced
GI General inspection
GPS Global positioning system
HDC Hill descent control
HEV Hybrid electric vehicle
HF High frequency
HGV Heavy goods vehicle
HHC Hill hold control
HNS Homogeneous
numerically calculated
surface
HS High-solid (paints)
HTHS High temperature,
high shear
HUD Head up display
Abbreviations5
HV Hybrid vehicle, high
voltage
IC Integrated circuit
Ic Inlet valve closes
IC Individual control
IHPF Internal high-pressure
forming
Io Inlet valve opens
IP Inlet passage
IPO Input/Processing/Output
(principle)
IS Input shaft
ISA Integrated starter
alternator
ISAD Integrated starter
alternator damper
ISC Idle speed control
ISG Integrated starter
generator
ISO International Organization
for Standardization
IV Inlet valve
IVlft Inlet valve left
IVrt Inlet valve right
LA Lifting axle
LAN Local area network
LDC Liquid crystal display
LDR Light-dependent resistor
LED Light-emitting diode
LEV Low-emission vehicle
LF Low frequency
LI Load index
LIN Local interconnect
network
Li-ion Lithium ion
LNG Liquefied natural gas
LS Limited slip
LSG Laminated safety glass
LU Logical unit
LV Low voltage
LW Long wave
MAF Mass air flow
MAG Metal active-gas (welding)
MC Microcomputer
MC Main cylinder
ME Motor electronics
MED Motor electronics direct
injection
MG Motor generator
MIG Metal inert-gas (welding)
MIL Malfunction indicator lamp
MODIC Mobile diagnostic
computer
MON Motor octane number
MOST Media oriented systems
MPI Multipoint injection
MS Medium-solid (paints)
MW Medium wave
NEDC New European driving
cycle
NF Non-ferrous
NIT Network idle time
NLGI National Lubricating
Grease Institute
NTC Negative temperature
coefficient
OBD On-board diagnostics
OD Outside diameter
OHC Overhead camshaft
OHV Overhead valves
ON Octane number
OV Outlet valve
OVlft Outlet valve left
OVrt Outlet valve right
PBC Parking brake circuit
PC Polycarbonate, personal
computer
PCD Pitch circle diameter
PEM Proton exchange
membrane
PES Poly ellipsoid system
(reflector)
PHEV Plug-in hybrid electric
vehicle
PIN Personal identification
number
PM Particulate matter
POF Plastic optical fibre
POT Plastic optical transceiver
PS Pressure sensor
PTC Positive temperature
coefficient
PWM Pulse width modulation
QA Quality assurance
QM Quality management
RA Rear axle
RAM Random access memory
RDS Radio data system
RL Rear left
RLFS Return-less fuel system
RON Research octane number
ROM Read-only memory
ROP Rollover protection
ROV Rotating high voltage
distribution
(German: Rotierende
Hochspannungsverteilung)
RR Rear right
RRC Radio remote control
RUV Static high voltage
distribution
(German: Ruhende
Hochspannungsverteilung)
SAC Self-adjusting clutch
SAE Society of Automotive
Engineers
SAM Signal acquisition and
actuation module
SBC Sensotronic brake control
SC Signal conditioning
SCR Selective catalytic
reduction
SCV Solenoid control valve
SDC Semi-drop centre
SE Sensor
SG Strain gauge
SI Safety inspection
SL Special ledge
SLC Select-low control
SoC State of charge
SPI Single-point injection
SRR Short range radar
SRS Safety restraint systems,
supplemental restraint
system
SSlft Speed sensor left
SSrt Speed sensor right
STP Shielded twisted pair
STVZO Stra?enverkehrs zulassungs ordnung (Germany)
SUV Sport Utility Vehicle
SV Solenoid valve
SV Side valve
SW Short wave
SWR Standing wave ratio
Tc Transfer passage closes
TC Turbocharger
TCS Traction control system
TDC Top dead centre
TIG Tungsten-inert gas
TL Tubeless
TMC Traffic message channel
To Transfer passage opens
TP Transfer passage
TPC Tyre pressure check, tyre
pressure control
TSG Tempered safety glass
TUV German technical
inspection association
TWI Tread wear indicator
