كتاب Fluorinated lonomers
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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 كتاب Fluorinated lonomers

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كتاب Fluorinated lonomers Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluorinated lonomers   كتاب Fluorinated lonomers Emptyالأحد 24 سبتمبر 2023, 3:12 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fluorinated lonomers
Walther Grot
C. G. Processing, Inc.
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania

كتاب Fluorinated lonomers F_l_l_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
PDL Fluorocarbon Series Editor’s Preface
Preface
Acknowledge metits
1 Introduction
I . 1 Polymers
I .2 Physical Shapes
I .3 References
2 History
2.1 References
3 Manufacture
I tit roduct ioti
Perfluori nated Ionomers
3.2. I Monomer Synthesis
Properties of TFE
Perfluoro 3,6-dioxa-4-methyl-7-octetie
sulfotiyl fluoride (MW = 446)
TFE Sultone (3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro- I ,
2-oxathietane S,S-dioxide)
Methyl perfluoro 5-oxa heptenoate
(MW = 306)
Perfluoro-4-( fluorosul fony I ) buty I v i tiy I
ether (MW = 380)
Perfluoro-3-oxa-4-pentene su I fony I
fluoride (MW = 280)
Perfluoro-4,7-dioxa-5-1nethyl-8-nonene
sulfonyl fluoride (MW = 496)
Methy I perfluoro-3,6-dioxa-4-methy I
noneoate (MW = 422)
Poly merizat ioti
Fabrication
Hydrolysis and Acid Exchange
Finishing and Testing
Liquid Compositions
3.7.1 Film Casting
Fluorinated Ionomers with Phosphonic or Sulfonyl
Itnide Functional Groups
vvi CONTENTS
3.9 Partially Fluorinated Ionomers 36
3.9. I Grafting of Non-fluorinated Monomers on
Fluorinated Films 36
3.9.2 Polymerization of Partially Fluorinated Monomers 37
3.9.3 Fluorinated Anion Exchange Polymers 38
Inorganic Oxides 38
3.10 Composite Materials of Ionomers and
3.1 1 Remanufactured Membranes 40
3.12 References 41
4 Properties 45
4.1 Properties of the Precursor Polymers 45
4.2 Properties of the Ionic Forms 49
4.2. I Swelling i n Water and Other Solvents 55
4.2.2 Wetting and Contact Angle 63
4.2.3 Solubility of Gases i n Fluorinated Ionomers 64
4.3 Morphology 65
4.3. I Morphology of Liquid Compositions 67
4.4 Transport Properties 69
4.4. I Transport Driven by an Electric Current 70
4.4.2 Transport Driven by a Concentration Difference 70
4.5 Optical Properties 70
4.6 Thermal Properties 71
4.7 Stability 71
4.8 References 72
5 Applications 75
5.1 Electrolysis 75
5. I . I Introduction, Electrolytic Cells 75
5.1.2 NaCl Electrolysis 76
5.1.2. I Uhde Cell 81
5.1.2.2 ElectroCells 84
5.1.2.3 Membranes 85
5.1.2.4 Electrodes 87
5.1.2.5 Process Description 90
5.1.4 The Older Technologies: Mercury and Asbestos 98
5.1.6 Potassium Gold Cyanide and Potassium Stannate 104
5.1.7 Salt Splitting 106
5.1.3 Related Technology: HCI electrolysis 97
Electrolysis of Other Chlorides, Including
