كتاب Basic Dental Materials
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 كتاب Basic Dental Materials

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عدد المساهمات : 15087
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 30
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Basic Dental Materials   الثلاثاء 11 ديسمبر 2018, 12:07 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Basic Dental Materials 4th Edition
JOHN J MANAPPALLIL MDS  


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :


Undetailed Contents
Section 1: Structure and
Properties of Dental Materials
1. Overview of Dentistry and
Dental Materials 3
2. Structure and Properties of
Dental Materials 9
3. Structure and Properties of
Metals and Alloys 39
4. Electrochemical Properties of
Materials 56
5. Biological Properties of Dental
Materials 61
Section 2: Direct Restorative
Materials
6. Introduction to Restorations,
Luting and Pulp Therapy 73
7. Cavity Liners and Varnish 80
8. Dental Cements 84
9. Dental Amalgam 128
10. Direct Filling Gold 156
11. Resin-based Composites and
Bonding Agents 167
Section 3: Endodontic Materials
12. Endodontic Medicaments
and Irrigants 207
13. Endodontic Sealers and
Obturating Materials 216
Section 4: Impression Materials
14. Rigid Impression Materials—
Impression Compound and
ZOE Paste 243
15. Elastic Impression Materials—
Agar and Alginate 258
16. Elastomeric Impression Materials 277
Section 5: Dental Laboratory—
Materials and Processes
17. Model, Cast and Die Materials 301
18. Gypsum Products 310
19. Waxes in Dentistry 327
20. Dental Investments and Refractory
Materials 345
21. Dental Casting and Metal Fabrication
Procedures 358
22. Abrasion and Polishing 378
23. Metal Joining and Dental Lasers 392
24. Additive Manufacturing in Dentistry 407
Section 6: Alloys in Dentistry
25. Dental Casting Alloys 421
26. Dental Implant Materials 452
27. Wrought Metals and Alloys 466
Section 7: Indirect Restorative
and Prosthetic Materials
28. Dental Ceramics 479
29. Denture Resins and Polymers 529
30. Maxillofacial Prosthetic Materials 572
Appendices 579
Further Reading 589
Index 595Section 1: Structure and
Properties of Dental Materials
1. Overview of Dentistry and
Dental Materials 3
Dental Treatment 3
Maintenance Phase 5
The Dental Specialties 5
The Dental Laboratory 6
Classifcation of Dental Materials 6
International Standards Organization (ISO) 7
US Standards for Dental Materials 8
2. Structure and Properties of
Dental Materials 9
Structure of Matter 9
Interatomic Bonds 10
Crystal Structure 11
Noncrystalline Structure 12
Stress and Strain 12
Di?usion 12
Surface Tension 12
Wetting 13
Properties of Dental Materials 14
Mechanical Properties 14
Stress 14
Strain 15
Complex Stresses 15
Poisson’s Ratio 16
Proportional Limit 16
Elastic Limit 16
Yield Strength 16
Modulus of Elasticity 17
Flexibility 17
Resilience 17
Impact 18
Impact Strength 18
Permanent Deformation 19
Strength 19
Weibull Statistics 21
Stress Concentration 22
Fatigue 22
Toughness 23
Brittleness 23
Ductility 23
Malleability 23
Hardness 24
Abrasion Resistance 25
Contents in Detail
Rheology 25
Terms and Properties in Rheology 26
Physical Properties 27
Forms of Matter 27
Melting Point 28
Boiling Point 28
Density 28
Glass Transition Temperature (TG) 28
Solubility 29
Thermal Properties 29
Thermal Conductivity 29
Thermal Di?usivity 30
Thermal Expansion 30
Coefcient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) 30
Optical Properties and Color 31