UIS Unit injector system
UPS Unit pump system
VDC Vehicle dynamics
controller
VDR Voltage-dependent
resistor
VF Variable focus (reflector)
VHF Very high frequency
VI Viscosity index
VT Viscosity temperature
VTEC Variable valve timing and
lift electronic control
VTG Variable turbine geometry
Abbreviations6 Contributing companies
Alfa-Romeo Automobiles
Milan, Italy
ALLIGATOR Ventilfabrik GmbH
Giengen/Brenz, Germany
Aprilia Motorrad-Vertrieb
Düsseldorf, Germany
Aral AG, Bochum, Germany
Audatex Deutschland, Minden, Germany
Audi AG, Ingolstadt – Neckarsulm,
Germany
Autokabel, Hausen, Germany
Autoliv, Oberschlei?heim, Germany
G. Auw?rter GmbH & Co
(Neoplan) Stuttgart, Germany
BBS Kraftfahrzeugtechnik AG,
Schiltach, Germany
BEHR GmbH & Co, Stuttgart, Germany
Beissbarth GmbH, Automobil Serviceger?te, Munich, Germany
BERU, Ludwigsburg, Germany
Aug. Bilstein GmbH & Co KG
Ennepetal, Germany
Boge GmbH, Eitdorf/Sieg, Germany
Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany
Bostik GmbH
Oberursel/Taunus, Germany
BLACK HAWK, Kehl, Germany
BMW Bayerische Motoren-Werke AG
Munich/Berlin, Germany
CAR-OLINER, Kungs?r, Sweden
CAR BENCH INTERNATIONAL.S.P.A.
Massa, Italy
Continental Teves AG & Co, OHG
Frankfurt, Germany
Celette GmbH, Kehl, Germany
Citroen Deutschland AG
Cologne, Germany
Dataliner Richtsysteme
Ahlerstedt, Germany
Deutsche BP AG, Hamburg, Germany
DUNLOP GmbH & Co KG
Hanau/Main, Germany
ESSO AG, Hamburg, Germany
FAG Kugelfischer Georg Sch?fer KG aA
Ebern, Germany
J. Ebersp?cher, Esslingen, Germany
EMM Motoren Service, Lindau, Germany
Ford-Werke AG, Cologne, Germany
Carl Freudenberg
Weinheim/Bergstra?e, Germany
GKN L?bro, Offenbach/Main, Germany
Getrag Getriebe- und Zahnradfarbrik
Ludwigsburg, Germany
Girling-Bremsen GmbH
Koblenz, Germany
Glasurit GmbH
Münster/Westphalia, Germany
Globaljig, Deutschland GmbH
Cloppenburg, Germany
Glyco-Metall-Werke B.V. & Co KG
Wiesbaden/Schierstein, Germany
Goetze AG, Burscheid, Germany
Grau-Bremse, Heidelberg, Germany
Gutmann Messtechnik GmbH
Ihringen, Germany
Hazet-Werk, Hermann Zerver
Remscheid, Germany
HAMEG GmbH, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Hella KG, Hueck & Co
Lippstadt, Germany
Hengst Filterwerke, Nienkamp, Germany
Fritz Hintermayr, Bing-Vergaser-Fabrik
Nuremberg, Germany
HITACHI Sales Europa GmbH
Düsseldorf, Germany
HONDA DEUTSCHLAND GMBH
Offenbach/Main, Germany
Hunger Maschinenfabrik GmbH
Munich and Kaufering, Germany
IBM Deutschland, B?blingen, Germany
IVECO-Magirus AG, Neu-Ulm, Germany
ITT Automotive (ATE, VDO,
MOTO-METER, SWF, KONI, Kienzle)
Frankfurt/Main, Germany
IXION Maschinenfabrik
Otto H?fner GmbH & Co
Hamburg-Wandsbeck, Germany
Jurid-Werke, Essen, Germany
Alfred K?rcher GmbH & Co. KG
Winnenden, Germany
Kawasaki-Motoren GmbH
Friedrichsdorf, Germany
Knecht Filterwerke GmbH
Stuttgart, Germany
Knorr-Bremse GmbH, Munich, Germany
Kolbenschmidt AG, Neckarsulm, Germany
KS Gleitlager GmbH
St. Leon-Rot, Germany
KTM Sportmotorcycles AG
Mattighofen, Austria
Kühnle, Kopp und Kausch AG
Frankenthal/Palatinate, Germany
Lemmerz-Werke, K?nigswinter, Germany
LuK GmbH, Bühl/Baden, Germany
MAHLE GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany
Mannesmann Sachs AG
Schweinfurt, Germany
Mann und Hummel, Filterwerke
Ludwigsburg, Germany
MAN Maschinenfabrik
Augsburg-Nürnberg AG
Munich, Germany
Mazda Motors Deutschland GmbH
Leverkusen, Germany
MCC – Mikro Compact Car GmbH
B?blingen, Germany
Messer-Griesheim GmbH
Frankfurt/Main, Germany
Mercedes Benz, Stuttgart, Germany
Metzeler Reifen GmbH
Munich, Germany
Michelin Reifenwerke KGaA
Karlsruhe, Germany
Microsoft GmbH
Unterschlei?heim, Germany
Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V.