Tetramet h y I A inmoniuin Chloride
5.1.8 Chromic Acid Regeneration 108CONTENTS vii
5.1.9 Nickel-Zinc Plating
5.1. I0 Persulfuric Acid and Persulfates
5.1 . I I Electro-winning of Metals
5. I . I2 Water Electrolysis (Including the Production
of Ozone or Hydrogen Peroxide)
5. I . I3 Other Electrolytic Applications
5.2 Sensors and Actuators
5.3 Dialysis
5.4 Gas and Vapor Diffusion
5.5 Protective Clothing
5.6 Catalysis
5.7 References
6 Fuel Cells and Batteries
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Operating Parameters
6.3 Ionomer Stability
6.5 Manufacture of MEAs
6.6 References
6.7 Further Reading
7.1 Unreinforced Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Films
7.2 Reinforced Perfluorinated Membranes
7.2. I Sulfonic Acid Membranes
8 Economic Aspects
8.1 Chlor-Alkali Cells
8.2 Fuel Cells
8.3 References
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs)
7 Commercial Membrane Types
Sulfoti ic/Carboxy I ic Meinbra ties
9 Experimental Methods
9.1 Infrared Spectra
9.4 Ion Exchange Equilibrium
Hydrolysis, Surface Hydrolysis and Staining
Other Reactions of the Precursor Polymer
9.4. I Atiion/Cat ion Equ i I i briu in (Donnan Exclusion)
9.4.2 Cation/Cation Equilibria
9.5 Determination of EW by Titration or Infrared Analysis
9.6 Determining Melt Flow
9.9 Examination of a Membrane
9.10 Determining the Permselectivity
9.1 1 Measuring Pervaporation Rates
9.12 Simple Electrolytic Cells
9. 13 References
Distinguishing the Precursor Polymer from Various
Ionic Forms
Fenton’s Test for Oxidative Stability
10 Heat Sealing and Repair
10.1 Reference
1 1 Handling and Storage
I I . I Handling the Film
1 I . I . I Mechanical Damage
1 I . I .2 Chemical Contamination
I I . I .3 Cutting
I I .2 Pretreatment
I I .3 Installation
12 Toxicology, Safety and Disposal
12.1 Toxicology
12.2 Safety
12.2. I Skin Contact
12.2.2 Thermal Stability
12.2.3 Thermal Degradation Product\
12.2.4 Polymer Fume Fever
12.2.5 Ventilation
12.2.6 Flammability
12.3 Disposal
12.4 References
Appendix A
Appendix B Laboratory Chlor-alkali Cell
Appendix C
Appendix D Plastic-Based Bipolar Plates
Suppliers and Resources
Glossary and Web Sites
Index
A Chromic Acid Regeneration System
Solution Cast Nafion Film
INDEX
Index Terms Links
A
Acetonitrile 15
Acid catalysis 130
Acid exchange, in fluorinated
ionomers manufacture 30
Aciplex F 4221 (Asahi Chemicals) 55 160
ACIPLEX® 10
Actuators 122
based on Nafion sulfonic ionomer 122
Acyl Fluoride 221
Adiponitrile 15
Aldrich Chemicals 217
Alfa Aesar 217
Alkalinity loop 106
Alkyl groups in perfluorinated ionomers
manufacture 10
Alkylations 130
Anion exchange polymers 38
Anion/cation equilibrium (Donnan exclusion) 175
Applications, of fluorinated ionomers 75
actuators 122
see also individual entry
catalysis 129
Dialysis 123Index Terms Links
Applications, of fluorinated ionomers (Cont.)
