كتاب Multilayer Flexible Packaging
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 كتاب Multilayer Flexible Packaging

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كتاب Multilayer Flexible Packaging  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Multilayer Flexible Packaging    كتاب Multilayer Flexible Packaging  Emptyالخميس 10 أغسطس 2023, 7:07 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Multilayer Flexible Packaging
Edited by
John R. Wagner, Jr.  

كتاب Multilayer Flexible Packaging  M_l_f_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of contents
Part I: Introduction
1. Introduction
Abstract
1.1 Materials: A Historical Perspective
1.2 Markets: A Global Economy
1.3 Processes, Materials, Needs
1.4 Materials and Barrier
1.5 Materials and Sealing
1.6 Bringing Things Together
References
Part II: Resins
2. Polyethylene
Abstract
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Polyethylene History and Basic Characterization
2.3 Melt Index
2.4 Density
2.5 Gel Permeation Chromatography
2.6 Low-Density Polyethylene
2.7 Free Radical Polymerization Processes
2.8 Autoclave Reactor
2.9 Tubular Reactor
2.10 Polar Ethylene Copolymers
2.11 Low-Pressure Polymerization Processes
2.12 Gas-Phase Process
2.13 Solution Process
2.14 Slurry Processes
2.15 Catalyst Chemistry
2.16 Chrome Oxide–Based Catalyst
2.17 Single-Site (Metallocene) catalyzed Polyethylene
2.18 Tie Chain Molecules
2.19 Summary
Acknowledgment
References
3. Polypropylene
Abstract
3.1 Managerial Overview
3.2 Summary
References
4. Introduction to Bio-Based Polymers
Abstract
4.1 Commercially Important Novel Biopolymer
References
5. Additives to Design and Improve the Performance of Multilayer Flexible Packaging
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Overview
5.3 Additive Handling, Addition, and Dosing
5.4 Additive Types and Principal Mode of Action
5.5 Suppliers and Contacts
Appendix 5.1
Appendix 5.2
References
6. Rheology of Molten Polymers
Abstract
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Viscosity and Melt Flow Index
6.3 Mathematical Relations
6.4 Extensional Viscosity and Melt Strength
6.5 Normal Stress Differences and Extrudate Swell
6.6 Stress Relaxation and Dynamic Measurements
6.7 Constitutive Equations
6.8 Sharkskin, Melt Fracture, and Die Lip Buildup
6.9 Rheological Problems in Coextrusion
6.10 Rheology of Filled Polymers
6.11 Rheology of Nanocomposites
6.12 Rheometers
6.13 Concluding Remarks
References
Part III: Technologies
7. Coextrusion Equipment for Multilayer Flat Films and Sheets
Abstract
7.1 Designing and Manufacturing Multilayer Flexible Plastic Films with Multilayer Coextrusion Die Technology
7.2 Summary
References
8. Multilayer Blown (Tubular) Film Dies
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Conventional Coextrusion Dies
8.3 Stacked Dies
8.4 Interfacial Instability
References
9. Process Engineering
Abstract
9.1 Managerial Summary
9.2 Process Engineering: What Is It and Why Is It Essential?
9.3 Some Process Engineer Tools
9.4 Examples of How Process Engineers Can Save Time and Money
9.5 Conclusion
10. Blown Film, Cast Film, and Lamination Processes
Abstract
10.1 Blown Film
10.2 Cast Film
10.3 Extrusion Coating and Lamination
References
11. Machine Direction–Oriented Film Technology
Abstract
11.1 Managerial Summary
11.2 Description of MDO Hardware and Technology
11.3 How a Machine Direction Orientor Works
11.4 The Process and Its Effect on the Film
11.5 Properties of MD-Oriented Films
11.6 Summary
References
12. Oriented Film Technology
Abstract
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Orienting Technologies
12.3 Oriented Film Types—Applications
12.4 Trends for Oriented Films
References
13. Polymer Blending for Packaging Applications
Abstract
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Why Blend?
13.3 Blending Processes
13.4 Physics of Blending
13.5 Morphology Development in Blown Film
13.6 Dispersion of Rigid Particles and Nanocomposites
13.7 Rheology of Polymer Blends
13.8 Conclusion
References
14. Water- and Solvent-Based Coating Technology
Abstract
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Coating Structures
14.3 Web-Coating Machine Hardware and Functions
14.4 Coating Applicators
14.5 Effect of Solvent
14.6 Hot Melt Coaters
14.7 Selecting a Coating Method
14.8 Drying and Solidification
References
15. Vacuum Metallizing for Flexible Packaging
Abstract
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Decorative Coatings
15.3 Barrier Coatings
15.4 Functional Coatings
15.5 Security Applications
15.6 Metallization Basics
15.7 Pattern Metallization
15.8 Trends
15.9 Summary
References
16. Web Handling and Winding
Abstract
16.1 Web Handling Essentials
16.2 Rollers
16.3 Tension Control
16.4 Nip Control
16.5 Temperature Control
16.6 Guiding and Path Control
16.7 Wrinkles and Spreading
16.8 A Word About Slitting and Other Converting Processes
16.9 Winding Is Essential
16.10 Winding Tightness and the TNT’s
16.11 Winding Classes and Arrangements
16.12 Theory Applied
16.13 Other Common Wound Roll Defects
References
Part IV: Multilayer Films – Descriptions, Performance Characteristics, Uses, Considerations, Properties
17. PE-Based Multilayer Film Structures
Abstract
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Polymer Selection
17.3 Mechanical Properties
17.4 Barrier Properties
17.5 Polymer Sealability
17.6 Adhesive Polymers