Ratingen, Germany
Mitsubishi MMC, Trebur, Germany
MOBIL OIL AG, Hamburg, Germany
NGK/NTK Europe GmbH
Ratingen, Germany
Adam Opel AG, Rüsselsheim, Germany
OSRAM AG, Munich, Germany
OMV AG, Vienna, Austria
Oxigin-, Carmanin-LM-R?der,
Unterensingen, Germany
Peugeot Deutschland GmbH
Saarbrücken, Germany
Pierburg GmbH, Neuss, Germany
Pirelli AG, H?chst im Odenwald, Germany
Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG
Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen, Germany
Renault Nissan Deutschland AG
Brühl, Germany
Samsung Electronics GmbH
Cologne, Germany
SATA Farbspritztechnik GmbH & Co
Kornwestheim, Germany
SCANIA Deutschland GmbH
Koblenz, Germany
SEKURIT SAINT-GOBAIN
Deutschland GmbH, Aachen, Germany
Sch?ffler Automotive, Langen, Germany
Siemens AG, Munich, Germany
SKF Kugellagerfabriken GmbH
Schweinfurt, Germany
Snap-on/SNA Germany,
Hohenstein-Ernstthal, Germany
SOLO Kleinmotoren GmbH
Sindelfingen, Germany
SONAX GmbH, Neuburg, Germany
Stahlwille E. Wille
Wuppertal, Germany
Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG
Graz, Austria
Subaru Deutschland GmbH
Friedberg, Germany
SUN Elektrik Deutschland
Mettmann, Germany
Suzuki GmbH
Oberschlei?heim/Heppenheim, Germany
Technolit GmbH, Gro?lüder, Germany
Telma Retarder Deutschland GmbH
Ludwigsburg, Germany
Temic Elektronik, Nuremberg, Germany
TOYOTA Deutschland GmbH
Cologne, Germany
UNIWHEELS GmbH
Bad Dürkheim, Germany
VARTA Autobatterien GmbH
Hannover, Germany
Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co KG
Stuttgart, Germany
ViewSonic Central Europe
Willich, Germany
Voith GmbH & Co KG
Heidenheim, Germany
Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany
Volvo Deutschland GmbH
Brühl, Germany
Wabco Westinghouse GmbH
Hannover, Germany
Webasto GmbH, Stockdorf, Germany
Yamaha Motor Deutschland GmbH
Neuss, Germany
ZF Getriebe GmbH
Saarbrücken, Germany
ZF Sachs AG, Schweinfurt, Germany
ZF Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AG
Friedrichshafen/Schw?bisch Gmünd,
Germany
We wish to thank the companies listed below for providing technical advice, information, photographs and
illustrations.7
Table of contents
Abbreviations 4
Contributing companies 6
1 Motor vehicle 11
1.1 Evolution of the motor vehicle 11
1.2 Motor vehicle classifications 12
1.3 Design of the motor vehicle 12
1.4 The motor vehicle as technical system . 13
1.4.1 Technical systems 13
1.4.2 Motor vehicle system . 13
1.4.3 Subsystems in the motor vehicle . 15
1.4.4 Classifications of technical systems and
subsystems by processing mode 16
1.4.5 Using technical systems . 17
1.5 Service and maintenance 18
1.6 Filters, composition and maintenance . 20
1.6.1 Air filters 20
1.6.2 Fuel filters . 21
1.6.3 Oil filters 22
1.6.4 Hydraulic filters 22
1.6.5 Interior filters 22
1.6.6 Service and maintenance 22
1.7 Vehicle care 23
1.8 Fluids and lubricants, auxiliary materials . 28
1.8.1 Fuels 28
1.8.2 Fuels for spark-ignition engines . 30
1.8.3 Diesel fuels 31
1.8.4 Plant-based fuels . 32
1.8.5 Gaseous fuels 34
1.8.6 Oils and lubricants 34
1.8.7 Antifreeze . 39
1.8.8 Refrigerant 40
1.8.9 Brake fluid . 40
2 Environmental protection,
occupational safety 41
2.1 Environmental protection in automotive
service operations 41
2.1.1 Environmental pollution . 41
2.1.2 Disposal . 41
2.1.3 End-of-life vehicle disposal . 44
