كتاب Carbon Nanomaterials
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 كتاب Carbon Nanomaterials

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عدد المساهمات : 15592
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Carbon Nanomaterials    كتاب Carbon Nanomaterials   Emptyالجمعة 28 ديسمبر 2018, 7:56 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Carbon Nanomaterials  
من سلسلة علم المواد المتقدمة
Advanced Material Series  
Yury Gogotsi
Drexel University,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
1 Fullerenes and Their Derivatives
Aurelio Mateo-Alonso, Nikos Tagmatarchis, and
Maurizio Prato
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi
di Trieste, Trieste, Italy

كتاب Carbon Nanomaterials   C_n_610
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Fullerenes and Their Derivatives 1
Aurelio Mateo-Alonso, Nikos Tagmatarchis, and Maurizio Prato
Chapter 2 Carbon Nanotubes: Structure and Properties 41
John E. Fischer
Chapter 3 Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes 77
Eduard G. Rakov
Chapter 4 Graphite Whiskers, Cones, and Polyhedral Crystals 149
Svetlana Dimovski and Yury Gogotsi
Chapter 5 Nanocrystalline Diamond .175
Olga Shenderova and Gary McGuire
Chapter 6 Carbide-Derived Carbon .211
Gleb Yushin, Alexi Nikitin, and Yury Gogotsi
Chapter 7 Nanotubes in Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites .255
Fangming Du and Karen I. Winey
Chapter 8 Nanostructured Materials for Field Emission Devices .275
J.D. Carey and S.R.P. Silva
Chapter 9 Nanotextured Carbons for Electrochemical Energy Storage 295
François Béguin and Elzbieta Frackowiak
CONTENTS
1.1 Introduction .1
1.2 Functionalization of Fullerenes .2
1.2.1 Cycloadditions .2
1.2.1.1 [22] Cycloadditions .2
1.2.1.2 [32] Cycloadditions .3
1.2.1.3 [42] Cycloadditions .10
1.2.2 Cyclopropanation Reactions 11
1.3 Self-Assembled Fullerene Architectures .15
1.3.1 Rotaxanes, Catenanes, Pseudorotaxanes .15
1.3.2 Nanorings, Peapods .19
1.3.3 Supramolecular Assemblies with Porphyrins 22
1.3.4 Complementary Hydrogen Bonded Supramolecular Systems 22
1.4 Applications .24
1.4.1 Donor–Acceptor Systems 24
1.4.1.1 Dyads Containing Photoactive Electron Donors .25
1.4.1.2 Dyads Containing Nonphotoactive Electron Donors .26
1.4.1.3 Polyads .28
1.4.2 Plastic Solar Cells 28
1.5 Conclusions .33
Acknowledgments .33
References
2 Carbon Nanotubes: Structure
and Properties
John E. Fischer
Department of Materials and Engineering,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
CONTENTS
2.1 Introduction .41
2.2 Structure .43
2.2.1 Single-Wall Tubes, Bundles, and Crystalline Ropes .43
2.2.2 Multiwall Tubes .45
2.2.3 Macroscopic Nanotube Materials 45
2.2.4 Fibers .47
2.2.5 Filled Tubes .47
2.2.6 Nanotube Suspensions .50
2.3 Physical Properties 51
2.3.1 Mechanical Properties .52
2.3.2 Thermal Properties 53
2.3.3 Electronic Properties .58
2.3.4 Magnetic and Superconducting Properties 70
2.4 Summary and Prospects 71
Acknowledgments .71
References
3 Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes
Eduard G. Rakov
D.I. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology,
Moscow, Russia
CONTENTS
Abstract 78
3.1 Introduction .78
3.2 Carbon Nanotube Morphology and Structure 79
3.3 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes .80
3.4 Opening of Carbon Nanotubes .81
3.5 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes .82
3.5.1 Attachment of Oxidic Groups 83
3.5.2 Reactions of Carboxylic Groups Attached to Nanotubes .83
3.5.3 Fluorination .87
3.5.4 Amidation .88
3.5.5 Other Types of Covalent Bonding 90
3.5.6 Noncovalent Bonding .93
3.5.7 Dispersions in Oleum .96
3.5.8 Self-Assembly, Film, and Fiber Formation 96
3.6 Filling the Inner Cavity of Carbon Nanotubes .99
3.6.1 In Situ Filling 100
3.6.2 Post-Processing Filling .101
3.6.2.1 Filling from Liquid Media 101
3.6.2.2 Filling from Gas Phase 103
3.6.3 Reactions inside Nanotube .104
3.6.4 The Structure of Crystals inside Nanotubes .105
3.7 Adsorption and Storage of Gases .106
3.7.1 Hydrogen Problem 107
3.7.2 Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensors .109
3.8 Attachment of Biomolecules 110
3.8.1 Biosensors .110
3.8.2 Other Fields of Application 112
3.9 Nanotubes as Templates .112
3.9.1 Substitution of the Carbon Atoms of Nanotubes .112
3.9.2 Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes .113
3.10 Intercalation of “Guest” Moieties .115
3.11 Summary and Conclusions .117
Acknowledgments 117
References .
