كتاب Understanding Coatings Raw Materials
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Understanding Coatings Raw Materials

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عدد المساهمات : 15047
التقييم : 24853
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 30
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Understanding Coatings Raw Materials    الجمعة 07 ديسمبر 2018, 10:32 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Understanding Coatings Raw Materials
Vijay Mannari, Chintankumar J. Patel


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Contents
1 Introduction to paints and coatings 19
1.1 Why paints and coatings? . 19
1.2 Historical perspective .21
1.3 Anatomy of paints and coatings .24
1.3.1 Resins or binders .25
1.3.2 Pigments 26
1.3.3 Additives 26
1.3.4 Solvents 26
2 Binders 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.1.1 Introduction to polymers .29
2.1.2 Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers .31
2.1.3 Requirements of resins and binders .33
2.2 Natural binders 34
2.2.1 Rosin (colophony) .35
2.2.2 Bituminous binders .37
2.2.3 Natural oils for surface coatings 38
2.2.3.1 Composition of natural oils .38
2.2.3.2 Classifcation of oils in the coating industry .41
2.2.3.3 Modifed oils .42
2.3 Alkyd resins .44
2.3.1 Chemistry of alkyd resins .45
2.3.1.1 Alcoholysis process .46
2.3.1.2 Acidolysis process .47
2.3.1.3 Fatty acid process 47
2.3.2 Raw materials for alkyd resins .48
2.3.2.1 Fatty acids and oils .48
2.3.2.2 Polyhydric alcohols .48
2.3.2.3 Polybasic acids .49
2.3.2.4 Monobasic acids .49
2.3.3 Processing of alkyd resins 50
2.3.4 Classifcation of alkyd resins 512.3.5 Effect of oil modifcation on properties 52
2.3.6 Modifcations of alkyd resin .52
2.3.7 High-solid alkyd resins 54
2.3.8 Waterbased alkyds 55
2.3.8.1 Water-reducible alkyds 55
2.3.8.2 Alkyd emulsions 56
2.3.9 Hyperbranched alkyd resins 57
2.4 Saturated polyesters .57
2.4.1 Chemistry of polyester resins .58
2.4.2 Formulation and raw material selection .59
2.4.3 High-solid resins .60
2.4.4 Water-reducible polyesters 61
2.4.5 Polyesters for powder coatings .62
2.4.6 Curing of saturated polyester resins .62
2.4.6.1 Amino resin cross-linkers .62
2.4.6.2 Polyisocyanate cross-linkers 63
2.4.6.3 Epoxy resins .63
2.4.7 Applications in coatings 64
2.5 Unsaturated polyester resins 64
2.5.1 Chemistry of unsaturated polyester resins .64
2.5.2 Curing aspects 66
2.5.3 Applications of unsaturated polyester resins .68
2.6 Phenolic resins .68
2.6.1 Raw materials for phenolic resins .68
2.6.2 Reaction chemistry .69
2.6.2.1 Resoles .69
2.6.2.2 Novolacs .71
2.6.3 Modifed phenolic resins 72
2.7 Amino resins 73
2.7.1 Chemistry of amino resins 74
2.7.2 Types of amino resins .76
2.7.3 Use of aminoplasts in coatings .78
2.8 Acrylic resins .81
2.8.1 Polymer composition and properties 82
2.8.2 Acrylic resin types 86
2.8.2.1 Solution acrylic resins 86
2.8.2.2 Waterborne acrylic resin dispersions .882.8.2.3 Acrylic resins for high-solid coatings .90
2.8.2.4 Acrylic resins for powder coatings 90
2.8.2.5 Acrylic resins for radiation curable coatings 91
2.9 Epoxy resins .93
2.9.1 Types of epoxy resins .94
2.9.1.1 Bisphenol A epoxy resins 94
2.9.1.2 Bisphenol F epoxy resins .96
