كتاب Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel - A Simulation Approach with MATLAB
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 كتاب Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel - A Simulation Approach with MATLAB

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Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel - A Simulation Approach with MATLAB
F. Perez Fontan and P. Marino Espineira
University of Vigo, Spain

كتاب  Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel - A Simulation Approach with MATLAB  M_t_w_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
About the Series Editors xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
1 Introduction to Wireless Propagation 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Wireless Propagation Basics 4
1.3 Link Budgets 9
1.4 Projects 12
Project 1.1: Fast Fading Series 12
Project 1.2: Shadowing Plus Multipath 19
Project 1.3: Complex Envelope Series 23
1.5 Summary 26
References 26
Software Supplied 27
2 Shadowing Effects 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Projects 39
Project 2.1: Knife-Edge Diffraction Calculations by Means
ofNumerical Integration 39
Project 2.2: Knife-Edge Diffraction Calculations Using
Functions C and S 41
Project 2.3: Simple Building Shadowing Model 42
Project 2.4: Simple Street Model.Correlated Shadowing Series 46
Project 2.5: Terrain Effects. Four-Ray Model 48
Project 2.6: Other Screen Shadowing Scenarios 51
Project 2.7: Terrain Effects. Edwards and Durkin Method 54
2.3 Summary 59
References 59
Software Supplied 60viii Contents
3 Coverage and Interference 61
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 Hata Model 65
3.3 Projects 66
Project 3.1: Generating Realistic Series withPath Lossand Shadowing 66
Project 3.2: Generating PartiallyCross-CorrelatedShadowing Series 71
Project 3.3: Area Coverage 75
Project 3.4: Multiple Interference 78
3.4 Summary 81
References 82
Software Supplied 82
4 Introduction to Multipath 83
4.1 Introduction 83
4.2 Projects 84
Project 4.1: Direct Signal, Angle ofArrival and Doppler Shift 84
Project 4.2: Direct and Reflected Signals 91
Project 4.3: Two Scatterers 94
Project 4.4: Multiple Scatterers 97
Project 4.5: Standing Wave due to Multipath 99
Project 4.6: Quasi-standing Wave 100
Project 4.7: Link Between Moving Terminals 102
4.3 Summary 103
References 103
Software Supplied 104
5 Multipath: Narrowband Channel 105
5.1 Introduction 105
5.2 Projects 105
Project 5.1: The Clarke Model 106
Project 5.2: The Rice Channel 117
Project 5.3: Rayleigh Channel Simulator using Sinusoidal Generators 119
Project 5.4: Simulator using Two Filtered Gaussians in Quadrature.
Butterworth Response 123
Project 5.5: Diversity and Combining at the MobileStation 129
Project 5.6: Diversity and Combining at the BaseStation 131
5.3 Summary 135
References 135
Software Supplied 135
6 Shadowing and Multipath 137
6.1 Introduction 137
6.2 Projects 137
Project 6.1: The Suzuki Model 137
Project 6.2: Power Control 142Contents ix
Project 6.3: The Loo Model 146
6.3 Summary 150
References 151
Software Supplied 151
7 Multipath: Wideband Channel 153
7.1 Introduction 153
7.2 Deterministic Multiple Point-Scatterer Model 155
7.3 Channel System Functions 157
7.4 Stochastic Description of the Wireless Channel 160
7.5 Projects 165
Project 7.1: Time-Varying Frequency Response 165
Project 7.2: Ideal Channel in the Time-Delay Domain
and Channel Sounding 172
Project 7.3: The Scattering Function 176
Project 7.4: Tapped Delay-Line Models - COST 207 179
7.6 Summary 184
References 184
Software Supplied 185
8 Propagation in Microcells and Picocells 187
8.1 Introduction 187
8.2 Review of Some Propagation Basics 187
8.3 Microcell and Picocell Empirical Models 195
8.4 Projects 197
Project 8.1: The Two-Ray Model 197
Project 8.2: Street Canyon Propagation 202
Project 8.3: Side Street Scenario 204
Project 8.4: Wideband Indoor Propagation - The SalehValenzuela Model 205
Project 8.5: Building Penetration Through Windows 209
8.5 Summary 211
References 211
Software Supplied 212
9 The Land Mobile Satellite Channel 213
9.1 Introduction 213
9.2 Projects 214
Project 9.1: Two-State Markov Model 214
Project 9.2: Coverage Using Constellations of Satellites 219