4 Graphite Whiskers, Cones, and
Polyhedral Crystals
Svetlana Dimovski and Yury Gogotsi
Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
CONTENTS
Abstract .149
4.1 Preface .150
4.2 Graphite Whiskers and Cones .150
4.2.1 Synthetic Whiskers and Cones 151
4.2.1.1 Whiskers .151
4.2.1.2 Cones 153
4.2.2 Occurrence of Graphite Whiskers and Cones in Nature .156
4.2.3 Structure: Geometrical Considerations .157
4.2.4 Properties and Applications .161
4.2.4.1 Electronic Properties of Synthetic Whiskers and Cones .161
4.2.4.2 Raman Spectra .162
4.3 Graphite Polyhedral Crystals—Polygonal Multiwall Tubes .163
4.3.1 Synthesis 163
4.3.2 Structure of Polygonal Tubes 165
4.3.3 Properties and Applications .168
4.3.3.1 Electronic Band Structure 168
4.3.3.2 Raman Spectra .169
4.3.3.3 Chemical, Thermal, and Mechanical Stability .170
4.4 Conclusions .171
Acknowledgment 172
References
5 Nanocrystalline Diamond
Olga Shenderova and Gary McGuire
International Technology Center, Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina
CONTENTS
5.1 Introduction .175
5.2 Stability of Nanodiamond .176
5.3 Types of Nanodiamond and Methods of Their Synthesis .180
5.3.1 Zero-Dimensional Nanodiamond Structures .181
5.3.2 One-Dimensional Nanodiamond Structures 186
5.3.3 Two-Dimensional Nanodiamond Structures .189
5.3.4 Three-Dimensional Nanodiamond Structures .189
5.4 Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Particulate Produced by Explosive Detonation .191
5.4.1 Synthesis and Properties 191
5.4.2 Applications of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Particulate 197
5.5 Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films Produced by Chemical Vapor Deposition 199
5.6 Carbide-Derived Diamond-Structured Carbon 200
5.7 Medical and Biological Applications of Nanodiamond 201
5.8 Conclusion .204
References
6 Carbide-Derived Carbon
Gleb Yushin, Alexi Nikitin, and Yury Gogotsi
Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
CONTENTS
Abstract .212
6.1 Introduction .212
6.2 Selective Etching of Carbides by Halogens 213
6.2.1 Chlorination of Carbides for Production of Chlorides 213
6.2.2 Thermodynamic Simulations .214
6.2.3 Historic Overview of Carbide-Derived Carbon Studies 215
6.2.4 Kinetics of Halogenation of Carbides .217
6.2.5 Conservation of Shape .218
6.2.6 Nanoporous Structure and Adsorption Properties .218
6.2.6.1 Pore Formation .218
6.2.6.2 Effect of the Chlorination Temperature .220
6.2.6.3 Effect of the Carbide Structure 224
6.2.6.4 Effect of Catalysts on the Surface Area and Microstructure of CDC .226
6.2.6.5 Effect of a Halogen 226
6.2.6.6 Effect of the Initial Carbide Porosity .227
6.2.6.7 CDC Composites 227
6.2.7 Analysis of CDC Structure 228
6.2.7.1 Graphitization and Detection of Nanocrystals .228
6.2.7.2 Carbon Nanostructures .230
6.3 Selective Etching of Carbides by Melts and Supercritical Water .232
6.3.1 Reaction of Calcium Carbide with Inorganic Salts .232
6.3.2 Hydrothermal Leaching of Carbides .233
6.3.2.1 Thermodynamic Analysis .233
6.3.2.2 Experimental Results .234
6.4 Thermal Decomposition of Carbides 235