2.1.4 Recycling 45
2.2 Occupational safety and accident
prevention . 47
2.2.1 Basic principles of occupational safety . 47
2.2.2 Hazard assessment . 47
2.2.3 Safety measures 50
2.2.4 Safety signs 50
2.2.5 Hazard and precautionary statements 51
2.2.6 Institutions involved in occupational
health and safety . 52
3 Business organisation, communication 53
3.1 Basics of business organisation . 53
3.1.1 Organisation of a car dealership 53
3.1.2 Aspects of the business organisation 54
3.2 Legal principles 56
3.2.1 Types of contracts 56
3.2.2 Material defects liability, warranty and
goodwill . 57
3.3 Communication 58
3.3.1 Basics of communication 58
3.3.2 Consultations 59
3.3.3 Customer complaints and remedial
action claims . 62
3.4 Personnel leadership 62
3.5 Staff conduct . 63
3.6 Teamwork 64
3.7 Order processing . 65
3.8 Data processing in a car dealership 68
3.9 Quality management in automotive
service operations 71
4 Basics of information technology 75
4.1 Hardware and software 75
4.2 IPO concept 75
4.3 Internal data representation within the
computer 76
4.4 Numeric systems . 76
4.5 Structure of the computer system . 77
4.6 Data communications . 78
4.6.1 Data transfer . 79
4.6.2 Remote data transmission . 80
4.7 Data integrity assurance and data
protection . 81
5 Open- and closed-loop control technology 82
5.1 Basics . 82
5.1.1 Open-loop control 82
5.1.2 Closed-loop control . 83
5.2 Structure and components of the
open-loop control system 85
5.2.1 Signalling devices, signal types and
signal conversion . 85
5.2.2 Control elements . 87
5.2.3 Actuators and drive elements . 88
5.3 Control types . 89
5.3.1 Mechanical control systems 89
5.3.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic control systems 90
5.3.3 Electric control systems 95
5.3.4 Gate logic control systems . 97
5.3.5 Process-sequence control systems 98
6 Test technology 99
6.1 Basics of linear test technology . 99
6.2 Measuring instruments . 101
6.3 Gauges 106
6.4 Tolerances and fits . 107
6.5 Scribing 110
7 Production engineering 111
7.1 Categorisation of manufacturing
processes 111
7.2 Creative forming . 113
7.3 Forming 116
7.3.1 Forming under bending conditions . 1178 Table of contents
7.3.2 Forming under combination of tensile
and compressive conditions 118
7.3.3 Forming under compressive conditions 119
7.3.4 Straightening . 121
7.3.5 Sheet-metal working processes . 121
7.4 Separating by cutting 125
7.4.1 Basics of chip formation . 125
7.4.2 Cutting and shaping by hand . 125
7.4.3 Basics of cutting and shaping with
machine tools 132
7.5 Separating by dividing . 141
7.5.1 Cropping 141
7.5.2 Wedge-action cutting 142
7.6 Joining 143
7.6.1 Categorisation of connections . 143
7.6.2 Threads . 144
7.6.3 Screwed joints 145
7.6.4 Pin connections . 150
7.6.5 Riveted joints . 151
7.6.6 Clinching 152
7.6.7 Shaft-hub connections . 153
7.6.8 Press-fit joints 154
7.6.9 Snap-in connections . 154
7.6.10 Soldering 155
7.6.11 Welding . 156
7.6.12 Gluing . 163
7.7 Coating 164
8 Material science 166
8.1 Properties of materials . 166
8.2 Categorisation of materials . 170
8.3 Structure of metallic materials 171
8.4 Ferrous products 173
8.4.1 Steel 173
8.4.2 Cast-iron materials 173
8.4.3 Influence of additives on ferrous
products . 175
8.4.4 Designation of ferrous products . 175
8.4.5 Categorisation and application of steels 177