Dimensions of Color 31
Measurement of Color 32
Metamerism 32
Tooth Esthetics 32
Transparence, Translucence, and Opacity 32
Fluorescence 33
Clinical Considerations 34
Radiological Properties 34
Magnetic Properties of Matter 36
Classifcation 36
Terms 36
Types 37
Uses 37
3. Structure and Properties of
Metals and Alloys 39
Uses in Dentistry 39
Metallurgy 42
Periodic Table 42
General Properties of Metals 42
Valence Electron 42
Metallic Bonding 43
Alloys 43
Phase 44
Solid Solutions 44
Dental Applications 46
Solidifcation and Microstructure of Metals and
Alloys 46
Time-temperature Graph 48
Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 49
Eutectic Alloys 50
Peritectic Alloys 51
Solid State Reactions 52
Classifcation of Alloys 54
Functions of Alloying Elements 54xvi BASIC DENTAL MATERIALS
4. Electrochemical Properties of
Materials 56
Defnitions 56
Electromotive Force Series (EMF) 57
Classifcation of Corrosion 58
Types of Electrolytic Corrosion 58
Factors A?ecting Corrosion of Restorations in the
Mouth 60
Protection against Corrosion 60
5. Biological Properties of Dental
Materials 61
Biomaterials 61
Biological Requirements of Dental Materials 61
Classifcation of Materials from a Biological
Perspective 62
Biohazards Related to the Dental Materials 62
Biological Considerations of Restoration Design 63
Physical Factors A?ecting Pulp Health 64
Classifcation of Adverse Reactions from Dental
Materials 65
Toxicity Evaluation 66
Therapeutic E?ects of Dental Materials 67
Osseointegration 67
E?ect of Pressure on Tissues 67
E?ect of Pontic Design 68
E?ect of Material – Porcelain versus Resin 68
Infection Control 69
Section 2: Direct Restorative
Materials
6. Introduction to Restorations,
Luting and Pulp Therapy 73
Restorations 73
Temporary Restorations 73
Intermediate Restorations 74
Requirements of a Temporary Filling Material 74
Permanent 74
Direct and Indirect Restorations 75
Esthetic and Nonesthetic 75
Luting 75
Types 75
General Requirements of Luting Materials 76
Pulp Capping 76
Criteria for Pulp Capping 76
Types of Pulp Capping 77
Bases 77
Types 78
Properties 78
Clinical Considerations 79
Liners and Varnish 79
7. Cavity Liners and Varnish 80
Cavity Liners 80
Supplied as 80
Composition 80
Properties 80
Manipulation 81
Other Liners 81
Cavity Varnish 81
Application 81
Supplied as 81
Composition 81
Properties 81
Manipulation 82
Precautions 82
Clinical Considerations 82
Contraindications 82
Fluoride Varnishes 82
Composition 83
Manipulation 83
Contraindications 83
8. Dental Cements 84
Classifcation 84
General Structure 85
Uses of Cements 85
General Properties of Cements 86
Silicate Cements 88
Zinc Phosphate Cement 88
Applications 89
Classifcation 89
Available as 89
Composition 89
Manufacture 90
Setting Reaction 90
Properties 91
Manipulation 92
Advantages and Disadvantages of Zinc
Phosphate 93
Copper Cements 93
Applications 94
Classifcation 94
Composition 94
Properties 94
Manipulation 94
Zinc Polycarboxylate Cement 94
Applications 95
Available as 95
Composition 95
Manufacture 96
Setting Reaction 96
Properties 96
Manipulation 97
Advantages and Disadvantages 98
Zinc Oxide Eugenol Cement 98
Classifcation (ISO 3107:2011) 99Contents xvii
Available as 99
Composition 100
Setting Reaction 100
General Properties of Zinc Oxide Eugenol
Cements 101
Manipulation 102
Modifed Zinc Oxide Eugenol Cements 102
Eba-alumina Modifed Cements 102
Polymer Reinforced Zinc Oxide Eugenol
Cement 104
Other Zinc Oxide Eugenol Products 105