Project 9.3: LMS Propagation in Virtual Cities 221
Project 9.4: Doppler Shift 224
9.3 Summary 226
References 226
Software Supplied 227x Contents
10 The Directional Wireless Channel 229
10.1 Introduction 229
10.2 MIMO Systems 229
10.3 Projects 236
Project 10.1: Generating Clustered Point-Scatterer Propagation
Scenarios 236
Project 10.2: MIMO Channel Modeling Using the Multiple
Point Scatterers 240
Project 10.3: Statistical Modeling of the MIMO Channel 244
10.4 Summary 247
References 247
Software Supplied 248
Index 249
Index
2G (second generation), 5
3G (third generation), 5, 142-143
systems, 86
3GPP, 229
Analog to digital converter (ADC), 13
Angle of arrival (AoA), 236, 247
Angle of departure (AoD), 236
Angle spread, 95, 97
Area coverage quality/probability, 61
Area coverage systems, 4
Autocorrelation function (ACF), 160,
161, 173
Average fade duration (afd), 110
Basic loss, 9, 10
Bello, 153
Bistatic radar equation, 12
Bit error rate (BER), 105
Break point, 195, 199, 202
Brewster angle, 214, 224
BS base station, 1
Butterworth filter, 126-128
Carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR), 78
Carrier-to-multipath ratio (C/M), 118
Carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), 105
Central limit theorem, 30
Channel sounding, 236
Chi-square goodness-of-fit test, 16
Cholesky factorization, 71, 73
Clarke model, 106, 108
Clearance, 38, 42, 56, 57
Cluster, 206, 207, 208, 209
Clustering, 206, 211
Cochannel, 199
Coherence bandwidth, 154, 163, 164, 172, 174
Coherence time, 163, 164
Combiner, 129-130
equal gain, 129-130
maximal ratio, 129-130
selective, 129-130
switched, 129-130
Complementary error function (erfc), 21
Complex envelope (CE), 156, 158, 166, 167
Continuous wave (CW), 3, 23
Correlation coefficient, 71-74, 80
Correlation distance/length, 67, 68, 71, 73, 75
COST 231 model, 9
Hata model, 65-66
multi-wall model, 197
Walfisch-Ikegami model, 66
Covariance, 71-72
Cross-correlation, 46, 48, 49, 59, 71-73, 81, 109,
124, 130-134
Cumulative distribution function (CDF), 13-14
dB, 7-13, 20, 22, 24-26
dBmV, dB relative to 1mV, 20
dBm, 10, 12-14, 19
dBW, 10
Degrees of freedom (dof), 17-19
Delay spread, 162-166, 172, 174
Delay-power spectral density, 161
Diagonalization, 232, 241
Diffuse scattered multipath, 214
Diffuse scattering, 11
Direct sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS),
142-146
Distribution of fade durations, 112-113
Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel: A Simulation Approach with MATLAB® F. Perez Fontan and P. Marino Espineira
© 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-72785-0250 Index
Diversity gain and the diversity improvement,
131
Doppler shift, 83, 84, 88, 90, 94, 95,
102, 103
Doppler spread, 94, 95, 97
Doppler-power spectral density, 162
Downlink, 84
Effective antenna aperture, 10
Effective height, 9
Energy per bit to noise spectral density ratio,
Eb=N0, 105
Equivalent isotropic radiate power (EIRP), 10
Erf is the error function, 21
Excess loss, 10
Exponential distribution, 13
Fade margin, 12, 14
Fade rate, 83, 94, 95, 97
Faraday rotation, 213
Fast or short-term variations, 4, 6
Field strength (V/m), 6, 10, 11, 13
First Fresnel zone radius, 44
First-order, discrete-time Markov chain,
215, 216
Flat fading, 153, 165
Free space, 229
Free space loss, 8, 10, 11
Frequency-selective fading, 153, 154, 165
channel, 153
Fresnel diffraction factor, 34
Fresnel reflection and transmission coefficients,
190, 191, 194
Fresnel sine and cosine integrals, 35
Fresnel-Kirchhoff equation, 39, 40, 51, 54
Fringe coverage quality/probability, 61
Gamma distribution, 18
Gamma function, 18
Generalized or effective reflection and
transmission coefficient, 192
Geostationary orbit (GEO), 213
Global positioning system (GPS), 213
GSM, 5
Hand over (HO), 69, 73, 74, 78, 82
Hata model, 9, 65, 66
Heavy walls, 197
Highly elliptical orbit (HEO), 213
Histogram, 14, 15, 16
HO margin, 69
HO threshold, 69, 70
Horizontal polarization, 191
Huygens-Fresnel principle, 30
IEEE 802.11n, 229
Indoor, 1, 4
picocells, 187, 205
In-phase, 3, 13, 23, 24, 25
Instantaneous power-delay profile, 173
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS), 102
Inter-vehicle communications, 84
IS-95, 142
Isotropic antenna, 106
Kepler parameters, 213-214
