كتاب Advanced Energy Materials
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Advanced Energy Materials

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عدد المساهمات : 15017
التقييم : 24795
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 30
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Advanced Energy Materials    الخميس 10 يناير 2019, 10:39 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Advanced Energy Materials
من سلسلة علم المواد المتقدمة
Advanced Material Series
Ashutosh Tiwari and Sergiy Valyukh  


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :


Contents
Preface xv
1 Non-imaging Focusing Heliostat 1
Kok-Keong Chong
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The Principle of Non-imaging Focusing
Heliostat (NIFH) 3
1.2.1 Primary Tracking (Global Movement for
Heliostat Frame) 3
1.2.2 Secondary Tracking (Local Movement
for Slave Mirrors) 9
1.3 Residual Aberration 10
1.3.1 Methodology 12
1.3.2 Optical Analysis of Residual Aberration 19
1.4 Optimization of Flux Distribution Pattern
for Wide Range of Incident Angle 29
1.5 First Prototype of Non-imaging Focusing
Heliostat (NIFH) 35
1.5.1 Heliostat Structure 36
1.5.2 Heliostat Arm 38
1.5.3 Pedestal 39
1.5.4 Mirror and Unit Frame 40
1.5.5 Hardware and Software Control System 40
1.5.6 Optical Alignment of Prototype Heliostat 41
1.5.7 High Temperature Solar Furnace System 46
1.6 Second Prototype of Non-imaging Focusing
Heliostat (NIFH) 52
1.6.1 Introduction 52
1.6.2 Mechanical Design and Control System
of Second Prototype 53vi Contents
1.6.3 High Temperature Potato Skin
Vaporization Experiment 56
1.7 Conclusion 64
Acknowledgement 65
References 65
2 State-of-the-Art of Nanostructures in Solar
Energy Research 69
Suresh Sagadevan
2.1 Introduction 70
2.2 Motivations for Solar Energy 71
2.2.1 Importance of Solar Energy 71
2.2.2 Solar Energy and Its Economy 74
2.2.3 Technologies Based on Solar Energy 75
2.2.4 Photovoltaic Systems 76
2.3 Nanostructures and Different Synthesis Techniques 77
2.3.1 Classification of Nanomaterials 78
2.3.2 Synthesis and Processing of Nanomaterials 79
2.4 Nanomaterials for Solar Cells Applications 81
2.4.1 CdTe, CdSe and CdS Thin-Film PV Devices 82
2.4.2 Nanoparticles/Quantum Dot Solar Cells
and PV Devices 82
2.4.3 Iron Disulfide Pyrite, CuInS2 and Cu2ZnSnS4 84
2.4.4 Organic Solar Cells and Nanowire Solar Cells 85
2.4.5 Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells 86
2.5 Advanced Nanostructures for Technological
Applications 87
2.5.1 Nanocones Used as Inexpensive Solar Cells 88
2.5.2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles towards PV
Applications 89
2.5.3 Silicon PV Devices 90
2.5.4 III-V Semiconductors 91
2.6 Theory and Future Trends in Solar Cells 92
2.6.1 Theoretical Formulation of the Solar Cell 93
2.6.2 The Third Generation Solar Cells 96
2.7 Conclusion 97
References 97Contents vii
3 Metal Oxide Semiconductors and Their Nanocomposites
Application towards Photovoltaic and Photocatalytic 105
Sadia Ameen, M. Shaheer Akhtar, Hyung-Kee Seo
and Hyung Shik Shin
3.1 Introduction 106
3.2 Metal Oxide Nanostructures for Photovoltaic
Applications 108
3.3 TiO
2Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites for the
Application of DSSC and Heterostructure Devices 109