17.7 Applications for Flexible Packaging Film Structures
17.8 Summary
References
18. Multilayer-Oriented Films
Abstract
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Technology for Multilayer-Oriented Films
18.3 Structures
18.4 Trends for Multilayer-Oriented Films
19. Regulatory Aspects of Food Packaging—A Global Matter
Abstract
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Determining the Regulatory Status of Components of a Food-Contact Material in the United States
19.3 Regulatory Report: FDA’s FCS Notification Program
19.4 Preservation of Foods by Irradiation
19.5 Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Plastics—US FDA View
19.6 EU Legislation on Food-Contact Plastics
19.7 EU Legislation for Recycled Plastics
Acknowledgment
References
x
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
Acid copolymer resin, 10
Acrylates, 9-10
Active and passive microwave packaging,
239f
Adapter, 99, 101-103
Addition point, 53-54, 54f, 74t, 75t
Additives
addition and dosing, 53-55
for designing and performance
improvement, 53
overview, 53
for polyamide, 75t
for polyester, 75t
for polyvinylchloride, 75t
suppliers and contacts, 71-73
types and principal mode of action,
55-71
antiblock additives, 68-70
antioxidants, 56-63
antistats, 70-71
optical brighteners, 65-66
polyamide, 62-63
polyolefins, 58-60
polyvinylchloride, 61-62
slip additives, 66-68
UV stabilizers, 63-65
Adhesion, 12-13, 174, 211, 245, 292
Adhesive laminations, 283-284
Adhesive layer, 9, 314
Adhesive polymers, 292-294
Agglomeration, 196
Air knife coating, 215-216
advantage, 216
components of, 215-216
disadvantages, 216
operating parameters for, 216
in squeegee mode, 216
Alpha crystallinity, 41
Aluminum vacuum metallizer system,
243f
Amorphous nylon, 174
Amorphous regions, 148-149, 148f
Antiblock additives, 68-70
Antioxidants, 56-63
Antistatic additive, 70-71
Antistatic coating, 239
Antistatic/electromagnetic screening
applications, 240
Antistats, 70-71
Apparent shear rate, 81
Applications
bakery, 8, 301
cereal box liners, 300-301
cheese, 302
fish, 297-299
fresh-cut, 284, 304
frozen food, 302-304, 304t
grocery, 307
meat, 296-299
medical, 295-296
milk, 302
retortable pouches, 304
shrink, 296
snack, 301
stretch wrap, 305-306
trash bags, 306, 307t
Aqueous coating, 228
Aroma barrier, 9, 288
Aromatic amines, 63
Atactic polypropylene, 40
Atomic layer deposition (ALD),
238-239
Autoclave reactor, 22-23
Avantium, 52
B
Baggy webs, 263, 275f
Bag-in-box, 305, 305t
Bagley correction, 82, 94
Bakery packaging, 301
Banks, Robert, 3-4
Barrier, 283
gas, 100, 237-239
light, 237
materials, 10-12
moisture, 147, 297
oxygen, 11, 237
properties, 151, 158-159, 169, 174,
284, 287-289
ultra, 247
water vapor, 237
Barrier film, 11, 288, 314
Barrier layer, 9, 252, 283
Basfia succiniciproducens, 50
Batch sheet coaters, 208
Benzophenone, 338
Berthelot, Marcelin, 4
Beta crystallinity, 41-42
Biaxial orientation, 155f
Biaxially oriented polyamide (BOPA)
films, 166-169, 167f, 311
Biaxially oriented polyethylene (BOPE)
films, 169
Biaxially oriented polyethylene
terephthalate (BOPET) films, 154,
163-166, 311
applications, 166
coextrusion trends in, 165f
Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP)
films, 4, 154, 160-163, 252, 283,
311
Biaxially oriented polystyrene (BOPS)
films, 168, 169f, 311
Biaxially stretched PP (BOPP) versus cast
PP (CPP), 154f
Binary distribution, 126-127
BioAmber, 50
Bio-based polymers, 47
polybutylene succinate, 49-50
polyethylene furanoate, 51-52
polyhydroxyalkanoate, 50-51
polylactic acid, 47-49
Birtwhistle, W.K., 4
Bisphenol A, 320-321
Blade coaters, 217
operating parameters for, 218
Blending processes, 174-179
melt blending, 176-179
pellet pre-mixing, 175-176
physics of, 179-192
reasons to, 173-174
375Blocking defect, 273-274
Blow molding, 8, 363
Blown film, 137-139, 192-195, 282
draw ratio, 194-195
extruder RPM, 194
extruder temperatures, 194
frost line height and process time, 195
interfacial tension, 193
minor phase concentration, in blend,
193
polymer elasticity, 192-195
screw design, 194
shear stress in extruder, adaptor and
die, 194
viscosity ratio, 193
Blown process, 155-156
Blow-up ratio (BUR), 194
Blyth, John, 4
Bond strength, 13
BOPP multilayer film, layer thickness of,
311-312
Bowed roller, 263, 264f
Brampton Engineering, 125
Branched polymers, 77, 89
Branching long chain, 18-19, 21f
Branching short chain, 21f
Brandenberger, Jacques E., 3
Buckle defect, 273, 273f
1,4-Butanediol, 49
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),
134-135
C
Calcium carbonate, 92-93
Caliper ridge, 275
Caliper valley, 275
Camber, 262, 275
Capillary, 81, 82f, 94
Capillary number, 184, 212-214
Capillary rheometer, 106
Capillary viscometers, 83, 94
Carothers, Wallace, 4
Carreau-Yasuda, 82
Cascade, 212, 214
Cast films, 139-141
extrusion, 282
Cast PP (CPP) versus biaxially stretched
PP (BOPP), 154f
Cast sheet, 4, 100, 168
Catalyst
chemistry, 27-28
chrome oxide-based, 28
metallocene, 4, 17-18, 28-32, 29f, 36,
39, 83
Ziegler-Natta, 17-18, 27-28, 36
CD wrinkles, 263
Cellophane, 3
Cellulose, 47
Center fed die, 110-111
Center-surface winder, 267-268
Cereal box liners, 300-301
Cheese packaging, 302, 303t
Chemical contaminants, exposure to,
336-337
Chloroform, 338
Choker bar, 114
Chrome oxide-based catalysts, 28
Cling, 305
Cloeren feedblock systems, 110
Coat hanger die, 112-113
Coat hanger manifold, 112
Coatability limits, 212
Coaters