2.9.1.3 Epoxy novolac resins and
high functionality epoxy resins 96
2.9.1.4 Brominated BPA epoxy resins 97
2.9.1.5 Cardanol-based epoxy resins 98
2.9.1.6 Light fast epoxy resins .98
2.9.1.7 Other epoxy resins and reactive diluents 99
2.9.1.8 Resins with internal epoxy groups .100
2.9.2 Modifed epoxy resins 100
2.9.2.1 Epoxy esters 101
2.9.2.2 Epoxy acrylates 101
2.9.3 Curing agents for epoxy resins 101
2.9.3.1 Amine curing agents 102
2.9.3.2 Polymercaptans (polythiols) .106
2.9.3.3 Polyisocyanates 107
2.9.3.4 Carboxylic acids and anhydrides .107
2.9.3.5 Phenolic and amino resins 108
2.9.3.6 Self-cross-linking (epoxy homopolymerization) 109
2.9.4 Waterborne epoxy systems .109
2.9.4.1 Emulsifed system (type I) 110
2.9.4.2 Emulsifed systems (type II) .110
2.9.4.3 Water-reducible systems 110
2.10 Polyamides 111
2.10.1 Reactive polyamides .112
2.10.2 Non-reactive polyamide resins .112
2.10.3 Polyimides and polyamide-imides 113
2.11 Polyurethanes 114
2.11.1 Isocyanate compounds .116
2.11.2 Polyols 117
2.11.3 Polyurethane resins and coating systems .118
2.11.3.1 Two-component polyurethane resin systems .1182.11.3.2 One-component polyurethane resin systems . 119
2.11.3.3 Waterborne polyurethanes 122
2.12 Silicone resins 127
2.12.1 Chemistry of silicone resins .127
2.12.2 Pure silicone resins .129
2.12.2.1 Types of pure silicone resin 129
2.12.2.2 Curing 130
2.12.3 Blends of silicone resins 130
2.12.4 Modifed silicone resins .131
2.12.5 Silicone modifed resins .132
2.12.6 Waterbased silicone resins 132
2.12.7 Ethyl silicate 133
2.13 Cellulosic binders 134
2.13.1 Nitrocellulose .134
2.13.2 Esters of cellulose 136
2.13.2.1 Ethyl cellulose 137
2.14 Hydrocarbon resins (petroleum resins) .137
2.14.1 Coumarone indene resins 138
2.14.2 Petroleum oil derived hydrocarbon resins 138
3 Pigments . 139
3.1 Introduction 139
3.1.1 Functions of pigments 140
3.1.1.1 Aesthetic functions .140
3.1.1.2 Protective functions 140
3.1.1.3 Other functions 140
3.1.2 Nomenclature – the Colour Index system 141
3.1.3 Classifcation of pigments .142
3.1.3.1 Classifcation based on color .142
3.1.3.2 Classifcation based on chemical nature 143
3.2 Important properties of pigments 144
3.2.1 Optical properties 144
3.2.1.1 Color 144
3.2.1.2 Opacity .146
3.2.1.3 Tinting strength and lightening power 148
3.2.2 Physical properties 150
3.2.2.1 Solubility 1503.2.2.2 Density .152
3.2.2.3 Particle size .153
3.2.2.4 Particle shape .154
3.2.2.5 Texture of pigments (dispersibility) 156
3.2.2.6 Oil absorption value 157
3.2.3 Chemical and performance properties .158
3.2.3.1 Chemical purity .158
3.2.3.2 Resistance to chemicals .158
3.2.3.3 Reactivity of pigments 159
3.2.3.4 Resistance to oxidative degradation 160
3.2.3.5 Light fastness .160
3.2.3.6 Weather fastness .161
3.2.4 Environmental and toxicological perspectives .163
3.3 Inorganic pigments .164
3.3.1 White pigments 164
3.3.1.1 Titanium dioxide 165
3.3.1.2 Zinc oxide 168
3.3.1.3 Zinc sulfde and lithopone .168
3.3.1.4 Antimony oxide 169
3.3.1.5 White lead pigments .169
3.3.2 Black pigments .169
3.3.2.1 Carbon black .169
3.3.3 Colored inorganic pigments 172
3.3.3.1 Iron oxides .172
3.3.3.2 Chromium oxide pigments 176
3.3.3.3 Iron blue .176
3.3.3.4 Ultramarine blue .177
3.3.3.5 Chromate pigments .178