Zinc Oxide/Zinc Sulphate Cements 105
Glass Ionomer Cements 106
Application 107
Classifcation 107
Available as 107
Composition 108
Manufacture 109
Setting Reaction 109
Properties 110
Manipulation 111
Packable Glass Ionomer for Posterior
Restorations 114
Fissure Sealing (Special Applications) 115
Modifed Glass Ionomers 115
Metal Modifed Glass Ionomer Cement 115
Types 115
Uses 115
Properties 116
Resin-modifed Glass Ionomer 116
Classifcation 116
Supplied as 117
Composition 117
Setting Reaction 118
Manipulation 118
Properties 118
Calcium Hydroxide Cement 118
Applications 119
Available as 119
Composition 119
Setting Reaction 120
Properties 120
Manipulation 120
Setting Time 120
Light Activated Calcium Hydroxide Cement 121
Calcium Hydroxide Root Canal Sealing Pastes 121
Resin Cements 121
Applications 122
Classifcation 122
Supplied as 122
Composition 123
Polymerization 123
Properties 123
Manipulation and Technical Considerations 123
Compomer (Polyacid-modifed Composite
Resins) 124
Applications 124
Supplied as 125
Composition 125
Setting Reaction 125
Bonding and Curing 126
Manipulation 126
Properties 126
Advantages and Disadvantages 127
9. Dental Amalgam 128
Indications 129
Contraindications 129
Classifcation of Amalgam Alloys 130
Manufacture of Alloy Powder 130
Supplied as 131
Composition 132
Comparison of Lathe Cut and Spherical Alloys 133
Low Copper Alloys 133
Composition 133
Available as 134
Setting Reaction 134
High Copper Alloys 135
Admixed Alloy Powder 135
Types 135
Composition 135
Setting Reaction 136
Single Composition Alloys 137
Composition 137
Setting Reaction 137
Advantages/Disadvantages of Spherical Highcopper Amalgam 137
Properties of Set Amalgam 138
Technical Considerations 143
Mulling 148
Condensation 148
Shaping and Finishing 150
Amalgam Bonding 151
Mercury Toxicity 152
Amalgam Disposal 153
Advantages and Disadvantages of Amalgam
Restorations 154
10. Direct Filling Gold 156
Applications 157
Contraindications 157
Types 157
Composition and Purity 158
Gold Foil 158
Manufacture 158
Supplied as 158
Electrolytic Precipitate 159
Available as 160
Mat Gold 160
Mat Foil 160
Alloyed Electrolytic Precipitates 160
Powdered Gold 160
Manufacture 160
Available as 160xviii BASIC DENTAL MATERIALS
Manipulation of Direct Filling Gold 161
Properties of Compacted Gold 164
Advantages and Disadvantages 165
11. Resin-based Composites and
Bonding Agents 167
Composite Resins 168
Uses 168
Types 169
Restorative Composite Resins 171
Supplied as 171
Indications for Various Composite Resins 172
Composition and Structure 172
Polymerization (Setting) Mechanisms 177
Microflled Composite 181
Composition 181
Clinical Considerations 181
Hybrid Composite Resins 182
Nano and Nanohybrid Composite Resins 182
Properties of Composite Resins 182
Problems in the Use of Composites for Posterior
Restorations 186
Manipulation and Placement of Composite
Resins 187
Techniques of Insertion 188
Finishing and Polishing 189
Bonding 189
Acid Etch Technique 190
Enamel Bond Agents 192
Enamel/Dentin Bond Systems 192
Repair of Composites 196
Sandwich Technique 197
Specialized Composite Resins 197
Advantages and Disadvantages of Restorative
Composite Resins 203
Section 3: Endodontic Materials
12. Endodontic Medicaments
and Irrigants 207
Root Canal Irrigants 208
Chemically Active Irrigants 209
Intracanal Medicaments 211
Phenol and Related Compounds 212
Antibiotics 213
Halogens 214
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 215