air knife, 215-216
blade, 217
curtain, 221
dip, 212-213
extrusion, 142-144, 219
forward roll, 213-214
gravure, 222
kiss, 213
knife, 216
laboratory, 208
Mayer rod, 215
meniscus, 213
microgravure, 223
pilot, 208
precision curtain, 221
reverse roll, 209, 212-214
sheet, 208
slide, 220
slot die, 218, 224-225
wire-wound rod, 215
Coating, 209, 216, 220, 262, 264
barrier, 237-239
barrier opaque, 238
barrier transparent, 238
decorative, 235-237
functional, 239-242
Coating applicators
classification of, 208-210
coatabilty limits, 212
coating methods, description of,
212-224
substrate, role of, 210-212
Coating methods, 212-224
doctored methods
air knife coaters, 215-216
blade coaters, 217
knife coaters, 216
Mayer rod or wire-wound rod
coaters, 215
hybrid methods
gravure coaters, 222
Microgravuret coaters, 223
pre-metered methods
curtain coaters, 221
extrusion coaters, 219
precision curtain coaters, 221
slide coaters, 220
slot die coaters, 218
standard curtain coaters, 221
selection, 225-227
self-metered methods
dip coaters, 212-213
forward roll coaters, 213-214
kiss coaters, 213
meniscus or bead-roll coaters, 213
reverse roll coaters, 214
Coating solution ingredients, 206
Coating structures, 205-206
Coating uniformity, 205
Coca-Cola Company, 52
‘Coex tie’ resins, 12-13
Coextruded film, 9, 11
Coextrusion, 8, 137, 281, 312-313
Coextrusion adhesive technology, 293f
Coextrusion equipment, 97, 114-115
adapter, 101-103
die, 104
designs, 110-114
and feedblock design parameters,
109-110
feedblock, 103
design of, 112
layer instabilities, causes and
prevention of, 115-119
practical examples, 119-121
Coextrusion issues, 8
Coextrusion non barrier, 123
Cohesive energy density, 181, 181f
Combining Block, 143
Combining plug, 313, 313f
Compatibilizers, 189, 199
Computer numerical controlled (CNC)
machining capabilities, 104
Concave spreader, 263, 263f
Conductive filler, 70
Cone-and-plate instrument, 82
Confidence limits, 205
Consistency, 80
Constant rate drying, 228-229
Constant rate period, 228
Constitutive equation, 88-89
Consumer requirements, of multilayer
oriented films, 317
Continuous coaters, 208
Continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs),
27
Continuum hypothesis, 77
Control charts, 132
Conventional coextrusion dies, 123-125
Corbion Purac, 49
Core crush, 274-275, 274f
‘Cornflakes’, 236
Corrugation, 263, 275
Cost efficiency, of multilayer oriented
films, 317
Couette viscometer, 104
Cox-Merz rule, 87
376 INDEXCross model, 82, 88-89
Crosshead die, 111
Crossover point, 87
Crystalline, 19
Crystallinity, 24
alpha, 41
beta, 41-42
gamma, 42
mesomorphic, 42
smectic, 42
Crystals, 148-149
Curl, 263
Curtain coaters, 221
Curtain coating, 212
D
Dacron, 4
Dancers, 259
Danone, 52
Data interrogation, 134
Data recommendations for 3° recycling
processes for PET and PEN, 342
Deborah numbers, 88
Decorative coatings, for packaging,
235-237
Defect detection capability, 231
Degradation, 40, 44, 60-61
Delamination peel-seal mechanism,
292
Density, 9, 19
Design of experiments (DOEs), 131
Diagonal shear wrinkles, 263
Dickson, James Tennant, 4
Die, 104
designs, 110-114
cylindrical, 123
modular, 127
rotating, 124
stacked, 125-127
and feedblock design parameters,
109-110
Die drool, 90-91
Die land, 92
Die lip build-up, 90-91
Die swell, 86
Differential gravure coating, 222
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
28
Dilatent fluid, 105
Dip coating, 212-213
Direct gravure coating, 222
Dispersion, 65
Dispersive mixing, 176
Doctored coating
air knife coaters, 215-216
blade coaters, 217
knife coaters, 216
Mayer rod/wire-wound rod coaters, 215
methods, 209
Double bubble process, 155-156
Double wave screw, 178
Dow feedblock, 103, 109
Draw down ratio (DDR), 194-195
Draw ratio, 194-195
Droplet breakup, 184, 189, 191
Dryers, 207, 225, 227
Drying, 227
conduction, 228
constant rate, 228-229
falling rate, 228-229
infrared, 228
microwave, 228
online defect characterization, 230-234
basic principles, 230
defect detection capability, 231
online coating weight measurement,
231-234
surface inspection system, 230-231
online quality control systems,
229-230
traditional quality control systems,
229-230
and solidification, 227-234
constant rate and falling rate drying,
228-229
pollution considerations in, 229-234
Duplex rewinder, 269-270
DuPont Company, 11, 174
Dynamic measurements, 86-87
‘Dyneema’ fiber, 4
E
Edible oil packaging, 305
Effective barrier, use of, 341-342
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co, 3
Einstein-Batchelor equation, 93
Elastomers, 43
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), 242
Electron beam evaporation, 243-244
Elongational viscosity, 84, 193
Encapsulation, 109, 116
End-fed dies, 110-111
Energy transfer screw, 178
Engineer
maintenance, 129
process, 129-135
product, 129
project, 129
Escherichia coli, 50
Ethylene, 17
Ethylene acrylic acid (EAA), 24
Ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA), 24
Ethylene methyl acrylic acid (EMAA), 24
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 24, 174,
282
EVA resin, 13
Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 11, 169,
174, 194, 282
Ethylene-propylene copolymers, 43
Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), 43,
182
Ethylene-propylene-butene terpolymers,
43
Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM),
174
EPDM elastomers, 43
EU Legislation for Recycled Plastics,
358-359
Recycled Plastics in Food-Contact