L- and S-bands, 213
LAN, 5
Land mobile satellite (LMS), 213
Land-usage, 9
Laplace distribution, 236
Larger area, 7-8
Level crossing rate (lcr), 110, 111
Licensed bands, 5
Light walls, 197
Line-of-sight (LOS), 196
Link margin, 14
Local area, 7
Local mean, 7, 8, 20
Location variability, 3, 8, 29, 30
Lognormal distribution, 7, 20, 138, 139, 147
Loo distribution, 147
Low earth orbit (LEO), 213
Low-pass equivalent, 2, 3
Macrocell, 4, 5
Macrodiversity, 73
Masking angle (MKA), 219, 220
Median, 13, 14, 15
Medium earth orbit (MEO), 213
Megacell(s), 4, 213
Metric/decimetric/centimetric waves, 4
Microcell(s), 4, 187, 188, 195-197, 199-202,
204, 211
Minimum state duration or frame, 216
Mixed distributions, 137, 150
Modal value, 13, 15, 22
Mode, 13, 14, 15, 18
Monte Carlo simulation, 79Index 251
MS mobile station, 1
Multipath, 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 19, 26
Multiple interference, 78, 82
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), 229
Multiple-input-single-output (MISO), 235
Narrowband channel, 165
Non-frequency-selective or flat fading, 165
Non-GEO orbits, 213
Non-geostationary (non-GEO) orbit satellites,
84, 102
Non-line-of-sight (NLOS), 5
Normal distribution, 7, 8
Normalization criterion, 105
Normalized obstruction, 39, 57
Obscured line-of-sight (OLOS), 196
Okumura model, 65
Operation threshold, 14
Orbit simulators, 213
Outage duration, 105, 128
Outage probability, 12, 14
Outdoor-to-indoor link, 1
Packet error rate (PER), 105
Parallel and perpendicular
polarization, 191
Path loss, 4, 9, 10, 12
Picocell, 4
Plane earth, 9
model, 197, 199, 200
Point-scatters, 95
Point-to-multipoint systems, 1
Point-to-point, 1
Poisson and exponential distributions, 207
Power control (PC), 142-146, 150
Power flux density (W/m2), 10, 11
Power-delay profile (PDP), 161, 173
Probability density function (pdf), 13, 14
Propagation mode, 234
Pseudo-Brewster angle, 191
Pseudo-noise sequences (PN), 173
Pulse compression techniques, 172
Quadrature, 3, 13, 23, 24, 25
Quality of service (QoS), 187
Quasi-stationary pattern, 91
Radar cross sections (RCS), 214
Radom FM, 113, 114
Rayleigh distribution, 6, 13, 14, 15, 22, 24
Reflection, 187-196, 198, 200-203
Refraction, 187, 189
Return channel, 236
Rice distribution, 5, 24
Rice k-factor, 118
Rms value, 3, 11, 13, 15
Rms voltage, 3, 11
Roughness, 9
Rx-Diversity receive diversity, 235
Saleh & Valenzuela model (S&V), 205, 236
Satellite diversity, 213, 219, 221
Scattering function, S(t; n), 155, 156, 159, 161,
162, 177-180
Selection combining, 131, 132, 134
Semi-Markov model, 217
Shadowing, 4, 6, 19, 26
Shannon theorem, 229
Shape factor, 195
Significance level of the test, 17
Single-input-multiple-output (SIMO), 235
Single-input-single-output (SISO), 229
Singular value decomposition, 232, 240
Slow or long-term variations, 4, 6
Small area, 7
Smart antennas, 229
Snell’s law, 192
Snell’s laws of reflection and refraction, 187
Sounding techniques, 236
Space diversity, 129, 131, 134, 135
Spaced-frequency correlation functions, 163
Spaced-time correlation, 163
Spatial multiplexing, 229
Specific attenuation, 214
Specular component, 214
Specular reflections, 11, 12
Spread spectrum systems, 73
Standard deviation, 8, 13, 18, 21, 22
Standing wave, 91, 93, 99, 100, 103
State probability matrix, 215
Statistical models, 160
Street canyon, 219, 220
Suzuki distribution, 138, 139, 143, 146
Tapped delay-line (TDL), 153, 158, 179
Terrain irregularity, 9
The Doppler shift and the Doppler spread, 224
The ionosphere, 213
The troposphere, 213252 Index
Time-varying transfer function, T(t; f), 149
Transitions probability matrix, 215
Transmission, 187-195
matrix, 230-233, 235, 240, 246
Turbo codes, 230
Tx-diversity transmit diversity, 235
UHF, 1
UMTS, 5
Uncorrelated scattering (US), 153, 160
Undulation, 9
Uniform distribution, 24
Unlicensed bands, 5
Uplink, 5
Urban mask, 219, 226
Vertical polarization, 191, 203
Very slow variations, 4, 8
VHF, 1
Virtual obstacle, 58
Walfisch-Bertoni model, 66
Water filling, 235
Wide sense stationary (WSS), 153, 160
Wide Sense Stationary-Uncorrelated Scattering
(WWSUS), 153
Wideband channel, 154, 165, 172, 174,
184, 185
Wireless LAN, 5
WLAN, 236
Word error rate (WER), 106

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