Calcium Hydroxide 215
Chlorhexidine (CHX) Gluconate 215
13. Endodontic Sealers and
Obturating Materials 216
Root Canal Obturating Materials 217
Silver Points 217
Gutta-percha 218
Paste-type Obturating Materials 224
Root Canal Sealers 225
Zinc Oxide-eugenol-based Sealers 226
Epoxy Resin-based Sealers 228
Calcium Hydroxide based Sealers 229
Glass Ionomer-based Sealers 231
Silicon-based Sealers 231
Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) 232
Endodontic Solvents 237
Section 4: Impression Materials
14. Rigid Impression Materials—
Impression Compound and
ZOE Paste 243
Advantages of Using a Cast or Model 243
Desirable Properties of an Impression Material 244
Classifcation of Impression Materials 244
Rigid Impression Materials 245
Impression Compound 245
Classifcation 245
Supplied as 245
Applications 246
Requirements of Impression Compound 246
Composition 247
Properties of Impression Compound 247
Manipulation 248
Removal of Impression from the Mouth 249
Disinfection 250
Pouring the Cast and Cast Separation 250
Advantages and Disadvantages 250
Zinc Oxide Eugenol Impression Paste 250
Classifcation 251
Available as 251
Composition 252
Setting Reaction 252
Microstructure 252
Setting Time 252
Properties 253
Manipulation 254
Impression Tray 254
Disinfection 255
Pouring the Impression 255
Advantages and Disadvantages 255
Other Zinc Oxide Pastes 255
15. Elastic Impression Materials—
Agar and Alginate 258
Hydrocolloids 259
Reversible Hydrocolloids—Agar 260
Classifcation Based on Viscosity
(ISO 21563:2013) 260
Uses 260
Supplied as 261
Composition 261Contents xix
Gelation or Setting of Agar 262
Manipulation 262
Impression Trays 263
Making the Impression 263
Working and Setting Time 263
Removal of Impression 263
Storage of Agar Impression 263
Separation from Cast 264
Properties of Agar Hydrocolloids 264
Laminate Technique (Agar–Alginate Combination
Technique) 265
Wet Field Technique 265
Cast Duplication 265
Impression Disinfection 266
Advantages and Disadvantages of Agar
Hydrocolloid 266
Irreversible Hydrocolloid—Alginate 267
Types 267
Supplied as 267
Applications 268
Composition 268
Setting Reaction 269
Properties of Alginate Hydrocolloid 269
Shelf Life and Storage 271
Manipulation 271
Mixing Time 272
Working Time 272
Gelation Time (Setting Time) 272
Tray Selection 272
Loading the Tray 273
Seating the Tray 273
Time of Removal and Test for Set 273
Removal of the Impression 274
Impression Disinfection 274
Storage of Alginate Impression 275
Construction of Cast 275
Advantages and Disadvantages of Alginate 276
16. Elastomeric Impression Materials 277
Chemistry and Structure of Elastomeric
Polymers 278
Types 279
Uses of Elastomeric Impression Materials 280
Supplied as 280
General Properties of Elastomeric Materials 280
Polysulfdes 282
Supplied as 282
Composition 282
Chemistry and Setting Reactions 282
Properties 283
Silicone Rubber Impression Materials 283
Types 284
Condensation Silicone 284
Supplied as 284
Composition 285
Chemistry and Setting Reaction 285
Properties 285
Addition Silicones (Polyvinyl Siloxane) 286
Supplied as 286
Composition 286
Chemistry and Setting Reaction 286
Properties 287
Polyether Rubber Impression Material 287
Available as 287
Composition 288
Chemistry and Setting Reaction 288
Properties 289
Manipulation of Elastomeric Impression
Materials 289
Impression Techniques 291
Removal of the Impression 294
Infection Control 294
Impression Errors 294
Specialized Materials 297
Section 5: Dental Laboratory—
