كتاب Refrigeration Air Conditioning
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 كتاب Refrigeration Air Conditioning

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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Refrigeration Air Conditioning
C. P. Arora
Third Edition  

كتاب Refrigeration Air Conditioning  R_a_c_10
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Contents
Preface
Lisi of Principal Symbols
Visual Preview
1r-- Introduction 1
Li A Brief History of Refrigeration /
Sysleme International d'Unites (SI Units) 4
Thermodynamic Systems, State, Properties, Processes,
Heat and Work 8
First Law of Thermodynamics 9
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Non-flow Processes
Steady-Fiow Processes 12
Thermodynamic State of a Pare Substance 13
Heat Exchange Processes 16
Production of Low Temperatures 18
Saturation Pressure versus Saturation Temperature
Relationship 22
The Gaseous Phase: Equation of Stale 23
Clapeyron Equation 26
Property Relations 27
Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerants 27
Modes of Heat Transfer 35
Law s of Heat Transfer 36
Electrical Analogy 39
Steady'State Conduction 42
Heat Transfer from Extended Surface 49
Unsteady-State Conduction 53
Forced Convection Correlations 54
Free Convection Correlations 55
Design of Heat Exchangers 55
Mass Transfer 57
Analogy between Momentum , Heat and Mass Transfer 58
Refer&npes 60
Revision Exercises
vm Contents
Refrigerating Machine and Reversed Carnot Cycle
2.1 Refrigerating Machines 64
A Refrigerating Machine The Second Law interpretation
Heat Engine, Heat Pump and Refrigerating Machine 67
Best Refrigeration Cycle: The Carnot Principle 71
Vapour as a Refrigerant in Reversed Carnot Cycle SO
Gas as a Refrigerant in Reversed Carnot Cycle 82
Limitations of Reversed Carnot Cycle 84
Actual Refrigeration Systems 85
Revision Exercises
. Vapour Compression System
3.1 Modifications in Reversed Carnot Cycle with Vapour
as a Refrigerant 87
3.2 Vapour Compression Cycle 89
3.3 Vapour Compression System Calculations 91
3.4 Ewing ' s Construction 99
3.5 Standard Rating Cycle and Effect of Operating Conditions 103
3.6 Actual Vapour Compression Cycle 114
3.7 Standard Rating Cycle for Domestic Refrigerators 1 IS
3.8 Heat Pump 121
3.9 Second Law Efficiency of Vapour Compression Cycle 122
References 123
Revision Exercises
4.r-. Refrigerants 128
4 A A Survey of Refrigerants 128
4.2 Designation of Refrigerants 129
4.3 Comparative Study of Methane Derivatives in
Use Before the Year 2000
4.4 Comparative Study ol Ethane Derivatives in Use
Before the Year 2000 134
4.5 Refrigerants in Use after the Year 2000 135
4.6 Selection of a Refrigerant 136
4.7 Thermodynamic Requirements 137
4.8 Chemical Requirements 147
4.9 Physical Requirements 150
4.10 Ozone Depletion Potential and Global
Warming Potential of CPC Refrigerants 153
4.11 Substitutes for CPC Refrigerants 154
4.12 Substitutes for CFG 12 /57
4.13 Substitutes for CFC 11 169
133Contents ix
4.14 Substitutes for HCFC 22 170
4.15 Substitutes for CPC R 502 / 7 }
4.16 Atmospheric Gases as Substitutes for CFG Refrigerants / 7/
4.17 Using Mixed Refrigerants 174
4.18 Binary Mixtures 174
4.19 Classification of Mixtures ISO
4.20 Evaluation of Thermodynamic Properties
of R 290/R 600a Mixtures 188
4.2 i Azeotropic Mixtures 191
4.22 Use of Minimum and Maximum Boiling Azeotropes 193
423 Non-isothermal Refrigeration 195
4.24 Refrigerant Piping and Design 201
4.25 Lubricants in Refrigeration Systems 207
4.26 Secondary Refrigerants 208
References 210
RevisiOfl Ex rc ises 212
Multipressure Systems
5.1 Introduction 214
Multistage or Compound Compression 214
Multi-Evaporator Systems 222
Cascade Systems 226
Solid Carbon Dioxide—Dry Ice 228
Manufacture of Solid Carbon Dioxide 228
System Practices for Multi-stage Systems 233.