8.4.6 Commercial forms of steel . 179
8.4.7 Heat treatment of ferrous products 180
8.5 Non-ferrous metals 184
8.6 Plastics 187
8.7 Composite materials 190
9 Friction, lubrication, bearings, seals 191
9.1 Friction 191
9.2 Lubrication 192
9.3 Bearings 193
9.4 Seals 196
10 Design and operating principle of a
four-stroke engine 197
10.1 Spark-ignition engine 197
10.2 Diesel engine . 200
10.3 Four-stroke engine characteristics . 202
10.4 Pressure-volume diagram (PV diagram) 204
10.5 Timing diagram . 206
10.6 Cylinder numbering, firing orders . 206
10.7 Engine performance curves . 208
10.8 Stroke-to-bore ratio, power output
per litre, weight-to-power ratio 209
11 Mechanical engine components 210
11.1 Crankcase, cylinder, cylinder head . 210
11.1.1 Engine block . 210
11.1.2 Cylinder head 213
11.1.3 Cylinder head gasket 214
11.1.4 Engine suspension 215
11.1.5 Cylinder head bolts 215
11.2 Crankshaft assembly 220
11.3 Dual-mass flywheel . 232
11.4 Engine lubricating systems . 233
11.5 Engine cooling systems 239
11.5.1 Types of cooling 239
11.5.2 Air cooling . 240
11.5.3 Liquid cooling 240
11.5.4 Pump-cooling components . 241
11.5.5 Map-controlled cooling systems . 246
11.5.6 Map-cooling components 246
11.6 Engine timing gear 248
11.7 Charge optimisation . 254
12 Mixture formation 270
12.1 Fuel supply systems in spark-ignition
engines 270
12.2 Mixture formation in spark-ignition
engines 275
12.3 Carburettor 278
12.4 Petrol injection . 279
12.4.1 Basic principles of petrol injection . 279
12.4.2 Design and function of electronic
petrol injection . 281
12.4.3 Operating data acquisition 282
12.4.4 Single-point injection 288
12.4.5 LH-Motronic 292
12.4.6 ME-Motronic . 298
12.4.7 Petrol direct injection 302
12.5 Mixture formation in diesel engines 310
12.5.1 Mixture distribution/lambda values
in diesel engines 310
12.5.2 Combustion process in a diesel engine . 311
12.5.3 Pre-injection, main injection and
post-injection . 311
12.5.4 Combustion process . 312
12.5.5 Inlet port control 313
12.5.6 Diesel injection process 313
12.6 Auxiliary starting assistance systems 314
12.6.1 Sheathed-element glow plugs 314
12.6.2 Flange heater . 316
12.7 Injection systems for passenger car
diesel engines 317
12.7.1 Electronic diesel control (EDC) 317
12.7.2 Common rail systems . 319
12.7.3 Common rail systems with piezo
injectors . 326
12.7.4 Unit-injector system . 329
12.7.5 Electronically controlled axial-piston
distributor injection pump (VE-EDC) . 331Table of contents 9
12.7.6 Radial-piston distributor injection
pump (VP44) . 333
12.8 Injection nozzles 335
13 Pollutant reduction 336
13.1 Exhaust system . 336
13.2 Pollutant reduction in a spark-ignition
engine . 339
13.2.1 Exhaust gas composition . 339
13.2.2 Procedures for reducing pollutants 341
13.2.3 Diagnostics and maintenance (EI) 347
13.2.4 European On-Board Diagnostics (EOBD) 348
13.3 Pollutant reduction in a diesel engine 352
14 Two-stroke spark-ignition engine,
rotary engine 358
14.1 Two-stroke engine 358
14.2 Rotary engine 365
15 Alternative drive concepts 367
15.1 Alternative sources of energy . 367
15.2 Natural gas drives . 367
15.3 LPG drive systems 369
15.4 Hybrid drives . 371
15.5 Electric vehicles 392
15.6 Drives with fuel cells . 393
15.7 Internal combustion engines with
hydrogen operation . 395