Materials and Processes
17. Model, Cast and Die Materials 301
Types of Die Materials 302
Ideal Requirements of Die Materials 302
Alternate Die Materials 303
Improved Dental Stone or Die Stone 303
Advantages 303
Disadvantages 303
Electroformed/Electroplated Casts and
Dies 303
Advantages 304
Disadvantages 304
Electroforming 304
Components of an Electroplating Apparatus 304
Composition of the Electroplating Bath 305
Procedure 305
Polyurethane 306
Mode of Supply 306
Indications 306
Properties 306
Manipulation 306
Epoxy Resin Die Materials 307
Advantages 307
Disadvantages 307
Available as 307
Refractory Cast for Wax Patterns 307
Refractory Cast for Ceramics 308
Die Stone-investment Combination
(Divestment) 308
Divestment Phosphate or DVP 308
18. Gypsum Products 310
Applications 310
Classifcation 311xx BASIC DENTAL MATERIALS
Type 1 or Dental Plaster, Impression 311
Type 2 or Dental Plaster, Model, Mounting 312
Type 3 or Dental Stone, Model 312
Type 4 or Dental Stone, Die, High Strength, Low
Expansion 313
Type 5 or Dental Stone, Die, High Strength, High
Expansion 313
Manufacture of Gypsum Products 314
Setting Reaction 315
Theories of Setting 315
The Microstructure of Set Gypsum 316
Manipulation 317
Setting Time 318
Properties 321
Setting Expansion 321
Strength 322
Hardness and Abrasion Resistance 323
Flow 323
Reproduction of Detail 323
Specialized Gypsum Products 324
Care of Gypsum 325
Infection Control 326
Di?erences between Dental Plaster and Dental
Stone 326
19. Waxes in Dentistry 327
Components of Dental Waxes 327
Chemical Nature of Waxes 327
Classifcation of Dental Waxes 330
General Properties 330
Pattern Waxes 331
Inlay Casting Wax 332
RPD Casting Wax 336
Milling Wax 337
Baseplate Wax 337
Processing Waxes 339
Boxing Wax and Beading Wax 339
Utility Wax 340
Sticky Wax 340
Carding Wax 340
Shellac 341
Impression Waxes 342
Corrective Impression Wax 342
Bite Registration Wax 343
20. Dental Investments and Refractory
Materials 345
Requirements of an Investment Material 345
Classifcation of Refractory Materials in Dentistry
(ISO 15912:2006) 346
General Composition of Investments 346
Gypsum Bonded Investments 347
Classifcation 347
Uses 347
Supplied as 347
Composition 347
Manipulation 348
Setting Reaction 348
Setting Time 348
Properties of Gypsum Investments 348
Hygroscopic Thermal Inlay Casting Investment 351
Investments for Casting High Melting Alloys 351
Phosphate Bonded Investment 351
Uses 351
Classifcation 351
Supplied as 352
Composition 352
Setting Reaction 352
Manipulation 352
Properties 353
Specialized Refractory Materials 354
Silica Bonded Investments 356
Types 356
Manipulation 356
Brazing (Soldering) Investment 356
Uses 357
Types 357
Composition 357
Properties 357
Procedure 357
21. Dental Casting and Metal Fabrication
Procedures 358
Metal Restorations in Dentistry 358
Casting 360
Steps in Making a Small Cast Restoration 360
Tooth/Teeth Preparation 360
Die Preparation 360
Die Spacer 360
Wax Pattern 360
Sprue Former 361
Casting Ring Lining 361
Investing 362
Wax Elimination (Burnout) and Thermal
Expansion 362
Casting-process and Equipment 363
Casting Defects 366
Types of Casting Defects 366
Other Methods of Fabricating Restorations and
Prostheses 371
Capillary Casting Technique (Captek) 371
Mode of Supply 372
Capillary Casting 372
Overall Composition after Capillary Casting 373
Coping Thickness 373
Coping Microstructure 373
Technique 373
CAD/CAM Milling 373
Advantages of CAD/CAM 374
Copy Milling 374