see also individual entry
electrolysis 75
see also Electrolysis
gas and vapor diffusion 125
protective clothing 129
sensors 119
see also individual entry
Asahi Chemicals perfluorinated
ionomers manufacture 9
Asahi Glass 217
perfluorinated ionomers manufacture 9
Asahi Kasei 217
Asbestos cell 100
B
Ballard Power Systems 37 217
Batteries, fuel cells and 137
see also Fuel cells
Bipolar plates 213
see also Plastic-based bipolar plates
C
C.G. Processing, Inc. 217
6-Carboethoxy-perfluoro-2-methyl-3-
oxa-hexanoyl fluoride 18
6-Carbomethoxy-perfluoro-2-methyl-
3-oxa-hexanoyl fluoride 19Index Terms Links
9-Carboethoxy-perfluoro-2,5-dimethyl-3,
6-dioxa-nonanoyl fluoride 19
Carbon black catalyst, in fuel cells 139
Carbon Black 221
Carbon Fiber 221
Carbon monoxide (CO) detector 123
Carboxylic barrier layer 5
Carboxylic ester precursor 171
Casting, film, in fluorinated ionomers Manufacture 34
Catalysis applications of fluorinated ionomers 129
acid catalysis 130
alkylations 130
Nafion as nitration catalyst 130
partially mercury-exchanged Nafion 131
perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers 129
Cation/cation equilibria 176
multistage separation of cations 178
Chemical contamination 195
ChemTech, Inc. 217
Chlor-alkali cells 5 187 188
economic aspects 161
laboratory chlor-alkali cell 203
membrane technology 3
Nafion® as a separator membrane in 3
plate and frame design of 78
Chlorides electrolysis 101
lithium chloride 103
potassium chloride 102
tetramethyl ammonium chloride 101 103Index Terms Links
Chlorine Engineers 217
Chromic acid production 106
regeneration system 108 201
components 110
nickel–zinc plating 111
Commercial 5-kW fuel cell stack 144
characteristics 144
control 145
emissions 145
fuel 144
operation 144
performance 144
physical 144
safety 145
sensors 145
Commercial membrane types 157
reinforced perfluorinated
membranes 157
see also individual entry
unreinforced perfluorinated sulfonic
acid films 157 158
Contact angle, of fluorinated ionomers 63
water contact angle as a function of
pretreatment 63
Copolymerization, in fluorinated ionomers manufacture 24
Current Efficiency (CE) 221
Cutting 196Index Terms Links
D
Dehalocarbonylation 22
Dehalocarbonylation 24
Denier 221
Dialysis, fluorinated ionomers in 123
Donnan dialysis 123
Nafion carboxylate polymer 124
pervaporation 124
Dictionaries of Electrochemistry 221
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
(DSC) 221
Diglyme 15 222
Dimethyl methylphosphonate 55
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 30
1,4-Diodo octafluoro butane 17
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) 152
methanol crossover in 152
Nafion in reducing 153
Dispersion 222
dispersion polymerization 222
Disposal 199
Divinyl benzene (DVB) 36
Donnan dialysis 123 222
Donnan equation 175
Dow Chemicals 5
Dow synthetic route 22Index Terms Links
DuPont Experimental Station 3
perfluorinated ionomers manufacture 9
DuPont™ Nafion® PFSA membranes
NRE-211 and NRE-212 205
description 205
handling practices 209
order and packaging
information 206
product labeling 208
properties 207
roll storage conditions 209
scrap disposal 210
static discharges 210
Dyes 172
Bromthymol blue 172
carboxylic polymer 172
crystal violet 172
malachite green 172
methyl violet 172
Methylene blue 172
Oil Red 173
Sevron® Brilliant Red 4G (DuPont) 172
E
E.I. DuPont de Nemours 217 218
Economic aspects 161
chlor-alkali cells 161
fuel cells 161Index Terms Links
Economic aspects (Cont.)