15.8 Combustion engines with vegetable oil
operation 395
16 Drivetrain 396
16.1 Drive types 396
16.2 Clutch . 398
16.2.1 Friction clutch 398
16.2.2 Double-disc clutch 405
16.2.3 Multi-plate clutch . 405
16.3 Automatic clutch systems (ACS) with
single-disc friction clutches . 406
16.4 Automatic clutch systems with twin
clutches . 407
16.5 Variable-speed gearbox 411
16.6 Manual variable-speed gearbox . 412
16.7 Automatic gearbox 417
16.7.1 Automated manual gearbox 417
16.7.2 Stepped automatic gearbox with
hydrodynamic converter . 421
16.7.3 Electrohydraulic transmission control 427
16.7.4 Adaptive transmission control 434
16.7.5 Continuously variable automatic transmission with pushbelt or link chain 435
16.8 Propeller shafts, drive shafts, joints 437
16.9 Final drive . 440
16.10 Differential . 443
16.11 Differential locks 444
16.12 All-wheel drive . 449
17 Vehicle body 454
17.1 Vehicle body/bodywork 454
17.1.1 Separate construction . 454
17.1.2 Partially self-supporting construction. 454
17.1.3 Self-supporting construction 454
17.1.4 Materials in body making 455
17.1.5 Safety in vehicle manufacturing . 457
17.1.6 Damage assessment and
measurement 464
17.1.7 Accident repairs to self-supporting
bodies . 468
17.2 Corrosion protection on motor
vehicles 473
17.3 Vehicle paintwork . 474
18 Chassis 478
18.1 Driving dynamics . 478
18.2 Basic principles of steering . 480
18.3 Steering gear 481
18.4 Power assisted steering
systems . 481
18.4.1 Hydraulic rack-and-pinion steering . 481
18.4.2 Electro-hydraulic power steering
(Servotronic) . 482
18.4.3 Electric power steering (Servolectric). 483
18.4.4 Superimposed steering systems 485
18.5 Wheel adjustments 489
18.6 Wheel alignment . 492
18.7 Wheel suspension systems . 496
18.8 Suspension 501
18.8.1 Function of the suspension . 501
18.8.2 Operating principle of the
suspension . 501
18.8.3 Types of springs 503
18.8.4 Vibration dampers 507
18.8.5 Active Body Control (ABC) 513
18.9 Wheels and tyres 516
18.9.1 Wheel/tyre combination . 516
18.9.2 Wheels 516
18.9.3 Wheel mountings . 518
18.9.4 Valves . 519
18.9.5 Tyres 520
18.9.6 Tyre-related forces 525
18.9.7 Tyre pressure monitoring systems . 527
18.10 Brakes . 529
18.10.1 Braking 531
18.10.2 Hydraulic brake . 531
18.10.3 Brake circuit configuration 532
18.10.4 Master cylinder . 532
18.10.5 Drum brake 534
18.10.6 Disc brake 536
18.10.7 Brake pads . 539
18.10.8 Parking brake systems . 539
18.10.9 Diagnostics and maintenance of the
hydraulic brake system 540
18.10.10 Power-assisted brake 542
18.10.11 Brake force distribution 543
18.10.12 Mechanically operated brake . 544
18.10.13 Basics of the electronic chassis
control systems . 545
18.10.14 Antilock braking system (ABS) 546
18.10.15 Traction Control System (TCS) 551
18.10.16 Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) . 552
18.10.17 Sensotronic brake control (SBC) . 55410 Table of contents
18.10.18 Additional brake functions 554
18.10.19 Brake assist system (BAS) 555
18.10.20 Emergency Brake Assist (EBA),
Active Brake Assist (ABA) 555
19 Electrical engineering 556
19.1 General principles of electrical
engineering 556
19.1.1 Voltage . 557
19.1.2 Electrical current 557
19.1.3 Electrical resistance . 559
19.1.4 Ohm's Law . 561
19.1.5 Power, work, efficiency 561
19.1.6 Resistor circuits . 562
19.1.7 Measurements in electrical circuits 563