Materials, 358-359
EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on plastic
materials, 344
European Commission (EC), 320
European Food Safety Authority’s
(EFSA), 320
Evaporation, electron beam, 243-244
Exfoliation, 196-197
Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 5
Extensional viscosity, 84
External antistat, 70
Extrudate swell, 85-86
Extruder, adaptor and die
shear stress in, 194
Extruder RPM, 194
Extruder temperatures, 194
Extrusion, 261-262
Extrusion coating, 219
and lamination, 142-144, 282
operating parameters for, 220
F
Falling rate drying, 228-229
Farrel continuous mixer, 178
Fatty acid amides, classification of,
66-67
Fawcett, Eric, 3
FCS Notification Program, 322-326
definitions, history, and scope,
322-323
FCS formulations, 325-326
increasing the odds of success, 325
notification process, 323-325
FDA regulations for treatment of foods
with radiation, 327
Feedblock coextrusion, 99-101, 116
Feedblock profiling, 91-92
Feedblock technology, 103, 109-110
Filled polymers, rheology of, 92-93
Fillers, 53
Film, antistatic, 241
Films and multilayer structures packaging,
writing guide for, 363
Films oriented biaxially, 160-170
BOPA films, 166-169, 167f
BOPE films, 169
BOPET films, 163-166
BOPP films, 160-163
INDEX 377Films oriented biaxially (Continued)
BOPS films, 168, 169f
polylactide (PLA), 169-170, 170f
Fitness for use (FFU), 135
Five-layer film applications, 315f
Five-layer film structures, 311f, 314
Fixed geometry adaptors, 102
Flake metallic pigment production
process, schematic of, 237f
Flat spiral distribution, 126
Flexible packaging, 5, 281
Flexible packaging applications
common polymers used for, 285t
performance requirements for,
284-286
Flexible packaging film structures,
293-294
food packaging, 296-307
bag-in-box, 305
bakery, 301
cereal box liners, 300-301
cheese packaging, 302, 303t
edible oil packaging, 305
fresh-cut produce, 304
frozen foods, 302-304, 303t, 304f
grocery sacks (merchandise bags),
307, 307t
heavy duty bags (shipping bags),
306, 306t
high clarity shrink film (oriented),
307, 307t
milk pouches, 302, 303t
poultry/fish packaging, 297-299
primal meat packaging (shrink), 296
processed meat packaging, 297
retortable pouches, 304
salty snack packaging, 301
snack food packaging, 301
stretch wrap, 305-306, 305f, 306t
trash bags, 306, 307t
medical packaging, 295-296
Flow simulation software, 127-128
Fluorescence, 65
Fluorocarbon polymers, 90
Foamed plastics, 210
Food additive, definition of, 322-323
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 319
FCS Notification Program, 322-326
Food Radiation Specifications, 326t
recycled plastics, regulatory aspects of,
333-344
regulations for treatment of foods with
radiation, 327
Food contact substance (FCS), 321
Food packaging, 296-307
bag-in-box, 305
bakery, 301, 303t
cereal box liners, 300-301
cheese packaging, 302, 303t
edible oil packaging, 305
fresh-cut produce, 304
frozen foods, 302-304, 303t, 304f
grocery sacks (merchandise bags), 307t
heavy duty bags (shipping bags), 306t
high clarity shrink film (oriented), 307t
milk pouches, 302, 303t
poultry/fish packaging, 297-299
primal meat packaging (shrink), 296
processed meat packaging, 297
retortable pouches, 304
salty snack packaging, 301
snack food packaging, 302t
stretch wrap, 305-306, 306t
trash bags, 307t
Food packaging, regulatory aspects of, 319
bisphenol A (BPA), 320-321
EU Legislation for Recycled Plastics,
358-359
FDA’s FCS Notification program,
322-326
food preservation, by irradiation,
326-332
FDA regulations for treatment of
foods with radiation, 327
Title 21 CFR 179, 327-332
food-contact material components,
321-322
Food-Contact Formulation
Compliance Notification, 322
food-contact plastics, EU Legislation
on, 344-358
Chapter I—General Provisions,
351-353
Chapter II: Compositional
Requirements, 353-354
Chapter III: Specific Provisions for
Certain Materials and Articles, 355
Chapter IV: Declaration of
Compliance and Documentation,
355-356
Chapter V: Compliance, 356-357
Chapter VI: Final Provisions,
357-358
consolidating paragraphs, 344-351
EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on
plastic materials, 344
recycled plastics (US FDA view),
333-344
chemistry considerations, 333-344
elimination of data recommendations
for 3° recycling processes for PET
and PEN, 342
exposure to chemical contaminants,
336-337
plastic containers from nonfoodcontact applications as feedstock,
339-341
processes, 335-336
surrogate contaminant testing,
337-339, 343-344
use of an effective barrier, 341-342
Food preservation, by irradiation,
326-332
FDA regulations for treatment of foods
with radiation, 327
Title 21 CFR 179
Subpart B: Radiation and Radiation,
327-331
Subpart C: Packaging Materials for
Irradiated Foods Sources,
331-332
Food-contact material components in the
United States, 321-322
Food-Contact Formulation Compliance
Notification, 322
Food-contact plastics, EU Legislation on,
344-358
Chapter I—General Provisions,
351-353
Chapter II: Compositional
Requirements, 353-354
Chapter III: Specific Provisions for
Certain Materials and Articles, 355
Chapter IV: Declaration of Compliance
and Documentation, 355-356
Chapter V: Compliance, 356-357
Chapter VI: Final Provisions, 357-358
consolidating paragraphs, 344-351
EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on plastic
materials, 344
Forward gravure coating, 222
Forward roll coaters, 213-214
