كتاب An Introduction to Combustion - Concepts and Applications
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب An Introduction to Combustion - Concepts and Applications

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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An Introduction to Combustion - Concepts and Applications
Third Edition
Stephen R. Turns
Propulsion Engineering Research Center
And
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University  

كتاب An Introduction to Combustion - Concepts and Applications  A_i_t_12
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Contents
Preface to the Third Edition Ix
Acknowledgments Xi
1 Introduction 1
Motivation to Study Combustion 1
A Definition of Combustion 8
Combustion Modes and Flame Types 9
Approach to Our Study 10
References 11
2 Combustion and Thermochemistry 12
Overview 12
Review of Property Relations 12
Extensive and Intensive Properties 12
Equation of State 13
Calorifi C Equations of State 13
Ideal-gas Mixtures 15
Latent Heat of Vaporization 18
First Law of Thermodynamics 18
First Law—fixed Mass 18
First Law—control Volume 20
Reactant and Product Mixtures 21
Stoichiometry 21
Standardized Enthalpy and
Enthalpy of Formation 26
Enthalpy of Combustion and Heating
Values 29
Adiabatic Flame Temperatures 33
Chemical Equilibrium 38
Second-law Considerations 38
Gibbs Function 40
Complex Systems 46
Equilibrium Products of Combustion 46
Full Equilibrium 46
Water-gas Equilibrium 49
Pressure Effects 52
Some Applications 53
Recuperation and Regeneration 53
Flue- (or Exhaust-) Gas Recirculation 59
Summary 66
Nomenclature 66
References 68
Review Questions 69
Problems 70
3 Introduction to Mass Transfer 79
Overview 79
Rudiments of Mass Transfer 79
Mass Transfer Rate Laws 80
Species Conservation 86
Some Applications of Mass Transfer 88
The Stefan Problem 88
Liquid–vapor Interface Boundary Conditions 90
Droplet Evaporation 94
Summary 101
Nomenclature 101
References 103
Review Questions 103
Problems 104
4 Chemical Kinetics 107
Overview 107
Global Versus Elementary Reactions 107
Elementary Reaction Rates 109
Bimolecular Reactions and Collision Theory 109
Other Elementary Reactions 114
Rates of Reaction for Multistep Mechanisms 115
Net Production Rates 115
Compact Notation 116
Relation Between Rate Coefficients and
Equilibrium Constants 118
Steady-state Approximation 120
The Mechanism for Unimolecular Reactions 121
Chain and Chain-branching Reactions 123
Chemical Time Scales 129
Partial Equilibrium 133
Reduced Mechanisms 135
Catalysis and Heterogeneous Reactions 136
Surface Reactions 136
Complex Mechanisms 138summary 139
Nomenclature 140
References 141
Questions and Problems 143
5 Some Important Chemical
Mechanisms 149
Overview 149
The H
2–o2 System 149
Carbon Monoxide Oxidation 152
Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 153
General Scheme for Alkanes 153
Global and Quasi-global Mechanisms 156
Real Fuels and Their Surrogates 158
Methane Combustion 159
Complex Mechanism 159
High-temperature Reaction Pathway
Analysis 168
Low-temperature Reaction Pathway
Analysis 170
Oxides of Nitrogen Formation 170
Methane Combustion and Oxides of Nitrogen
Formation—a Reduced Mechanism 174
Summary 175
References 176
Questions and Problems 179
6 Coupling Chemical and Thermal
Analyses of Reacting Systems 183
Overview 183
Constant-pressure, Fixed-mass
Reactor 184
Application of Conservation Laws 184
Reactor Model Summary 187
Constant-volume, Fixed-mass Reactor 187
Application of Conservation Laws 187
Reactor Model Summary 188
Well-stirred Reactor 194
Application of Conservation Laws 194
Reactor Model Summary 197
Plug-flow Reactor 206
Assumptions 206
Application of Conservation Laws 206
Applications to Combustion System
Modeling 210
Summary 211
Nomenclature 211
References 212
Problems and Projects 213
Appendix 6a—some Useful Relationships
Among Mass Fractions, Mole Fractions,
Molar Concentrations, and Mixture
Molecular Weights 218
7 Simplified Conservation Equations for
Reacting Flows 220
Overview 220
Overall Mass Conservation (Continuity) 221
Species Mass Conservation (Species
Continuity) 223
Multicomponent Diffusion 226
General Formulations 226
Calculation of Multicomponent Diffusion
Coefficients 228
Simplified Approach 231
Momentum Conservation 233
One-dimensional Forms 233
Two-dimensional Forms 235
Energy Conservation 239
General One-dimensional Form 239
Shvab–zeldovich Forms 241
Useful Form for Flame Calculations 245
The Concept of a Conserved Scalar 245
Defi Nition of Mixture Fraction 246
Conservation of Mixture Fraction 247
Conserved Scalar Energy Equation 251
Summary 252
Nomenclature 252
References 254
Review Questions 255
Problems 255
8 Laminar Premixed Flames 258
Overview 258
Physical Description 259
Definition 259
Principal Characteristics 259
Typical Laboratory Flames 261
Simplified Analysis 266
Assumptions 266
Conservation Laws 266
Solution 269
Xiv Contentsdetailed Analysis 273
Governing Equations 274
Boundary Conditions 274
Structure of Ch
4–air Flame 276
Factors Influencing Flame Velocity
And Thickness 279
Temperature 279
Pressure 280
Equivalence Ratio 280
Fuel Type 282
Flame Speed Correlations for Selected
Fuels 285
Quenching, Flammability, and Ignition 287