World chlorine capacity by process 162
World chlorine capacity by type of process 163
World chlorine consumption by region 162
ElectroCells 84
Electrochem, Inc. 218
Electrochemical fluorination
for perfluorinated ionomers preparation 5
Electrode 222
Electrolysis, fluorinated ionomers in 75
chromic acid regeneration 108
of chlorides 101
electro-winning of metals 112
HCl electrolysis 97
hydroxylammonium nitrate production 118
mercury or amalgam cell 98
NaCl electrolysis 76
see also individual entry
on-site generation of chlorine dioxide 118
Persulfates 112
Persulfuric acid 112
potassium gold cyanide and potassium stannate 104
salt splitting 106
see also individual entry
sodium hydrosulfite 116
water electrolysis 113
see also individual entry
Electrolytic cells 75
ElectroProd cell 84
ElIndex Terms Links
Electro-winning of metals 112
Eltech Systems 218
Entegris bipolar plates 214
Epoxides 222
E-Tek 218
Ethylene diamine (EDA) 126
Europe membrane technology in 4
EW determination by titration or infrared analysis 179 222
Experimental methods 167
EW determination 179
see also individual entry
Fenton’s test for oxidative stability 182
hydrolysis, surface hydrolysis and staining 170
infrared spectra 167
see also individual entry
ion exchange equilibrium 175
see also individual entry
melt flow determination 180
membrane examination 183
Permselectivity determination 184
pervaporation rates measurement 185
precursor polymer versus ionic forms 181
simple electrolytic cells 186
Extrusion 223
F
Fabrication, in fluorinated ionomers manufacture 26
fabric reinforcement 27
vacuum lamination 29Index Terms Links
Fenton’s reaction 150
Fenton’s test for oxidative stability 182
Finishing, in fluorinated ionomers manufacture 31
Flammability 199
FLEMION® 10
Fluorinated anion exchange polymers 38
Fluorinated cation exchange polymers 172
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) 9 223
Fluorinated ionomers 1
see also Nafion®
with phosphonic or sulfonyl imide
functional groups manufacture 35
Fuel cells and batteries 137
benzene into 148
carbon black catalyst 139
commercial 5-kW fuel cell stack 144
see also individual entry
economic aspects 161
ESR studies on Nafion 150
ionomer stability in 146
see also individual entry
membrane development for 6
membrane electrode assembly (MEA) 141
operating parameters 142
see also individual entry
types of 137
see also Chlor-alkali
cells; Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
(DMFCs); Membrane electrode
bly (MEA); PEM fuel cellsIndex Terms Links
Fumatech, GmbH 218
G
Gas and vapor diffusion, fluorinated ionomers in 125
ethylene diamine (EDA) 126
multi-tube dryers 128
Silver ions 126
single tube dryer 128
tubular humidity exchanger 127
Gas-diffusion cathodes (GDCs) 95
HCl electrolysis using 98
NaCl electrolysis with 96
structure of 97
Gas-diffusion electrode (GDE), in fuel cells 139
Glucose sensors 120
H
Hagen–Poiseuille equation 180
Handling 195
chemical contamination 195
cutting 196
installation 196
mechanical damage 195
pretreatment 196
HCl electrolysis 97
using a GDE 98
using ODC 99Index Terms Links
Heat sealing 191
commercial heat-sealing equipment 191
melt fabrication of fluorinated
ionomers 191
Quiver heat sealer 191
Heat Sealing 223
Hexafluoro propylene epoxide (HFPO) 10 13 22 45
addition to perfluorinated acid fluoride 15
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP) 13 223
Hydrogen peroxide, electrolytic generation 116
Hydrogen sulfide 121
Hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell system benzene into 148
Hydrolysis 170
in fluorinated ionomers manufacture 30
Hydroxylammonium nitrate prodcution 118
Hyflon-ion precursor polymer 46
heat of second fusion of 49
water uptake of 60
I
Infrared spectra methods 167
Dow precursor 168
EW determination by 179
Nafion 112F 168
Nafion carboxylate precursor
methyl ester form 170
Inorganic oxides, composite materials of 38
Installation 196Index Terms Links
Ion exchange equilibrium 175
anion/cation equilibrium (Donnan exclusion) 175
cation/cation equilibria 176
Ionic forms of fluorinated ionomers
properties 49
Aciplex F 4221 (Asahi Chemicals) 55
contact angle 63
Nafion 117 52
Nafion 324 52
Nafion 350 55
Nafion 417 53
Nafion 424 54
Nafion 450 55
Nafion 90209 55
Nafion 954 55
Nafion® perfluorosulfonic acid membranes 50
solubility of gases 64
swelling in water and other solvents 55
see also Swelling property
wetting 63
Ionic forms versu precursor polymer 181
Ionomer stability in fuel cells 146
CO/air bleed and fluoride ion release 147
hydroxyl radicals as degraders 146 148
membrane decay 148
mechanical properties loss due to 150
mechanism 149
using hydrogen peroxide vapors 151
oxidative attack at the cathode 148Index Terms Links
Ionomers, composite materials of 38
dopant/filler incorporation into 39
Ion-Power, Inc. 218
J
Japan 4
membrane technology 5
K
Krupp-Uhde 218
L
Liquid compositions of fluorinated
ionomers manufacture 33
film casting 34
morphology 67
film-forming ability 68
viscosity 68
Lithium chloride 103
M
3M 5 10 13 24
26 59 71 148
167 219
Manufacture, fluorinated ionomers 99
composite materials of ionomers
and inorganic oxides 38
fabrication 26Index Terms Links
Manufacture, fluorinated ionomers (Cont.)