operating parameters for, 214
Forward roll coating, 212
Fountain fed coaters, 213
Four-roll pan-fed reverse roll coater, 214f
Free radical polymerization processes, 22
Fresh-cut produce, 304
Frost line height and process time, 195
Frozen food packaging, 303, 304f, 304t
Functional coatings, 239-242
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), 51
G
Gamma crystallinity, 42
Gap winding, 268
Gas-phase process, 25-26
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC),
20-22, 36
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS)
status, 321
Gibson, Reginald, 3
Good and Girifalco equation, 183-184
Gravimetric pellet mixers, 176
Gravure cell patterns, 223f
Gravure coating, 209-210, 222
operating parameters for, 223
Grocery sacks (merchandise bags), 307t
Gross melt fracture, 90
378 INDEXH
Heat seal strength versus seal bar
temperature, 290f
Heat sealing, 290
Heavy duty bags (shipping bags), 306t
Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), 244f,
245
High barrier, 288
High clarity shrink film (oriented), 307t
High melt index, 80
High-density polyethylene (HDPE),
17-18, 25, 147, 174
High-impact polystyrene (PS) blend, 179
Histogram, 130
Hogan, J. Paul, 3-4
Hologram, 242
Holographic embossing, 236
Holographic packaging, 235
Homopolymer, 23, 35
Horizontal form-fill-seal (HFFS), 291, 294
Hot melt coaters, 225
Hot tack performance, 291f
Hot tack strength, 285
Hot transfer, 235-236
Hot/cold stamping foil
foil construction, 235-236, 236f
transfer process, 235-236, 236f
Hybrid coating
gravure coaters, 222
Microgravuret coaters, 223
Hybrid coating methods, 209-210
Hybrid methods, 209-210
Hydrolysis, 60
I
I.G. Farben, 4-5
Imperial Chemical Company (ICI), 4, 17
Induction heated evaporation, 243
Industrial Technology Research Institute
(ITRI), 52
Infinite cavity designs, 110
Infrared dryers, 228
In-line coating-process, of multilayer
oriented films, 311-312
In-line lamination, of multilayer oriented
films, 311-312
Inline mixers, 175
In-line process, of multilayer oriented
films, 311
Inorganic antiblock additives, 68
Instability, 92
Interfacial instabilities, 92, 116-117, 119,
127-128
Interfacial instability, 116-117
Interfacial peel-seal mechanism, 292
Interfacial tension, 193
Interlayer adhesion, 12-13, 292
Internal antistat, 70
Intrinsic viscosity, 80-81
In-vacuum polymer deposition, schematic
of, 248f
Inverted preland die, 113-114
Ionomers, 24-25, 289
Irradiation, food preservation by, 321,
326-332
Isotactic polypropylene, 40-42
K
Kaminsky, Walter, 4
K-BKZ integral model, 89
Kiss coating, 213
Kiss roll, 213
Knife coating, 216
operating parameters for, 217
Krieger-Dougherty equation, 93
K-value, 80-81
L
Laboratory sheet coater, 208, 212f
Lactic acid, 47-48
Lamination, 261-262, 283-284
Lamination process, 137, 287
Laser system advantages, 231
Layer instability, 116-117
Layer nonuniformity, 91
Layer rearrangement, 116
Linear low density polyethylene
(LLDPE), 17-18, 28, 84, 150,
174, 182, 282
LLDPE polymer, 286
Linear polymers, 77, 193-194
Linear viscoelasticity, 87
Liquidambar orientalis, 4
LISIM (linear motor simultaneous
stretching system) technology,
157-158, 158f
Load cell, 259
Load control, 260
Long chain branching (LCB), 182
Longitudinal-transverse (MD/TD) process,
164-165
Longitudinal-transverse-longitudinal (MD/
TD/MD) processes, 164-165
Loop reactors, 27
Loss modulus, 87, 89, 94-95
Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 17, 22,
84, 174, 182, 286
LDPE homopolymer, 23, 23f
Low melt index, 80
Low-pressure polymerization processes,
25
Lubricants, 62, 71
M
Machine direction (MD), 150-151,
194-195, 263, 272-273
Machine direction orientation (MDO), of
films, 147, 158-159
description of, 147
machine direction orientor, working of,
147-148
managerial summary, 147
process and effects on film, 148-149
properties, 149-152
recent advances, 151-152
Maddock mixer, 177-178
Manifold dies, 104
Market driver, 8
Markets
global economy, 5-8
Masterbatches, 173-174
Matching layer viscosity, 92
Materials, 8-10
and barriers, 10-12
coextrusion structures, assembling,
12-13
historical perspective, 3-5
and sealing, 12
Mathematical relations, 81-83
Maxwell model, 88
Mayer rod/wire-wound rod coaters, 215
Medical device packaging structures,
295-296
Medical packaging, 295-296
Melt blending, 176-179
Melt disturbance, 115-117
Melt flow index (MFI), 80. See also Melt
index (MI)
Melt flow rate (MFR), 80
Melt fracture, 79, 90
Melt index (MI), 18-19, 25-26, 80, 291
Melt indexers, 80f, 94
Melt strength, 44, 84
Meniscus or bead-roll coaters, 213
Meredian, 51
Metabolix, 51
Metallization, 284
basics, 243-249
pattern, 249-250
Metallizing, 235
Metallocene, 4, 28-32, 39-40
Metallocene catalyst, 4
Metallocene polyethylene plastomer
(mPE), 174
Metastyrol, 4
Microgravure coaters, 223
Microwave radiation, 228, 239-240
Migrating slip additives, 66
Migration, 55, 66
Milk packaging, 303t
Miscibility of polymer blends, 182
Mixing equipment, 206
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), 237
Modifiers, 53, 55
antiblock additives, 68-70
antistats, 70-71
optical brighteners, 65-66
slip additives, 66-68
INDEX 379Modulus, 87, 94
Moisture, 288
barrier, 10
Moisture permeability coefficients, 289t
Moisture transmission rate, calculation of,
288t
Molecular weight (MW), 18-21, 35-36,
79
Molecular weight distribution (MWD),
20-21
Molten polymers, rheology of, 77
constitutive equations, 88-89
die lip build-up, 90-91
