كتاب Thermodynamics
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 كتاب Thermodynamics

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Thermodynamics    كتاب Thermodynamics  Emptyالإثنين 16 سبتمبر 2019, 10:35 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Thermodynamics
By J. E. Emswiler
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of Michigan
First Edition
Mcgraw-hill Book Company, Inc.
New York: 370 Seventh Avenue
London: 6 & 8 Bouverie St.t E. C. 4

كتاب Thermodynamics  T_u_k_10
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1 9 2  contents
Page
Preface V
Abt. Chapter I.—thermodynamics and Energy
1. Definition of Thermodynamics.
2. Sources of Energy
3. The Study of Thermodynamics
Chapter Ii.—the Steam Power Plant Considered
As a Heat Engine
4. The Steam Power Plant
5. Power Plant Diagrams
6. The Power Plant is a Heat Engine
7. The Essential Elements of a Heat Engine
Chapter Iii.—the Working Substance
8. The Properties of the Steam
9. Observations of the Condition of Steam..
10. Other Properties Not Directly Observable
11. The Steam Tables
12. Saturated Steam and Superheated Steam
Chapter Iv.
—pressure-volume and Temperatureentropy Diagrams
13. Graphical Representation of the Properties of Steam ,
14. The Pressure-volume Diagram
15. The Pressure-volume Diagram Neglecting Water Volumes
16. Significance of Area on Pv Diagram
17. Entropy
18. The Temperature-entropy Diagram
19. Representation of the Changes of State of the Steam
20. The Zero of Heat and Entropy
21. Structure of the Temperature Chart
22. Values and Representation of Heat Quantities
23. Efficiency
24. The Expression for Entropy
25. The Unit of Entropy
26. The Specific Heat of Superheated Steam
27. The Structure of the Heat Chart
28. The Working Mollier Diagram
Chapter V.
—the Effects of Heat—how
Steam Does Work
29. Heat and Work
30. The Effects of Heat
31. Heat Effects During Heating of Liquid
I 32. Heat Effects During Vaporization
33. Heat Effects During Superheating. . ..
34. Summary of Heat Effects
35. How Steam Changes Heat Into Work.—external Work Equivalent. 39
36. The Restoration Process and Cyclic Operation
37. Possibilities of Useful Work From the Intrinsic Energy
38. How Heat Effects Are Utilized in a Steam Turbine
Chapter Vi.
—what Maximum Portion of the
Steam Supplied Could an Ideal Heat Utilizer
Convert Into Work
39. Actual Performance of a Turbine or Engine
40. What Efficiency Could an Ideal Steam Engine or Turbine Develop. 48
41. Constant Entropy Expansion
42. The Rankine Cycle
43. The Rankine Cycle on the Pv Diagram
44. The Rankine Cycle on the Heat-entropy Diagram..
45. Heat Available for Work.—rankine Cycle
46. Thermal Efficiency of Rankine Cycle
47. 'the Rejected Heat
48. The Use of the Heat-entropy Chart
49. Heat Content, External Work, and Intrinsic Energy
50. The Rankine Cycle is Not the Most Efficient Cycle
Chapter Vii.
—available, Unavailable, Utilized,
And Waste Energy.—losses
51. Available and Unavailable Energy . ....'
52. What Determines the Amount of Available ' and Unavailable
Energy?
53. Utilized and Waste Energy
54. Ultimate Disposition of Waste Energy
55. How May Heat Pass From the Available to the Unavailable State?
60contents Xl
Abt.
56. The Throttling Calorimeter
57. Throttling Destroys Availability of Energy
58. Throttling, Steam Friction, Wire Drawing, Pressure Reducing
59. How Throttling Destroys Availability of Energy
60. Representation of Throttling Process
61. Losses in a Steam Turbine
62. Losses in a Reciprocating Engine
63. Initial Condensation and Reevaporation
64. Why Initial Condensation and Reevaporation Results in a Loss of
Availability of Energy.
Fagb
Chapter Viii.—vapor Refrigeration
65. The Ammonia Compression Machine
66. The Properties of Ammonia
67. Representation of Cycle on the Temperature-entropy Plane.
68. Heat Quantities
69. Refrigerating Capacity
70. The Refrigerating Coil is an Ammonia Boiler
71. Pressures in the System
72. Other Working Substances for Refrigerating Machines
73. The Ammonia Absorption Machine
—the Compression and Expansion of
Permanent Gases. Conditional Relations
74. A Compressed Air System
75. Distinction Between a Permanent Gas and a Vapor
76. The Compression of Air
77. Adiabatic Compression
78. Relation Among the Properties of Gases. Boyle’s and Charles9
Laws
79. Graphical Representation of Charles’ Law. Absolute Zero of
Temperature
80. Characteristic Equation of a Gas
81. The Value of R
82. Perfect Gas
83. The Initial Specific Volume at a (Fig. 43), the Beginning of Compression
84. The Equation of the Adiabatic
85. Specific Heat at Constant Volume and at Constant Pressure
86. Constant Volume and Constant Pressure Lines on the Te Plane... 96
87. Values of Cp, C®, K, R, and V for Some Gases
88. Derivation of the Equation of the Adiabatic.—pvt—c
89. Final Specific Volume After Adiabatic Compressipn
90. Final Temperature After Adiabatic Compression —
91. Isothermal Compression
Ast.
92. Polytropic Changes
93. Actual Compression Line for an Air Compressor
94. Determination of the Value of N From an Actual Compression Line 103
95. Suction and Delivery Operations of an Air Compressor