see also individual entry
finishing and testing 31
leak testing 32
fluorinated ionomers with
phosphonic or sulfonyl imide
functional groups 35
hydrolysis and acid exchange 30
liquid compositions 33
film casting 34
monomer synthesis 10
see also Monomer synthesis
partially fluorinated ionomers 36
see also individual entry
perfluorinated ionomers 9
alkyl groups used in 10
Asahi Chemicals 9
Asahi Glass 9
DuPont 9
perfluorinated vinyl ether 9
tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) 9
polymerization 24
remanufactured membranes 40
Mechanical damage 195
Melt fabrication of fluorinated ionomers 191
Melt flow (MF) determination 180
Melt indexer 180
Melt Processable Polymer 224
Membrane damage, in NaCl electrolysis 91 94Index Terms Links
Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) 141 224
components 154
in fuel cells 141
manufacture of 154
continuous process for 154
hot pressing 154
Membrane examination 183
Reinforced membrane 183
unreinforced films 184
Membrane technology 3
see also Nafion®
Membranes 157
see also individual entries
Commercial membrane types
chlor-alkali cells 85
fluorinated ionomers as 85
fuel cells 148
see also under Fuel cells
Mercury or amalgam cell 98
sodium amalgam 100
Methanol as fuel 152
see also Direct methanol fuel cells
Methyl perfluoro 5-oxa heptenoate 17
Methyl perfluoro-3,6-dioxa-4-methyl noneoate 23
Microemulsion process 25
Monomer synthesis, in fluorinated
ionomers manufacture 10
hexafluoro propylene epoxide (HFPO) 10Index Terms Links
Monomer synthesis, in fluorinated
ionomers manufacture (Cont.)
see also individual entry
methyl perfluoro 5-oxa heptenoate 17
methyl perfluoro-3,6-dioxa-4-methyl noneoate 23
perfluoro 3,6-dioxa-4-methyl-
7-octene sulfonyl fluoride 14
Perfluoro-3-oxa-4-pentene sulfonyl fluoride 22
perfluoro-4-(fluorosulfonyl)butylvinyl ether 21
perfluoro-4,7-dioxa-5-methyl-8-
nonene sulfonyl fluoride 23
steps in 11
tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) 9
see also individual entry
Morphology, fluorinated ionomers 65
of liquid compositions 67
see also Liquid compositions Nafion 66
Mylar® films 4
N
NaCl electrolysis, fluorinated ionomers in 76
bipolar electrolyzers 78
ElectroCells 84
electrodes 87
anodes 89
cathodes 89
electrode spacing 90
ElectroProd cell 84
membranes 85Index Terms Links
NaCl electrolysis, fluorinated ionomers in (Cont.)
monopolar electrolyzers 79
process description 90
brine purification process 91
calcium 90 93
gas-diffusion cathodes or electrodes 95
magnesium 90
membrane damage 91 94
nanofiltration 91
Uhde Cell 81
Nafion® 1
see also Solution cast Nafion film 205
applications 4
discovery 3
see also DuPont Experimental Station
in chlor-alkali cell 3
in fuel cells 140 143 146 149
ESR studies 150
liquid compositions of 6
Nafion 1100 EW precursor 46
Nafion 117 52
Nafion 324 157
Nafion 324 52
Nafion 350 159
Nafion 350 55
Nafion 417 158
Nafion 417 53
Nafion 424 54
Nafion 450 159Index Terms Links
Nafion® (Cont.)