References 234
Revision Exercises
Refrigerant Compressors 236
6.1 Types of Compressors 236
6.2 Thermodynamic Processes During Compression 239
6.3 Volumetric Efficiency of Reciprocating Compressors 242
6.4 Effect of Clearance on Work 246
6.5 Principal Dimensions of a Reciprocating Compressor 247
6.6 Performance Characteristics of Reciprocating Compressors 248
6.7 Capacity Control of Reciprocating Compressors 25$
6.8 Construction Features of Reciprocating Compressors 256
6.9 Rotary Compressors 256
6. IQ Screw Compressors 257
6.11 Scroll Compressors 259
6.12 Centrifugal Compressors 260
6.13 Performance Characteristics of a Centrifugal Compressor 268-v Contents
6.14 Alternatives to R 11 (CPC 11} 274
6.15 Comparison of Performance of Reciprocating and
Centrifugal Compressors 281
References 282
ReVision Exerc ises 283
7 Condensers 286
7.1 Heat Rejection Ratio 286
Types of Condensers 286
Heat Transfer in Condensers 288
Wilson's Plot 300
References 301
Revision Exercises
8.^8.1 Types Expansion of Expansion Devices Devices 303 303
8.2 Automatic or Constant-Pressure Expansion Valve 303
8.3 Thermostatic-Expansion Valve 305
8.4 Capillary Tube and Its Sizing 3ii
References 317
Revision Exercises 317
9 Evaporators 319
9.1 Types of Fwaporators 319
Heat Transfer in Evaporators 322
Extended Surface Evaporators 329
Augmentation of Boiling Heat Transfer 334
Pressure Drop in Evaporators 340
References 347
Revision Exercises 348
10 r Complete Vapour Compression System 349
10.1 The Complete System 349
10 /2 Graphical Method 349
10.3 Analytical Method 352
10.4 Newton-Raphson Method 355
10.5 Optimal Design of Evaporator 358
10.6 Installation, Service and Maintenance of
Vapour Compression Systems 359
References 365
Revision Exercises 366Contents xi
11 Gas Cycle Refrigeration 367
3 1 , ] Limitations of Carnot Cycle with Gas as a Refrigerant 367
11.2 Reversed Brayion or Joule or Hell Coleman Cycle 367
11.3 Application to Aircraft Refrigeration 37 J
11.4 Ranque-HiJsch Tube 383
11.5 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient and Inversion Curve 385
11.6 Reversed Stirling Cycle 389
References 399
Revision Exercises 400
* Vapour-Absorption System
12.1 Simple Vapour-Absorption System 402
1 2.2 Maximum Coefficient (jf Performance of a
Heal Operated Fiefrigerating Machine 403
12.3 Common Refrigerant-Absorbent Systems 405
12.4 Modifications to Simple Vapour-Absorption System 406
12.5 Actual Vapour-Absorption Cycle and its Representation
on Enthalpy-Composition Diagram 41i
12.6 Representation of Vapour Absorption Cycle
on In p
12.7 Practical Single-effect Water-Lithium
FJromide Absorption Chiller 423
12.8 Double-effect H -,0- Li Fir -, Absorption System 428
12.9 Electrolux Refrigerator 431
12.10 New Mixtures for Absorption System 432
References 434
Revision Exercises
Diagram 419
Ejector-Compression System
13, ! Water as a Refrigerant 437
13.2 Steam Ejector System 438
13.3 Theoretical Analysis of the Steam Ejector 439
References
Revision Exercises 445
14 *^1 C Properties of Moist Air
Brief History of Air Conditioning 446
14.2 Working Substance in Air Conditioning
14.3 Psychrometric Properties 452
14.4 Wet Bulb Temperature (WBT) 459
447JCJI Contents
14.5 Thermodynamic WCE Bulb Temperature or