19.1.8 Properties of electrical current 571
19.1.9 Protection against the hazards of
electrical current 572
19.1.10 Voltage generation 574
19.1.11 Alternating voltage and
alternating current 576
19.1.12 Three-phase AC voltage and
three-phase current . 577
19.1.13 Magnetism . 577
19.1.14 Self-induction 579
19.1.15 Capacitor 580
19.1.16 Electrochemistry 580
19.1.17 Electronic components . 582
19.2 Applications of electrical
engineering 593
19.2.1 Wiring diagrams 593
19.2.2 Additional information and labelling
in circuit diagrams 595
19.2.3 Using current diagrams 596
19.2.4 Overall circuit diagram of a vehicle's
standard equipment . 597
19.2.5 Signal transmitters 605
19.2.6 Relays . 606
19.2.7 Lighting in the motor vehicle 608
19.2.8 Illuminators 609
19.2.9 Power supply . 617
19.2.10 Alternator 624
19.2.11 Vehicle electrical system management 633
19.2.12 Electric motors . 635
19.2.13 Ignition systems 642
19.2.14 Sensors . 659
19.2.15 High frequency technology . 663
19.2.16 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). 668
19.2.17 Data transmission in motor vehicles . 670
19.2.18 Measuring, testing, diagnostics . 684
20 Comfort and convenience technology 688
20.1 Ventilation, heating, ambient air,
air conditioning . 688
20.2 Anti-theft systems . 695
20.2.1 Vehicle immobilisers 695
20.2.2 Central locking system . 696
20.2.3 Passive access 699
20.2.4 Anti-theft alarm system (ATA) . 701
20.3 Comfort and convenience systems 703
20.3.1 Convertible roof actuation 703
20.3.2 Luxury seats 704
20.3.3 Electronic windscreen wiper control . 705
20.3.4 Electrically adjustable exterior
mirrors 705
20.4 Advanced driver assistance systems . 706
20.4.1 Cruise control system 706
20.4.2 Adaptive cruise control (ACC) . 706
20.4.3 Park distance control (PDC) . 708
20.4.4 Parking assistance (Park Assist) . 708
20.4.5 Camera-assisted parking . 709
20.4.6 Lane change assist (lane change
warning, blind spot assist) 709
20.4.7 Lane departure warning system
(Lane Keeping Assist, Lane Assist) . 710
20.5 Infotainment systems 710
20.5.1 Operating and travel data display 710
20.5.2 Navigation systems . 711
20.5.3 Mobile phone cradle with linked
hands-free system 712
21 Motorcycle technology 713
21.1 Types of motorcycle 713
21.2 Motorcycle engines . 716
21.3 Exhaust system . 716
21.4 Mixture formation . 717
21.5 Engine cooling 718
21.6 Engine lubrication . 718
21.7 Clutch . 719
21.8 Drivetrain 720
21.9 Electrical system 722
21.10 Riding dynamics 725
21.11 Motorcycle frames 726
21.12 Wheel location, suspension and
damping . 727
21.13 Brakes . 729
21.14 Wheels and tyres 731
22 Commercial vehicle technology 734
22.1 Categorisation 734
22.2 Commercial vehicle dimensions . 735
22.3 Permissible CV weights 735
22.4 Payload regulations . 735
22.5 Commercial vehicle (CV) engines 736
22.6 Injection systems for
CV diesel engines . 737
22.6.1 CV common rail system 738
22.6.2 Pump-line-nozzle system (PLN) 743
22.6.3 Auxiliary starting assistance systems 744
22.6.4 Reduction of harmful emissions in
CV diesel engines . 744
22.7 Drivetrain 746
22.8 Chassis 749
22.8.1 Suspension 749
22.8.2 Wheels and tyres 752
22.8.3 Air brake system (brake system with
external power source) . 753
22.9 Starting systems for
commercial vehicles 765
23 Keyword index 769


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