Electroforming 374
Electrical Discharge Machining 375
Applications 375Contents xxi
Technique 375
Advantages 376
Disadvantages 376
Additive Manufacturing 376
Types of Metal in Additive Manufacturing
Technologies 377
Applications 377
Metals Available for 3D Printing 377
22. Abrasion and Polishing 378
Abrasion 378
Defned as 378
Types of Abrasion 379
Supplied as 379
Mechanism of Abrasive Action 380
Stress, Strain and Heat Production during
Abrasion 380
Rate of Abrasion 380
Classifcation 381
Types of Abrasives 381
Desirable Characteristics of an Abrasive 383
Grading of Abrasive and Polishing Agents 383
Binder 383
Diamond Burs 383
Polishing 384
Di?erence between Abrasion and Polishing 384
Nonabrasive Polishing 385
Technical Considerations (Procedure) 385
Dentifrices 387
Function 387
Available as 387
Classifcation of Dentifrices 387
Composition 388
Prophylactic Abrasives 390
Function 390
Prophyjet 390
Denture Cleansers 391
Brushing 391
Soaking 391
23. Metal Joining and Dental Lasers 392
Terms and Defnitions 392
Ideal Requirements of a Brazing Material (Dental
Solder) 393
Types of Solders or Brazing Materials 393
Applications of Soldering 394
Composition 394
Properties of Dental Brazing Materials 395
Fluxes 396
Anti?ux 397
Technical Considerations 397
Technique of Soldering 398
Pitted Solder Joints 399
Advantages and Disadvantages 399
Welding 400
Indications 400
Types 400
Resistance Spot Welding 400
Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding and Plasma
Arc Welding (PAW) 401
Procedure 401
Advantages and Disadvantages 401
Laser Welding 402
Commercial Names 404
Indications 404
Mechanism 405
Advantages of Laser Welding 405
Cast-joining 406
Radiographic Assessment of Joints 406
24. Additive Manufacturing in Dentistry 407
Applications 407
Fundamentals of 3D Printing 408
Classifcation of Additive Manufacturing (AM)
Technologies 409
Description of Some Additive Manufacturing (AM)
Technologies 410
3D Dental Printers 412
Support Structures for 3D Printed Objects 412
Raw Materials for 3D Printing 414
Post-manufacturing Processing 414
3D Printed Maxillofacial Prostheses 414
3D Printing Technology in Surgical Planning 415
Tissue Engineering 415
Bioink 416
Osteoink 417
Comparison of Additive and Subtractive
Manufacturing 418
Advantages of 3D Printing 418
Section 6: Alloys in Dentistry
25. Dental Casting Alloys 421
Terminology 421
History and Classifcation of Dental Casting
Alloys 422
Classifcation According to Use of Dental Casting
Alloys 425
General Requirements of Casting Alloys 425
Alloys for All Metal Restorations 426
Classifcation (ANSI/ADA Sp. No. 5) 426
Uses 426
Types 427
Gold Alloys (for All-metal Restorations) 427
Gold Content 427
Composition of Gold Alloys 428
Properties of Gold Alloys 429
Heat Treatment of Gold Alloys 431
Low Gold Alloys 431
Silver-palladium Alloys 432
Nickel-chrome and Cobalt-chromium
Alloys 433xxii BASIC DENTAL MATERIALS
Titanium and Titanium Alloys 433
Aluminum-bronze Alloy 433
Metal-ceramic Alloys 433
Evolution of Metal-ceramic Alloys 434
Requirements of Alloys for Porcelain Bonding 434
Uses of Metal-ceramic Alloys 434
Types (Classifcation) of Metal-ceramic Alloys 434
The High Noble (Gold-based) Metal-ceramic
Alloys 435
Gold-palladium-platinum Alloys 436
Gold-palladium-silver Alloys 437
Gold-palladium Alloys 438
Noble (Palladium-based) Metal-ceramic
Alloys 438
Common Features of Palladium-based (Noble)
Alloys 438
Palladium-silver Alloys 439
Palladium-copper Alloys 439