dynamic measurements, 86-87
extensional viscosity, 84
extrudate swell, 85-86
mathematical relations, 81-83
melt flow index (MFI), 80
melt fracture, 90
melt strength, 84
normal stresses differences, 85-86
rheological problems, in coextrusion,
91-92
rheometers, 94-95
sharkskin, 90
stress relaxation, 86-87
viscosity, 78-81
Mono-axially oriented propylene (MOPP)
films, 170
Monoethylene glycol (MEG), 51
Monsanto Company, 11
Multicavity dies, 99-101, 114
Multilayer, 281
Multilayer blown (tubular) film dies, 123
conventional coextrusion dies, 123-125
interfacial instability, 127-128
stacked dies, 125-127
Multilayer coextrusion, 99
Multilayer films, 97, 100
stiffness, 286
for syringe package, 295
Multilayer oriented films
structures, 313-316
technology for, 311-313
trends for, 317-318
consumer requirements, 317
cost efficiency, 317
sustainability, 317-318
Multivariate statistical process control,
132-135
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT),
197
Myriant, 50
N
Nanocomposites, 195-197
rheology of, 93-94
Nanosized reinforcements, 93
Natta, Giulio, 25
NatureWorks, 48-49
Neutralizers, 71
Newlight Technologies, 51
Newtonian fluid, 86, 105
Newton’s law of viscosity, 78
Nip, 271-272
dynamic impression, 261f
static impression, 261f
Nip control, 260-261
fixed load, 260f
fixed position, 260f
Nip-fed coaters, 213
Nitrogen, 287, 301
Nitrogen blanket, 224
Non-barrier coextrusion, 123
Non-migrating slip additives, 66
Non-Newtonian behavior, 193-194
Non-Newtonian fluids, 81, 185
Normal stress, 85-86
Normal stress difference, 8, 85-86
Noryl, 179
Number average molecular weight (Mn),
77
Nylon, 11
O
Octene, 19
Off-line winders, 269-270
Online defect characterization, 230-234
basic principles, 230
defect detection capability, 231
online coating weight measurement,
231-234
surface inspection system, 230-231
Online quality control systems, 229-230
advantages, 229
disadvantages, 229
Opaque barrier coatings, 238
Operator interrogation, 133-134
Optical brighteners, 65-66
Optics, 147
Organic antiblock additives, 68-69
Orientation process, 4, 154
Orientation Technology
Machine, 154-159
sequential, 157-159
simultaneous, 147, 157-159
transverse, 171
Oriented film technology, 153
films oriented biaxially, 160-170
BOPA films, 166-168
BOPE films, 169
BOPET films, 163-166
BOPP films, 160-163
BOPS films, 168
polylactide, 169-170
in machine direction, 170-171
in transverse direction, 171-172
trends for, 171-172
Original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs), 123
Oxygen, 283-284, 287, 304
Oxygen barrier, 11
Oxygen permeability coefficients, for
polymers, 288t
P
Packaging, 3
Pan-fed forward roll coaters, 213
Pattern metallization, 249-250
PE (poly-ethylene), 3
PE based multilayer film structures, 279
adhesive polymers, 292-294
barrier properties, 287-289
conversion factors, list of, 308t
flexible packaging film structures,
293-294
food packaging, 296-307
medical packaging, 295-296
mechanical properties, 286-287
polymer sealability, 290-292
polymer selection, 284-286
Peel Seal/Easy Seal resin, 10
Peelable seal blends, 193
Pellet mixers, 175
Permeability, 288
Permeation rates, 288
Perrin, Michael, 3
PET (polyester), 3
PET heat-seal laminate barrier-lidding
material, 252f
Petroleum-based polymers, 47
Phase inversion, 176, 192
Phenolic antioxidant, 58-59, 63
Phillips catalyst, 3-4
Phosphites, 61, 63
Physical properties, 9
Pinhole, 238, 247-248, 252, 283
Pivoting dancer, 259f
Plasma enhanced chemical vapor
deposition (PECVD), 239, 245
Plastic containers from nonfood-contact
applications as feedstock,
339-341
Plastic film stretching, 155f
Plasticizer, 62
Polar ethylene copolymers, 24-25
Pollution considerations, 229-234
Polyamide, 10, 62-63
Polybutene-1 (PB), 193
Polybutylene succinate (PBS), 49-50
Polycarbonate (PC), 174, 320
Polydispersity index (PDI), 77
Poly-D-lactic acid (PDLA), 47-48
Polyester, additives for, 75t
Polyethylene (PE), 3, 15, 17, 205-206,
253, 282-283, 287
catalyst chemistry
380 INDEXchrome oxide-based catalysts, 28
single-site catalysts, 28-32
Ziegler-Natta, 27-28
gas-phase process, 25-26
history and basic characterization,
17-18
linear low density polyethylene, 25
low density polyethylene
autoclave reactor, 22-23
density, 19
free radical polymerization processes,
22
gel permeation chromatography,
20-22
LDPE homopolymer, 23, 23f
tube reactor, 23-24
low-pressure polymerization processes,
25
melt index, 18-19
transition metal catalyst polymerization
processes
slurry process, 27
solution process, 26
Polyethylene compatibility, 179
Polyethylene furanoate (PEF), 51-52
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/PETE),
4, 11-12, 52
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), 50-51
Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), 50
Polylactic acid (PLA), 47-49, 169-170,
180
PLA stereocomplex, 47-48
Polylactide. See Polylactic acid (PLA)
Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), 47-48
Polymer blending
compatibilizers, role of, 189
free energy of mixing, 180
immiscible blends, 179
melting, role of, 176-179, 190
miscibility, 179, 182
morphology, 173
in blown film, 192-195
phase inversion, 176, 192
physics, 179-192
single droplet breakup mechanisms, 183
solubility parameter, 181-182, 181t,
182t
specialty compounding devices, 178, 198
thermodynamics, 180-183
twin screw extruders, 178
Polymer blending, for packaging
applications, 173
blending processes, 174-179