Chapter X.—the Compression and Expansion of
Permanent Gases. Energy Relations
96. The General Energy Equation
97. Joule’s Law
J98. Deviations From Joule’s Law
99. Working Expressions for the Energy Quantities
100. Constant Volume Change
101. Constant Pressure Change
102. Constant Temperature Change.—isothermal
103. Constant Entropy Change.—adiabatic
104. Polytropic Change
105. Specific Heat.—polytropic Change
106. Energy Quantities of a Cycle
107.“ Suction ” of a Compressor
108) Compression
109. Delivery of the Compressed Air
110. The Net Work of the Cycle
111. Expressions for Net Work
112. Water Jacketing of Air Compressors
113. Interstage Cooling of Air Compressors
114. Clearance in Air Compressors
115. The Air Refrigerating Machine
116. Diagrams for the Air Refrigerating Machine
117. The Zero of Entropy for a Perfect Gas
Chapter Xi.
—intrinsic Energy and Heat
Content —throttling of Gases
118. Net Work of the Cycle for an Air Compressor or Air Engine. . . .
119. Heat Content of Gases
120. Throttling of Gases
121. Expansion of Compressed Air From a Reservoir
122. Final Temperature of Air Remaining in the Tank
123. Average Temperature of Escaped Air
124. Example
Chapter Xii.—mixtures of Gaseous Substances
125. Occurrence of Gaseous Mixtures in Engineering Work
126. Weight and Volume Relations
127. Densities and Molecular Weights
128. Determination of R for Mixtures  
147contents Xm
Art. Page
129. The Universal Gas Constant. . ..
130. The Properties of Common Gases
131. Specific Heat of Mixtures
132. The Variation of Specific Heats..
133. Mixture of Air and Water Vapor.
134. Dew Point
135. Relative Humidity
136. Determination of Weight of Steam and Air in a Cubic Foot of the
Mixture
137. Specific Heat of Gas and Vapor Mixture
138. Effect of Compression Upon Humidity.—isothermal Compression. . 157
139. Effect of Compression Upon Humidity.—adiabatic Compression
Chapter Xiii.
—the Air Heat Engine
140. The Internal Combustion Engine is an Air Engine
141. The Otto Cycle
142. Pv and Te Diagrams of the Otto Cycle
143. Heat Quantities of the Otto Cycle
144. Efficiency of the Otto Cycle
145. The Diesel Cycle
146. The Brayton Engine
147. The Lenoir Cycle
148. The Stirling Hot Air Engine
149. The Cycle of the Stirling Engine
150. The Ericsson Hot Air Engine
151. Cycle of the Ericsson Engine
Chapter Xiv.
—the Energy Laws of
Thermodynamics
152. The Definition of Thermodynamics
153. The First Law of Thermodynamics
154. Insufficiency of the First Law of Thermodynamics
155. The Thought Underlying the Second Law of Thermodynamics
156. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
157. Derivation of the Expressions —
158. Reversible and Irreversible Operations
159. Direct Transfer of Heat From a Hot Body to a Cold One
160. Isothermal Expansion
161. Adiabatic Expansion.—throttling
162. Mechanical Illustrations of Reversibility and Irreversibility .
163. An Irreversible Operation Means Loss of Available Energy..
164. The Carnot Cycle
165. The Carnot Cycle Represents the Highest Possible Efficiency
166. Other Reversible Cycles
Chapter Xv.—the Decrease of Available Energy Abt.
167. Available Energy is Continually Decreasing
168. Illustration of the Continual Decrease of Available Energy
169. The Heat of Combustion.—zero Air Excess
170. The Heat of Combustion.—60 Per Cent Air Excess
171. Stack Loss
172. The Heat in the Steam
173. Transformation of Heat Into Work
174. The Heat in the Condenser Cooling Water
175. Dissipation of Heat to the Atmosphere
176. Entropy is Continually Increasing
Chapter Xvi.—the Flow of Fluids
177. Working Media in Motion
178. The Equation of the Continuity of Energy
179. The Equation of the Continuity of Mass
180. Contour of a Nozzle Passage in Longitudinal Section
181. Pressure in the Throat of a Nozzle.—example, Air Nozzle
182. Pressure in the Throat of a Steam Nozzle
183. Derivation of the Relation
184. Significance of the Throat Pressure Relation
185. Contour of Nozzle Passage as Affected by the Back Pressure
186. The Straight Nozzle
187. Usual Shape of Nozzle
188. Weight of Discharge Through a Nozzle.—fliegner’s Formula
189. Discharge of Steam Through Nozzles.—grashof’s and Napier’s
Equations
190. Discharge Formulas Summarized
191. Influence of Back Pressure Upon Rate of Discharge.
192. Nozzle Calculations
193. Flow Through Orifices
Chapter Xvii.—kinetic Engines.—the Steam
Turbine and the Injector
194. Kinetic Vs. Direct Pressure Engines
195. Types of Turbines
196. Classes of Impulse Turbines
197. Heat Changes in a Single Pressure Stage Turbine
198. Heat Changes in a Multiple Pressure Stage Turbine
199. The Reaction Turbine
200. The Steam Injector
201. Impact
202. Efficiency of the Injector
Chapter Xviii.—the Kinetic Theory of Heat
And Miscellaneous
Art. Paob
203. The Foundations of Thermodynamics
204. Theories of Heat
205. Kinetic Theory of Heat
206. Combustion
207. Vapors and Specific Heat
208. Perfect Gas
209. The Equation of an Imperfect Gas.. .
210. The Joule-thomson Effect
211. Critical Point of Gases
212. The Liquefaction of Gases  


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