Palladium-cobalt Alloys 440
Palladium-gallium Alloys 440
Base Metal Alloys for Metal-ceramic
Restorations 440
Nickel-chromium Alloys 441
Titanium and Its Alloys for Metal-ceramic
Applications 443
Removable Denture Alloys 446
Cobalt-chromium Alloys 447
Technical Considerations for Casting Alloys 449
Advantages and Disadvantages of Base Metal
Alloys 451
Comparison of a Gold Alloy and a Base Metal
Alloy 451
26. Dental Implant Materials 452
Defnition 452
Types of Implants 453
Materials Used 454
Implant Parts 455
Implant Abutment Connection 458
Platform Switching 459
Biointegration and Osseointegration 459
Titanium Allergy 461
Zirconia Implants 461
Zirconia Anatomic Root-form Implants 461
Implant Surfaces and Coatings 462
27. Wrought Metals and Alloys 466
Manufacture of Wrought Alloys 466
Structure of Wrought Alloys 467
Annealing 467
Uses of Wrought Alloys 468
Orthodontic Wires 468
General Properties of Orthodontic Wires 469
Types 469
Wrought Gold Alloys 469
Uses 469
Classifcation 470
Composition 470
Properties 470
Wrought Base-metal Alloys 470
Stainless Steel 470
Ferritic Stainless Steels 471
Martensitic Stainless Steels 471
Austenitic Stainless Steels 471
Braided and Twisted Wires 473
Solders for Stainless Steel 473
Fluxes 473
Wrought Cobalt-chromium-nickel Alloys 473
Composition 473
Heat Treatment 473
Physical Properties 474
Nickel-titanium Alloys 474
Properties of Nitinol Alloys 474
Titanium Alloys 475
Composition 476
Mechanical Properties 476
Section 7: Indirect Restorative
and Prosthetic Materials
28. Dental Ceramics 479
Uses and Applications 479
Evolution of Dental Ceramics 480
Classifcation of Dental Porcelains 481
Basic Constituents and Manufacture of Feldspathic
Porcelain 482
Manufacture 485
Porcelain/Ceramic Systems 485
Metal-ceramic Restorations 486
Types of Metal-ceramic Systems 487
Cast Metal-ceramic Restorations 487
Uses 487
Composition of Ceramic for Metal Bonding 487
Supplied as 488
Manipulation and Technical Considerations 488
Porcelain-metal Bond 492
Advantages and Disadvantages of Metal-ceramic
Restorations 492
Other Metal-ceramic Systems 493
All-ceramic Restorations 494
Porcelain Jacket Crown 494
Castable Glass Ceramic 496
Heat Pressed (Hot-isostatically Pressed)
Ceramics 498
Glass Infltrated Ceramics 500
CAD/CAM Ceramics 503
Advantages and Disadvantages of CAD/CAM
Ceramic Restorations 514
General Properties of Fused Ceramics 515
Cementing of Ceramic Restorations 520
Repair of Ceramic Restorations 522Contents xxiii
Porcelain Denture Teeth 523
Monolithic Restorations 524
Ceramic Posts 526
Pediatric Zirconia Crowns 526
Zirconia Implants and Abutments 526
Zirconia Anatomic Root-form Implants 527
29. Denture Resins and Polymers 529
Polymers 531
Nature of Polymers 531
Structure of Polymers (Spatial Structure) 532
Polymerization—Chemistry 533
Copolymerization 535
Cross-linking 536
Plasticizers 537
Classifcation of Denture Base Materials 537
Synthetic Resins 538
Classifcation of Resins 538
Ideal Requirements of Dental Resins 538
Uses of Resins in Dentistry 539
Acrylic Resins 540
Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Resins 540
Heat Activated Denture Base Acrylic Resins 540
Chemically Activated Denture Base Acrylic
Resins 548
Light Activated Denture Base Resins 552
Microwave Cured Denture Resins 553
Specialized Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)
Materials 553
Properties of Methylmethacrylate Denture
Resins 555


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