melt blending, 176-179
pellet pre-mixing, 175-176
physics of, 179-192
reason to, 173-174
morphology development
in blown film, 192-195
in immiscible blends, 183-192
rheology of, 197-198
rigid particles and nanocomposites,
dispersion of, 195-197
thermodynamics, 180-183
Polymer blends
dispersion of rigid particles, 195-197
improving properties, 174
melt flow index, 197
reasons to, 173-174
rheology, 197-198
single screw extrusion, 174-175
single-screw extrusion, 176
Polymer deposition in vacuum, 248
Polymer elasticity, 193-194
Polymer films, 282-283
Polymer molecular weight, 35-36
Polymer sealability, 290-292
Polymer selection, 284-286
Polymer thermal and sealing properties,
290t
Polymer viscosity, 117
Polymerization free radical, 22
Polymerization process, 4
gas phase, 25-26
slurry, 27
solution, 26
Polymethylene, 3
Polyolefin elastomers (POEs), 31
Polyolefin plastomer (POP), 31, 282
Polyolefins (PO), 54, 58-60
additives for, 74t
Polyphenylene oxide, 179
Polypropylene (PP), 49, 210
atactic, 40
copolymers, 43
gas phase polymerization, 39
isotactic, 40-42
liquid propylene polymerization, 37-38
managerial overview, 35-44
metallocene catalyzed polymerization,
39-40
molecular weight characterization,
35-36
and polyethylene, 58-60
processing, 43
semicrystalline structure, 41f
slurry process polymerization, 37
solution polymerization, 39
syndiotactic, 42-43
tacticity, characterizing, 36
usage, challenges of, 43-44
Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polypropylene,
39
Polyvinyl alcohol, 182t
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 61-62, 80-81,
283
Pom-Pom polymer model, 89
Porosity, 210-211
Position control, 260
Postmetallocene, 4
Postmetallocene catalysts, 4
Poultry/fish packaging, 297-299
Power law, 79
Power law fluid, 106-107
Power-law index, 107-108, 112-113
Power-law model, 81
PP (polypropylene), 3
Precision curtain coaters, 221
Premetered coating, 209, 219, 221
curtain coaters, 221
extrusion coaters, 219
precision curtain coaters, 221
slide coaters, 220
slot die coaters, 218
standard curtain coaters, 221
Primal meat packaging (shrink), 296
Primary effect, 55
Process
gas phase, 39
liquid, 37-38
slurry, 37
solution, 39
Process engineering, 129
essential of, 129
statistical tools
design of experiments (DOEs), 131
histogram, 130
multivariate statistical process
control, 132-135
scatter diagram, 130
univariate control charts, 132
time and money, saving, 135-136
tools of, 129-135
Processed meat packaging, 297
Processing aids, 90
Profile, 8
PS (polystyrene), 3, 9
Pseudo-plastic behavior, 79
Pseudoplastic material, 105
PTT Chemical, 50
PTTMCC Biochem (PTTMCC), 50
PVdC (polyvinylidene chloride), 3, 10,
282
R
Rabinowitsch correction, 81, 95, 106
Radio frequency identification (RFID),
242
Radio frequency interference (RFI), 242
Rayon, 3
Reactors
autoclave, 22-23
tube, 23-24
Reclaim, 9, 136
Rectangular manifolds, 113, 116
Recycled plastics, regulatory aspects of,
333-344
chemical contaminants, exposure to,
336-337
INDEX 381Recycled plastics, regulatory aspects of
(Continued)
effective barrier, use of, 341-342
elimination of data recommendations
for 3° recycling processes for PET
and PEN, 342
plastic containers from nonfood-contact
applications as feedstock, 339-341
recycling processes, 335-336
chemical reprocessing, 336
physical reprocessing, 335-336
preconsumer scrap, 335
surrogate contaminant testing,
337-339, 343-344
choice of surrogates, 338
contamination of the plastic,
338-339
Registration (position control), 260
Regulatory status, 56
Relaxation, 86-87
Reptation, 89
Residence time, 124, 127
Retortable pouches, 304
Reverdia, 50
Reverse gravure coating, 222
Reverse roll coaters, 212, 214
Rheological problems, in coextrusion,
91-92
Rheology, 77
Rheometers, 94-95
Ribbing, 213-214
Rigid particles and nanocomposites,
dispersion of, 195-197
Ritchie, C.G., 4
Rollers, 258-259
Rotary pallet stretch cling wrapper, 305f
Rotating die systems, 124
Rotational rheometers, 94
Rotational viscometers, 82-83
S
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 50
Salty snack packaging, 301
Samsung Fine Chemicals, 51
Saxton mixer, 177-178
Scatter diagram, 130
Screw design, 119, 194
Seal bar pressure, 292
Sealability, 285
Sealant layer, 12
Sealing, 12
Seashore, 214
Secondary effect, 56
Secondary flow, 116f
Security applications, 242-243
Security packaging, 242
Self-metered coating methods, 209
free meniscus mode, 209
free meniscus plus film splitting, 209
Self-metered methods
dip coaters, 212-213
forward roll coaters, 213-214
kiss coaters, 213
meniscus or bead-roll coaters, 213
reverse roll coaters, 214
Semi-crystalline, 19
Sequential orientation, 157-158
Service life, 56-58
Seven-layer configuration, 316f
Seven-layer multichannel die, in
ABCDCBA configuration, 313
Sharkskin, 90
Shear rate, 78-79, 81, 90, 106
Shear stress, 78-79, 81, 85, 105, 107,
116
Shear thinning, 79
Shear viscosity, 104, 106
Shrink film applications, 171, 171f
Side feed, 125
Simon, Eduard, 4
Single screw extrusion - polymer blends,
191
Single site catalysts (SSC), 28-32
Single-screw extruder, 176
Single-sided drying, 227
Sinn, Hansjo¨rg, 4
Size exclusion chromatography, 36
Slide coaters, 220
operating parameters for, 221
Slip, 83
Slip additives, 66-68
Slipped core winding, 270, 270f
Slitter rewinder, 269-270
time cycle, 271f
Slitting, 262, 264
Slot die coaters, 218
operating parameters for, 219
Slot die coating, 205, 212
Slurry, 27