3.3.1 Fabrication of DSSCs with TiO
2 Nanorods
(NRs) Based Photoanode 109
3.3.2 Fabrication of DSSCs with TiO
2Nanocomposite
Based Photoanode 116
3.3.3 TiO
2 Nanocomposite for the Heterostructure
Devices 118
3.4 ZnO Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites
for the Application of DSSC and
Heterostructure Devices 121
3.4.1 Fabrication of DSSCs with ZnO Nanotubes
(NTs) Based Photoanode 121
3.4.2 Fabrication of DSSCs with Nanospikes
Decorated ZnO Sheets Based Photoanode 125
3.4.3 Fabrication of DSSCs with ZnO Nanorods
(NRs) and Nanoballs (NBs) Nanomaterial
Based Photoanode 129
3.4.4 Fabrication of DSSCs with Spindle Shaped
Sn-Doped ZnO Nanostructures Based
Photoanode 132
3.4.5 Fabrication of DSSCs with Vertically Aligned
ZnO Nanorods (NRs) and Graphene Oxide
Nanocomposite Based Photoanode 135
3.4.6 ZnO Nanocomposite for the Heterostructures
Devices 139
3.4.7 Fabrication of Heterostructure Device
with Doped ZnO Nanocomposite 141
3.8 Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Nanocomposites
for Photocatalytic Application 144
3.8.1 ZnO Flower Nanostructures for Photocatalytic
Degradation of Crystal Violet (Cv)Dye 144
3.8.2 Advanced ZnO-Graphene Oxide Nanohybrid
for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Crystal
Violet (Cv)Dye 147viii Contents
3.8.3 Effective Nanocomposite of Polyaniline
(PANI) and ZnO for the Photocatalytic
Degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) Dye 150
3.8.4 Novel Poly(1-naphthylamine)/Zinc Oxide
Nanocomposite for the Photocatalytic
Degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) Dye 152
3.8.5 Nanocomposites of Poly(1-naphthylamine)/
SiO
2 and Poly(1-Naphthylamine)/TiO2 for the
Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue
(MB) Dye 155
3.9 Conclusions 157
3.10 Future Directions 158
References 159
4 Superionic Solids in Energy Device Applications 167
Angesh Chandra and Archana Chandra
4.1 Introduction 167
4.2 Classification of Superionic Solids 170
4.3 Ion Conduction in Superionic Solids 171
4.4 Important Models 173
4.4.1 Models for Crystalline/Polycrystalline
Superionic Solids 173
4.4.2 Models for Glassy Superionic Solids 178
4.4.3 Models for Composite Superionic Solids 186
4.4.4 Models for Polymeric Superionic Solids 194
4.5 Applications 199
4.5.1 Solid-State Batteries 200
4.5.2 Fuel Cells 201
4.5.3 Super Capacitors 202
4.6 Conclusion 203
References 204
5 Polymer Nanocomposites: New Advanced Dielectric
Materials for Energy Storage Applications 207
Vijay Kumar Thakur and Michael R. Kessler
5.1 Introduction 208
5.2 Dielectric Mechanism 209
5.2.1 Dielectric Permittivity, Loss and Breakdown 209
5.2.2 Polarization 212Contents ix
5.3 Dielectric Materials 213
5.4 Demand for New Materials: Polymer Composites 214
5.5 Polymer Nanocomposites: Concept and Electrical
Properties 216
5.5.1 Polymer Nanocomposites for Dielectric
Applications 217
5.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 245
References 247
6 Solid Electrolytes: Principles and Applications 259
S.W. Anwane
6.1 Introduction 260
6.2 Ionic Solids 262
6.2.1 Bonds in Ionic Solids 262
6.2.2 Structure of Ionic Solids 264
6.3 Classification of Solid Electrolytes 265
6.4 Criteria for High Ionic Conductivity and Mobility 266
6.5 Electrical Characterization of Solid Electrolyte 267