Temperature of Adiabatic Saturation 46 1
14.6 Psyeiuometric Chart 464
14.7 Application of First Law to a Psychromctric Process 469
References 472
Revision Exercises 472
15.sL r Psychrometry of Air-Conditioning Processes
15.1 Mixing Process 474
15.2 Basic Processes in Conditioning of Air 477
15.3 Psychromctric Processes in Air-Conditioning Equipment
15.4 Simple Air-Conditioning System and
State and Mass Rate of Supply Air 493
15.5 Summer Air Conditioning-apparatus Dew Point 497
15.6 Winter Air Conditioning 508
Revision Exercises 511
16 Design Conditions
16.1 Choice of Inside Design Conditions 514
16.2 Comfort 519
16 3 Outside Design Conditions 521
16.4 Choice of Supply Design Conditions 522
16 5 Critical Loading Conditions 526
16 6 Clean Spaces 528
References 528
Reinsion Exert ises 528
17#L Solar Radiation 53«
17.1 Distribution of Solar Radiation 530
17.2 Earth-Sun Angles and their Relationships 535
17.3 Time 541
17 .4 Wall Solar Azimuth Angle and Angle of Incidence 543
17.5 Direct Solar Radiation on a Surface 543
17.6 Diffuse Sky Radiation on a Surface 545
17.7 Heal Gain through Glass 547
17.8 Shading from Reveals, Overhangs and Fins 557
17.9 Effect of Shading Device 555
17JO Tables for Solar Heat Gain through Ordinary Glass 556
17.11 The Flat-Plate Solar Collector 568
References 571
Revision Exercises 572Contents xiu
18, Heat Transfer through Building Structures 574
18.2 Overall Heat-Transmission Coefficient 574
18.3 Periodic Heat Transfer through Walls and Roofs 58 /
18.4 Finite Difference Approximation of One-Dimensional
Heat Transfer Through Wall 5S4
18,3 Empirical Methods to Evaluate Heat Transfer
through Walls and Roofs 594
18.6 Natural Ventilation through Infiltration 606
18.7 Passive Heating and Cooling of Buildings 611
1 8.8 Water Vapour Transfer through Structures 614
References 6 / 8
Revision Exerc ises 618
Fabric Heat Gain 574
19.P Load Calculations and Applied Psychrnmetrics 621
19.1 Preliminary Considerations 62 /
19.2 Internal Heat Gains 622
19.3 System Heat Gains 625
19.4 Break-up of Ventilation Load and
Effective Sensible Heat Factor 627
19,3 Cooling Load Estimate 62#
19.6 Heating Load Estimate 629
19.7 Psychrometric Calculations for Cooling 635
19.8 Selection of Air-Conditioning Apparatus
for Cooling and Dchumidification 640
19.9 Evaporative Cooling 65 /
19.10 Building Requirements and Energy
Conservation in Air Conditioned Buildings 655
Refereitees 659
Revision Exercises 659
Design of Air-Conditioning Apparatus 662
20.1 Air-Conditioning Apparatus 662
20.2 Heal and Moisture Transfer in
Air-Conditioning Apparatus 662
20.3 Coil Equipment—Design of Cooling and
Dehumidifying Coils 668
20.4 Optimal Design of Cooling and
Dehumidifying Coils 682
20.5 Spray Equipment—Design of Air Washers
and Cooling Towers 683
References 694
Re\'ision Exercises 6 94.viu Contents
. Transmksion and Distributionof Air
21 d Room Air Distribution 697
Total, Static and Velocity Pressures 705
Friction Loss in Ducts 709
Dynamic Losses in Ducts 713
Air Flow through a Simple Duct System 726
Air-duct Design 729
Processing, Transmission and
Distribution of Air in Clean Rooms 741
Air Locks, Air CL;rial ns and Air Showers 744
References 744
Revision Exercises
224v: Fans 747
22^4d —- Types of Fans 747
22.2 Fan Characteristics 747