Small electron beam gun, schematic of,
244f
Smectic/mesomorphic crystallinity, 42
Snack food packaging, 302t
Sodium, ionomers of, 24-25, 25f
Solegear Bioplastic, 49
Solubility parameter, 181, 182t
Solution, 26
Solution preparation, 206
Solvent coating, 224-225
Solvents, 224-225
Sorption of surrogate contaminants into
plastic, 343-344
Spiral mandrel, 124-126
Stabilizers, 53, 55
antioxidants, 56-63
polyamide, 62-63
polyolefins, 58-60
polyvinylchloride, 61-62
UV stabilizers, 63-65
Stacked die system, 125-127
Standard curtain coaters, 221
operating parameters for, 221
Starch, 47
Starring, 275-276, 276f
Statistical techniques, 129-130
Stiffness, 3, 9, 211
Storage modulus, 87
Strain, 77
Stress, 77
Stress relaxation, 86-87
Stretch cling pallet wrap, 306t
Stretch wrap, 305-306
Stretching, 153-156
Styrol, 4
Styrol oxide. See Styroloxyd
Styroloxyd, 4
Subbing layers, 212
Substrate, role of, 210-212
closed structures, 210
embossed plastic substrates, 211
foamed plastics, 210
open porous structure, 210
porosity, 210-211
stiffness, 211
technical importance for, 210
thickness, 210-211
wettability, 211
Succinic acid, 49
Succinity, 50
Surface area, 124-125, 127
Surface inspection system, 230-231
advantages, 230
Surface mattness, 90
Surface treatment
corona, 245
flame, 245
plasma, 245, 247-248
Surface winder, 267-268
Surging, 133-134
Surrogate contaminant testing, 337-339
choice of surrogates, 338
contamination of the plastic, 338-339
Sustainability, of multilayer oriented
films, 317-318
Swell ratio, 86
Syndiotactic polymer, 35
Syndiotactic polypropylene, 42-43
T
Tacticity, 36
Taghleef Industries, 49
Tamper evident labels, 242-243
Tear drop manifolds, 112
Temperature control, 261-262
Tensile properties, 152
Tension control, 259-260, 271
Terylene, 4
Thermal degradation, 60-61
382 INDEXThermodynamics of polymer blends,
180-183
Thermoform/fill/seal packaging, 294
Thermo-oxidation, 62
Thin film coating, nucleation and growth
of, 247f
Tie chain molecules, 32-33
Tie resin, 12-13
Time-temperature superposition, 94
Title 21 CFR 179
Subpart B: Radiation and Radiation,
327-331
Subpart C: Packaging Materials for
Irradiated Foods Sources,
331-332
Toluene, 338
Tools, 129-135
Torque, 272, 272f
Torque rheometers, 94
Tortuous path, 248
Toyota, 93
Traction, concept of, 258-259
Traditional quality control systems,
229-230
disadvantages, 230
Transmission, 288
Transparent barrier coatings, 239, 244, 252
Transverse direction orienter (TDO),
154-157
Transverse direction (TD), 150, 151f,
194-195
Transverse-longitudinal (TD/MD) process,
164-165
Trash bags, 306, 307t
Trouton ratio, 84
T-slot die, 110-111
Tube reactor, 23-24
Tubing and Sheathing, 8
Turret winder, 268
Twin-screw extruders, 177-178
Twin-screw extrusion-polymer blends,
178
Two-sided drying, 227
U
Uniformity index (UI), 111
Univariate control charts, 132
US Plastic Film Market, 7-8
UV stabilizers, 65
V
Vacuum, 218-219
Vacuum deposited coating, 235
Vacuum metallizing, for flexible
packaging, 235
barrier coatings, 237-239
gas barrier, 237-239
light barrier, 237
oxygen barrier, 237
water vapor barrier, 237
decorative coatings, 235-237
functional coatings, 239-242
metallization, basics of, 243-249
pattern metallization, 249-250
security applications, 242
trends, 250-253
Variable barrier energy transfer screw,
178
Variable geometry feed block, 103
Velocity profile, 107
Vendors, 7-8
Vertical form-fill-seal (VFFS), 294
Vinyl acetate (VA), 24
Viscoelastic, 88-89
Viscoelastic models, 89
Viscosity, 78-81, 104, 106
of polymer blends, 83
Viscosity ratio, 193
Volume factor, 222-223
von Hofmann, August Wilhelm, 4
von Pechmann, Hans, 3
W
Wall slip, 83, 95
Water- and solvent-based coating
technology, 205
coating applicators
classification of, 208-210
coatabilty limits, 212
coating methods, description of,
212-224
substrate, role of, 210-212
coating method selection, 225-227
coating structures, 205-206
coating uniformity, 205
drying and solidification, 227-234
constant rate and falling rate drying,
228-229
pollution considerations in drying,
228-229
hot melt coaters, 225
solvent, effect of, 224-225
web coating machine hardware and
functions, 206-208
Waves, 220-221
Web, 207
Web bagginess, 275
Web breaks, 259, 266-267, 270-271
Web coating machine hardware and
functions, 206-208
Web handling
common wound roll defects, 274-277
essentials, 257-258
guiding and path control, 262
nip control, 260-261
rollers, 258-259
slitting and converting processes, 264
temperature control, 261-262
tension control, 259-260
theory applied, 271-274
and winding, 264-265
classes and arrangements, 267-271
tightness and TNT’s, 265-267
wrinkles and spreading, 262-263
Web Handling Research Center (WHRC),
257
Web transport system, 220
Weight average molecular weight (MW),
77
Weissenberg effect, 85-87, 85f
Weld line, 125-126
WELEX feedblock design, 109-110
Wettability, 207, 211
Whinfield, John Rex, 4
Winding, 264-265
classes and arrangements, 267-271
tightness and TNT’s, 265-267
Winding defects, 271, 277
Wound roll defects, 274-277
Wrinkles and spreading, 262-263
Wrinkling, 274
X
X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques,
40-41
Y
Yasui Seiki CAD laboratory coater,
208f
Z
Ziegler, Carl, 17-18
Ziegler, Karl, 4
Ziegler-Natta catalyst, 25, 27-28
Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polypropylene,
39
Zig-zag instability, 92
Zinc, ionomers of, 24-25


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