Nafion 450 55
Nafion 90209 160
Nafion 90209 55
Nafion 954 160
Nafion 954 55
Nafion carboxylate polymer, in dialysis 124
Nafion electrolytes in sensors 120
Nafion precursor polymer 46
heat of second fusion of 49
stress and strain curves for 47
tensile properties 47
Nafion sulfonic ionomer actuators based on 122
Nafion® perfluorosulfonic acid membranes
properties 50
as nitration catalyst 130
partially mercury-exchanged Nafion 131
trimethylsilyl ester of Nafion 132
in reducing methanol crossover in DMFCs 153
swelling in water and trimethyl phosphate 55
swelling 57
in organic solvents and water mixture 56
water uptake of 60
NAFION® 10
Nickel–zinc plating 111Index Terms Links
O
On-site generation of chlorine dioxide 118
Operating parameters, of fuel Cells 142
current density 143
gas humidification 142
gas pressure and purity 142
gas stoichiometry 142
temperature 143
Optical properties, of fluorinated ionomers 70
Oxygen depolarized cathode (ODC) 98
cell construction using 99
HCl electrolysis using 99
Ozone production, electrolytic generation 115
P
Partially fluorinated ionomers manufacture 36
fluorinated anion exchange polymers 38
non-fluorinated monomers grafting
on fluorinated films 36
radiation grafted pTFE or FEP 38
polymerization 37
Partially fluorinated polymers 1
PEM fuel cells 138
activity by function 164
global applications for 164
principle 138Index Terms Links
Perfluorinated acid fluoride HFPO addition to 15
Perfluorinated ionomers 1
commercial uses 1
containing phosphonic acid synthesis 1
electrochemical fluorination for preparation 5
manufacture 9
see also Manufacture physical shapes 2
Perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) 129 195
Perfluorinated vinyl ether 9
Perfluoro 3,6-dioxa-4-methyl-7-octene
sulfonyl fluoride 14
safety 14
Perfluoro dimethyl cyclobutane 26
Perfluoro methyl vinyl ether (PMVE) 9
Perfluoro propyl vinyl ether (PPVE) 9
Perfluoro vinyl ethers 3
Perfluoro-3-oxa-4-pentene sulfonyl fluoride 22
Perfluoro-4-(fluorosulfonyl)butylvinyl ether 21
Perfluoroalkyl Vinyl Ether (PAVE) 225
Perfluorosulfonic acid copolymer
degradation products of 198
PermaPure, Inc. 219
Permselectivity determination 184
Persulfates 112
Persulfuric acid 112
Pervaporation 124
rates measurement 185
Thwing Albert pervaporation cup 186
Plastic-based bipolar plates 213
EIndex Terms Links
Plug Power 219
Poly tetrafluoro ethylene (pTFE) 24 27 28
Polyethylene 4
Polymer fume fever (PFF) 198
Polymerization, in fluorinated
ionomers manufacture 24
Polymers 1
see also Partially fluorinated polymers
Perfluorinated ionomers
Polytetrafluoroethylene (pTFE) 4 45 225
Potassium chloride, electrolysis 102
Potassium gold cyanide electrolysis 104
Potassium stannate electrolysis 104
Precursor polymers 174
properties 45
hyflon-ion precursor polymer 46
Nafion precursor polymer 46
uniaxial draw of 46
reactions of 174
with ammonia or amines 174
oxidative cleaving 174
reduction 174
versus ionic forms 181
Pretreatment 196
Properties, fluorinated ionomers 45
ionic forms 49
see also Ionic forms morphology 65
see also individual entry
optical properties 70Index Terms Links
Properties, fluorinated ionomers (Cont.)