6.4.1 Carbon Structure and Conservation of Shape .235
6.4.2 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Onions 237
6.5 Applications .241
6.5.1 Supercapacitors 241
6.5.2 Hydrogen Storage 242
6.5.3 Methane Storage 243
6.5.4 Lithium-Ion Batteries 243
6.5.5 Pt Catalyst on CDC Support .244
6.5.6 Tribological Coatings 244
211
, LLC8.6 Conclusions .245
Acknowledgments .245
References
7 Nanotubes in Multifunctional
Polymer Nanocomposites
Fangming Du
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Karen I. Winey
Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
CONTENTS
7.1 Introduction .255
7.2 Nanocomposite Fabrication and Nanotube Alignment .257
7.3 Mechanical Properties .261
7.4 Thermal and Rheological Properties .263
7.5 Electrical Conductivity 266
7.6 Thermal Conductivity and Flammability 268
7.7 Conclusions .269
Acknowledgments .271
References
8 Nanostructured Materials for
Field Emission Devices
J.D. Carey and S.R.P. Silva
Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey,
Guildford, United Kingdom
CONTENTS
Abstract .275
8.1 Introduction to Field Emission and Criteria for Practical Electron Sources 275
8.2 Carbon Nanomaterial Based Cold Cathodes .278
8.3 Field Emission from Different Types of Amorphous Carbon .281
8.3.1 Polymer-Like Amorphous Carbon Films 281
8.3.2 Diamond-Like Amorphous Carbon Films 282
8.3.3 Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Films 285
8.3.4 Graphite-Like Amorphous Carbon Films .286
8.3.5 Nanocomposite Amorphous Carbon Films .286
8.3.6 Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Thin Films .286
8.4 Field Emission and Dielectric Inhomogeneity .287
8.5 Field Emission as a Function of Conditioning 288
8.6 Surface Modifications 290
8.7 Summary and Outlook for the Future .292
References
9 Nanotextured Carbons for
Electrochemical Energy Storage
François Béguin
Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, CNRS-Université,
Orléans, France
Elzbieta Frackowiak
Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry,
Poznan´ University of Technology, Poznan´, Poland
CONTENTS
9.1 General Properties of Carbons for Energy Storage .295
9.2 Supercapacitors 296
9.2.1 Performance of Supercapacitors 296
9.2.2 Carbons for Pure Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors 300
9.2.2.1 Activated Carbons .300
9.2.2.2 Porous Carbons Prepared by the Template Technique .301
9.2.3 Electrochemical Capacitors from Carbons with Pseudocapacitance Properties 302
9.2.4 Carbon Nanotubes as a Composite Component 305
9.3 Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage .308
9.3.1 Introduction 308
9.3.2 Mechanism of Reversible Hydrogen Insertion 309
9.3.2.1 Mechanism in Aqueous KOH Medium .310
9.3.2.2 Mechanism in Aqueous H2SO4 Medium 312
9.3.2.3 Comparison of Galvanostatic Charge/Discharge in Acidic and
Basic Media .312
9.3.2.4 Relation between the Reversible Hydrogen Storage Capacity and
the Nanotextural Characteristics of Porous Carbons 313
9.4 Conclusions and Perspectives .315
References


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