6.5.1 DC Polarization 267
6.5.2 Impedance Spectroscopy 269
6.6 Ionic Conductivity and Temperature 271
6.7 Concentration-Dependent Conductivity 274
6.8 Ionic Conductivity in Composite SE 275
6.9 Thermodynamics of Electrochemical System 278
6.10 Applications 280
6.10.1 Solid-State Batteries 280
6.10.2 Sensors 284
6.10.3 SO
2 Sensor Kinetics and Thermodynamics 286
6.12 Conclusion 291
References 291
7 Advanced Electronics: Looking beyond Silicon 295
Surender Duhan and Vijay Tomer
7.1 Introduction 296
7.1.1 Silicon Era 296
7.1.2 Moore’s Law 298
7.2 Limitations of Silicon-Based Technology 299
7.2.1 Speed, Density and Design Complexity 299
7.2.2 Power Consumption and Heat Dissipation 299
7.2.3 Cost Concern 300x Contents
7.3 Need for Carbon-Based Electronics Technology 300
7.4 Carbon Family 303
7.4.1 Carbon Nanotube 304
7.4.2 Graphene 307
7.5 Electronic Structure of Graphene and CNT 309
7.6 Synthesis of CNTs 311
7.6.1 Arc Discharge Method 311
7.6.2 Pyrolysis of Hydrocarbons 311
7.6.3 Laser Vaporization 312
7.6.4 Electrolysis 312
7.6.5 Solar Vaporization 312
7.7 Carbon Nanotube Devices 313
7.7.1 Nanotube-Based FET Transistors CNTFET 313
7.7.2 CNT Interconnect 314
7.7.3 Carbon Nanotube Sensor of Polar Molecules 315
7.7.4 Carbon Nanotube Crossbar Arrays for
Random Access Memory 316
7.8 Advantages of CNT-Based Devices 317
7.8.1 Ballistic Transport 317
7.8.2 Flexible Device 317
7.8.3 Low Power Dissipation 318
7.8.4 Low Cost 318
7.9 Issues with Carbon-Based Electronics 319
7.10 Conclusion 322
References 323
8 Ab-Initio Determination of Pressure-Dependent Electronic
and Optical Properties of Lead Sulfi de for Energy
Applications 327
Pooja B and G. Sharma
8.1 Introduction 327
8.2 Computational Details 328
8.3 Results and Discussion 329
8.3.1 Phase Transition and Structural Parameters 329
8.3.2 Pressure Dependent Electronic Properties 333
8.3.3 Pressure-Dependent Dielectric Constant 340
8.4 Conclusions 340
Acknowledgements 342
References 342Contents xi
9 Radiation Damage in GaN-Based Materials and Devices 345
S.J. Pearton, Richard Deist, Alexander Y. Polyakov,
Fan Ren, Lu Liu and Jihyun Kim
9.1 Introduction 346
9.2 Fundamental Studies of Radiation Defects in
GaN and Related Materials 347
9.2.1 Threshold Displacement Energy: Theory
and Experiment 347
9.2.2 Radiation Defects in GaN: Defects Levels,
Effects on Charge Carriers Concentration,
Mobility, Lifetime of Charge Carriers,
Thermal Stability of Defects 349
9.3 Radiation Effects in Other III-Nitrides 366
9.4 Radiation Effects in GaN Schottky Diodes, in
AlGaN/GaN and GaN/InGaN Heterojunctions
and Quantum Wells 370
9.5 Radiation Effects in GaN-Based Devices 374
9.6 Prospects of Radiation Technology for GaN 376
9.7 Summary and Conclusions 379
Acknowledgments 380
References 380
10 Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals: Smart Materials
for Future Displays 389
Manoj Bhushan Pandey, Roman Dabrowski and
Ravindra Dhar
10.1 Introduction 390
10.1.1 Molecular Packing in Liquid Crystalline
Phases 391
10.2 Theories of Antiferroelectricity in Liquid Crystals 398
10.3 Molecular Structure Design/Synthesis of AFLC
Materials 402
10.4 Macroscopic Characterization and Physical
Properties of AFLCs 404
10.4.1 Experimental Techniques 404
10.4.2 Dielectric Parameters of AFLCs 410