223 Centrifugal Fans 748
22.4 Axial-Flow Fans 752
22.5 System Characteristics 75J
22.6 Fan Arrangements 759
References 764
Revision Exercises 764
23,UV'. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Control
23d Basic Elements of Control 766
23.2 Detecting Elements 767
23.3 Actuating Elements 771
23A Electric Motors and Controls 775
23.5 Controls in Refrigeration Equipment 780
23.6 Controlling Room Conditions at Partial Load
23.7 Induction System 789
References
ReirisiOn Exere ises
244TL Applications in Food Refrigeration/Processing and
Industrial Air Conditioning
24d Typical Examples of Food Processing
by Refrigeration and Storage 797
24,2 Transport Refrigeration 806
243 Cooling and Heating of Foods 810
24,4 Freezing of Foods 814
797Contents xo
24.5 Freeze prying 825
24.6 Heat Dlying of Foods 834
24.7 Tunnels Ventilation 843
24.8 Station Air Conditioning 844
24.9 Mine Air Conditioning and Ventilation 845
References 847
Re yision Exercises 848
^ C Appendix A Thermodynamic for Refrigerants Properties Correlations
Correlations for Thermodynamic Properties of R 12 850
Correlations for Thermodynamic Properties of R 134a 852
Correlations for I hermodynamic Properties of R 152a 854
Correlations for Thermodynamic Properties of R 22 #56
Correlations for Thermodynamic Properties of R 290 and
R 600a
Appendix B Tables
Thermophysical Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure 86 f
Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Water and Steam #62
Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants 863
Thermodynamic Properties of R 744 (Carbon Dioxide ) #65
Thermodynamic Properties of R290 (Propane) 867
Thermodynamic Properties of R 22 #7/
Thermodynamic Properties of R717 (Ammonia ) #75
Thermodynamic Properties of R12 878
Thermodynamic Properties of R 134a 879
B.10 Thermodynamic Properties of R 152a 882
IT I 1 Thermodynamic Properties of R 600a (Isobutane) 886
B.12 Thermodynamic Properties of R 123 (Trifluoro Ethane) 890
B. 13 Thermodynamic Properties of R 245 fa
(Penlafhioro Propane) 891
B , 14 Thermodynamic Properties of R 404A
tR 125/R143u/R 134a(44/52/4) ] #92
B , 15 Thermodynamic Properties of R407C
[R32/R 125/R 134a(23/25/42) #93
B , 16 Thermodynamic Properties of R410 A [R32/R125/(50/50)] 894
BT 7 Thermodynamic Properties of R507A [ R 125/R 143a (.50/50 )] #95
IT 18 Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated R 11 896
B ,19 Thermodynamic Properties of R 290/R600a Mixture #97
B ,2Q Thermodynamic Properties of Water-Lithium Bromide
Solutions 902
B . 21 Thermodynamic Properties of R 7 3 8 (Water ) 903
B ,22 Outdoors Design Data 914
B .23 The Error Function 915
B ,24 Conversion Tables 916
Contents
m. Appendix C Chart Ex+ Sheets
Pressure Cmhalpy Diagram for R 123
Pressure Enthalpy Diagram for Ii 134a
Pressure Diagram ol R 22 Vapour
Pressure Enthalpy Diagram of R 717
( Ammonia) Vapour
Pressure Enthalpy Diagram of R I ! Vapour
Pressure Enthalpy Diagram for C02
Psychrometric Chart Barometric Pressure 101 ,323 kPa
Inp “ I /T Diagram for H 2OLiBr2 Solutions
Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for H2Q-LiBr 2 Solutions
C.10 Enthalpy-Composition Diagram for NH3-H20 System
Index 918


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