of precursor polymers 45
see also Precursor polymers
stability 71
thermal properties 71
transport properties 69
Protective Clothing, fluorinated ionomers in 129
Q
Quiver Ltd. 219
R
Reinforced membrane examination 183
Reinforced perfluorinated membranes 157
sulfonic acid membranes 157
see also individual entry
sulfonic/carboxylic membranes 159
see also individual entry
Remanufactured membranes 40
Repair procedures 191
final steps of 192
first steps of 192
Reverse orientation, in fluorinated
ionomers manufacture 29Index Terms Links
S
Safety 197
flammability 199
Polymer fume fever (PFF) 198
skin contact 197
thermal degradation products 198
thermal stability 197
ventilation 199
Salt splitting, fluorinated ionomers in 106
chromic acid production 106
sodium sulfate production 107
Sensors 119
4-decyloxy-2-(2-pyridylazo)-1-naphthol 121
carbon monoxide (CO) detector 123
glucose determination 120
hydrogen sulfide 121
immobilized 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-
5-(diethylamino) phenol 121
Nafion electrolytes in 120
optical sensors 121
Silver ions 126
Simple electrolytic cells 186
Sintering 226
Skin contact 197
Skiving 226
Sodium hydrosulfite 116
Sodium sulfate production 107
Solubility of gases in fluorinated ionomers 64Index Terms Links
Solution cast Nafion film 205
DuPont™ Nafion® PFSA membranes
NRE-211 and NRE-212 205
Solution Technology, Inc. 219
Solvay-Solexis 23
Solvay-Solexis 25
Stability, of fluorinated ionomers 71
Staining 170
see also Dyes-Storage 195
Sulfonic acid membranes 157
Nafion 324 157
Nafion 350 159
Nafion 417 158
Nafion 450 159
Sulfonic/carboxylic membranes 159
Aciplex® F 4221 (Asahi Chemicals) 160
construction 159
carboxylate polymer layer 159
pTFE filaments 159
sulfonate polymer layer 159
zirconium dioxide coating 159
Nafion 90209 160
Nafion 954 160
Surface hydrolysis 170
Surface tension 226
Surfactant 226Index Terms Links
Swelling property, of ionic forms of
fluorinated ionomers 55
dimethyl methylphosphonate 55
factors affecting 56 58
nature of counter-ion 60
Nafion swelling in a mixture of
organic solvents and water 56
water and other solvents 55
water and trimethyl phosphate 55
water uptake of Hyflon and Nafion 60
temperature affecting 61
T
Teflon® 172
Testing, in fluorinated ionomers Manufacture 31
leak testing 32
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) 9
properties 11
TFE Sultone (3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro-1,2-
oxathietane S , S-dioxide) 14
Tetraglyme 15
Tetramethyl ammonium chloride electrolysis 101 103
TFE Sultone (3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro-1,2-
oxathietane S , S-dioxide) 14
Thermal properties, of fluorinated ionomers 71
Thermal stability 197
Thwing Albert pervaporation cup 186
Titration, EW determination by 179
Toxicology 197Index Terms Links
Transport properties, of fluorinated ionomers 69
driven by an electric current 70
driven by concentration difference 70
Tubular humidity exchanger 127
Tucker Products 219
U
Uhde Cell 81
cell stack 81
design 82
Unreinforced films examination 184
Unreinforced perfluorinated sulfonic acid films 157
V
Vacuum lamination, in fluorinated
ionomers manufacture 29
Ventilation 199
Vinyl ethers 3
Viscosity 226
Voids 227
W
Warp 227
Water electrolysis 113
electrode/ionomer contact 114
hydrogen peroxide production 116
ozone production 115
Wetting property, of fluorinated ionomers 63 227


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