10.4.3 Switching and Electro-Optic Parameters 419
10.5 Conclusion and Future Scope 425
Acknowledgements 426
References 426xii Contents
11 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Membrane for Fuel
Cell Applications 433
Tungabidya Maharana, Alekha Kumar Sutar,
Nibedita Nath, Anita Routaray, Yuvraj Singh Negi
and Bikash Mohanty
11.1 Introduction 434
11.1.1 What is Fuel Cell? 436
11.2 PEEK Overview 442
11.2.1 Applications of PEEK 443
11.2.2 Why PEEK is Used as Fuel Cell Membrane 445
11.3 PEEK as Fuel Cell Membrane 446
11.4 Modified PEEK as Fuel Cell Membrane 452
11.4.1 Sulphonated PEEK as Fuel Cell Membrane 453
11.5 Evaluation of Cell Performance 459
11.6 Market Size 459
11.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects 460
Acknowledgement 461
References 461
12 Vanadate Phosphors for Energy Efficient Lighting 465
K. N. Shinde and Roshani Singh
12.1 Introduction 465
12.2 Some Well-Known Vanadate Phosphors 466
12.3 Our Approach 469
12.4 Experimental Details 469
12.5 Results and Discussion of
M
3–3x/2(VO4)2:xEu (0.01 ? x ? 0.09 for M = Ca
and 0 ? x ? 0.3 for M = Sr,Ba) Phosphors 470
12.5.1 X-ray Diffraction Pattern of
M
3–3x/2(VO4)2:xEu Phosphor 470
12.5.2 Surface Morphology of
M
3–3x/2(VO4)2:xEu Phosphor 474
12.5.3 Photoluminescence Properties of
M
3–3x/2(VO4)2: Phosphor 476
12.6 Effect of Annealing Temperature on
M
3–3x/2(VO4)2:xEu (x = 0.05 for M = Ca, x = 0.1 for
M = Sr and x = 0.3 for M = Ba) Phosphors 484
12.6.1 X-ray Diffraction Pattern of
M
3–3x/2(VO4)2:xEu phosphor 484Contents xiii
12.6.2 Surface Morphology of M3–3x/2(VO4)2:xEu
phosphor 486
12.6.3 Photoluminescence Properties of
M
3–3x/2(VO4)2:xEu phosphor 488
12.7 Conclusions 494
References 496
13 Molecular Computation on Functionalized
Solid Substrates 499
Prakash Chandra Mondal
13.1 Introduction 500
13.2 Molecular Logic Gate on 3D Substrates 504
13.3 Molecular Logic Gates and Circuits on
2D Substrates 507
13.3.1 Monolayer-Based System 507
13.4 Combinatorial and Sequential Logic Gates and
Circuits using Os-polypyridyl Complex
on SiO
×
Substrates 514
13.5 Multiple Redox States and Logic Devices 520
13.6 Concluding Remarks 523
Acknowledgements 523
References 525
14 Ionic Liquid Stabilized Metal NPs and Their Role
as Potent Catalyst 529
Kamlesh Kumari, Prashant Singh and Gopal K.Mehrotra
14.1 Introduction 530
14.2 Applications of Metal Nanoparticles 531
14.3 Shape of Particles 532
14.4 Aggregation of Particles 533
14.5 Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles 533
14.6 Stability against Oxidation 534
14.7 Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid 535
14.8 Applications of Metal NPs as Potent Catalyst
in Organic Synthesis 540
14.8 Conclusion 544
References 544xiv Contents
15 There’s Plenty of Room in the Field of Zeolite-Y
Enslaved Nanohybrid Materials as Eco-Friendly
Catalysts: Selected Catalytic Reactions 555
C.K. Modi and Parthiv M. Trivedi
15.1 Introduction 556
15.2 Types of Zeolites 557
15.3 Methodology 559
15.4 Characterization Techniques 561
15.5 Exploration of Zeolite-Y Enslaved Nanohybrid
Materials 562
15.5.1 Catalytic Liquid-Phase Hydroxylation
of Phenol 565
15.5.2 Catalytic Liquid-Phase Oxidation of
Cyclohexane 571
15.6 Conclusions 576
References 579
Index 58


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