Quenching by a Cold Wall 287
Flammability Limits 293
Ignition 295
Flame Stabilization 300
Summary 303
Nomenclature 304
References 305
Review Questions 307
Problems 308
9 Laminar Diffusion Flames 311
Overview 311
Nonreacting Constant-density Laminar Jet 312
Physical Description 312
Assumptions 313
Conservation Laws 314
Boundary Conditions 314
Solution 315
Jet Flame Physical Description 320
Simplified Theoretical Descriptions 323
Primary Assumptions 323
Basic Conservation Equations 324
Additional Relations 325
Conserved Scalar Approach 325
Various Solutions 332
Flame Lengths for Circular-port
And Slot Burners 336
Roper’s Correlations 336
Flowrate and Geometry Effects 340
Factors Affecting Stoichiometry 341
Soot Formation and Destruction 346
Counterflow Flames 350
Mathematical Description 351
Structure of Ch
4–air Flame 353
Summary 356
Nomenclature 357
Reference 359
Review Questions 362
Problems 363
10 Droplet Evaporation and Burning 366
Overview 366
Some Applications 366
Diesel Engines 367
Gas-turbine Engines 369
Liquid-rocket Engines 371
Simple Model of Droplet Evaporation 374
Assumptions 375
Gas-phase Analysis 376
Droplet Lifetimes 380
Simple Model of Droplet Burning 383
Assumptions 383
Problem Statement 385
Mass Conservation 385
Species Conservation 385
Energy Conservation 388
Summary and Solution 394
Burning Rate Constant and Droplet
Lifetimes 395
Extension to Convective Environments 400
Additional Factors 402
One-dimensional Vaporization-controlled
Combustion 403
Physical Model 404
Assumptions 405
Mathematical Problem Statement 405
Analysis 406
Model Summary 412
Summary 416
Nomenclature 417
References 419
Problems 422
Projects 423
Appendix 10a—sir Harry R. Ricardo’s
Description of Combustion in Diesel
Engines [51] 425
11 Introduction to Turbulent Flows 427
Overview 427
Definition of Turbulence 428
Contents Xvxvi Contents
Length Scales in Turbulent Flows 431
Four Length Scales 431
Turbulence Reynolds Numbers 433
Analyzing Turbulent Flows 437
Reynolds Averaging and Turbulent Stresses 438
The Closure Problem 440
Axisymmetric Turbulent Jet 444
Beyond the Simplest Model 447
Summary 448
Nomenclature 449
References 450
Questions and Problems 452
12 Turbulent Premixed Flames 453
Overview 453
Some Applications 453
Spark-ignition Engines 453
Gas-turbine Engines 454
Industrial Gas Burners 455
Definition of Turbulent Flame Speed 457
Structure of Turbulent Premixed Flames 459
Experimental Observations 459
Three Flame Regimes 460
Wrinkled Laminar-flame Regime 465
Distributed-reaction Regime 470
Flamelets-in-eddies Regime 472
Flame Stabilization 474
Bypass Ports 474
Burner Tiles 475
Bluff Bodies 475
Swirl or Jet-induced Recirculating Flows 477
Summary 478
Nomenclature 479
References 480
Problems 483
13 Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames 486
Overview 486
Jet Flames 489
General Observations 489
Simplified Analysis 494
Flame Length 500
Flame Radiation 506
Liftoff and Blowout 510
Other Configurations 515
Summary 519
Nomenclature 519
References 520
Review Questions 524
Problems 525
14 Burning of Solids 527
Overview 527
Coal-fired Boilers 527
Heterogeneous Reactions 529
Burning of Carbon 530
Overview 531
One-film Model 532
Two-film Model 543
Particle Burning Times 550
Coal Combustion 551
Other Solids 551
Summary 552
Nomenclature 552
References 553
Questions and Problems 554
15 Emissions 556
Overview 556
Effects of Pollutants 557
Quantification of Emissions 559
Emission Indices 559
Corrected Concentrations 561
Various Specifi C Emission Measures 564
Emissions From Premixed Combustion 565
Oxides of Nitrogen 565
Carbon Monoxide 573
Unburned Hydrocarbons 575
Catalytic Aftertreatment 576
Particulate Matter 576
Emissions From Nonpremixed
Combustion 578
Oxides of Nitrogen 579
Unburned Hydrocarbons and Carbon
Monoxide 593
Particulate Matter 595
Oxides of Sulfur 597
Greenhouse Gases 598
Summary 601
Nomenclature 602
References 603
Questions and Problems 612contents Xvii
16 Detonations 616
Overview 616
Physical Description 616
Definition 616
Principal Characteristics 617
One-dimensional Analysis 618
Assumptions 618
Conservation Laws 619
Combined Relations 620
Detonation Velocities 626
Structure of Detonation Waves 630
Summary 635
Nomenclature 635
References 636
Problems 637
17 Fuels 638
Overview 638
Naming Conventions and Molecular
Structures 638
Hydrocarbons 638
Alcohols 642
Other Organic Compounds 642
Important Properties of Fuels 644
Ignition Characteristics 644
Volatility 646
Energy Density 647
Conventional Fuels 648
Gasoline 648
Diesel Fuels 654
Heating Oils 654
Aviation Fuels 655
Natural Gas 657
Coal 662
Alternative Fuels 667
Biofuels 667
Fischer-tropsch Liquid Fuels 677
Hydrogen 678
Summary 679
Nomenclature and Abbreviations 679
References 680
Problems 685
Appendix a Selected Thermodynamic
Properties of Gases Comprising
C–h–o–n System 686
Appendix B Fuel Properties 700
Appendix C Selected Properties of Air,
Nitrogen, and Oxygen 704
Appendix D Binary Diffusion
Coefficients and Methodology for
Their Estimation 707
Appendix E Generalized Newton’s
Method for the Solution of
Nonlinear Equations 710
Appendix F Computer Codes for Equilibrium
Products of Hydrocarbon–air
Combustion 713
Index 715


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