3.3.3.6 Cadmium pigments .181
3.3.4 High performance inorganic pigments 181
3.3.4.1 Bismuth vanadate pigments 181
3.3.4.2 Cerium pigments .182
3.3.4.3 Complex inorganic color pigments .183
3.3.5 Metallic pigments 184
3.3.5.1 Aluminum pigments .184
3.3.5.2 Zinc pigments .186
3.3.5.3 Bronze pigments 1863.3.6 Anticorrosive pigments 186
3.3.6.1 Lead pigments 188
3.3.6.2 Chromate pigments .188
3.3.6.3 Phosphate pigments 189
3.3.6.4 Phosphite pigments .190
3.3.6.5 Borates .190
3.3.6.6 Molybdate pigments 191
3.3.7 Extenders .191
3.3.7.1 Carbonates 192
3.3.7.2 Silica (SiO2) 193
3.3.7.3 Sulfates 194
3.3.7.4 Silicates 194
3.3.8 Special effect pigments 196
3.4 Organic pigments 199
3.4.1 Azo pigments . 200
3.4.1.1 Monoazo pigments . 200
3.4.1.2 Diazo pigments 201
3.4.1.3 Salt-type azo pigments .201
3.4.1.4 Azo complex pigments .202
3.4.1.5 Azo condensation pigments . 203
3.4.1.6 Isoindolinone and isoindoline pigments . 203
3.4.2 Polycyclic pigments (non-azo pigments) . 203
3.4.2.1 Phthalocyanine pigments . 204
3.4.2.2 Quinacridone pigments . 205
3.4.2.3 Anthraquinone pigments . 206
3.4.2.4 Perylene and perinone pigments 206
3.4.2.5 Thioindigo pigments .207
3.4.2.6 Dioxazine pigments . 208
3.4.2.7 Diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments . 208
4 Solvents . 209
4.1 Introduction 209
4.2 Theory of solvency .210
4.2.1 Solubility parameters .212
4.3 Important characteristics of solvents 214
4.3.1 Solvency .214
4.3.2 Evaporation rate .2154.3.3 Other performance properties 217
4.3.3.1 Moisture content 217
4.3.3.2 Aromatic content .217
4.3.4 Physical properties 218
4.3.4.1 Surface tension .218
4.3.4.2 Boiling point and distillation range 218
4.3.4.3 Flash point .218
4.3.4.4 Density and specifc gravity .219
4.3.4.5 Color 219
4.3.4.6 Refractive index .220
4.3.4.7 Electrical resistivity .221
4.3.4.8 Purity and composition 221
4.4 Classifcation of solvents
used in the coating industry .221
4.4.1 Hydrocarbon solvents 222
4.4.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons . 222
4.4.1.2 Cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons .223
4.4.1.3 Terpene hydrocarbons 223
4.4.1.4 Aromatic hydrocarbons 223
4.4.2 Oxygenated solvents .224
4.4.2.1 Alcohols .224
4.4.2.2 Ketones .225
4.4.2.3 Esters 226
4.4.2.4 Glycol ethers .226
4.4.2.5 Other oxygenated solvents 227
4.4.3 Other solvents 227
4.4.3.1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons .227
4.4.3.2 N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone 228
4.5 Toxicity and occupational health .228
4.6 Environmental aspects 230
5 Additives . 233
5.1 Introduction . 233
5.2 Wetting and dispersing agents . 234
5.2.1 Pigment dispersion process . 234
5.2.1.1 Wetting . 234
5.2.1.2 Grinding 2355.2.1.3 Dispersion 235
5.2.2 Chemical composition of
wetting and dispersing agents 236
5.2.3 Flooding and ?oating 238
5.2.4 Polymeric dispersing agents .239
5.2.5 De?occulating agents and
controlled ?occulating agents 240
5.3 Rheology additives 241
5.3.1 Rheology and its role in coatings .241
5.3.2 Thickeners for solventbased coatings .242
5.3.2.1 Organoclays 242
5.3.2.2 Fumed silica 243
5.3.2.3 Metal soaps 244
5.3.2.4 Overbased sulfonates . 244
5.3.2.5 Organic thickeners 245
5.3.3 Thickeners for waterbased coatings 247
5.3.3.1 Acrylic thickeners .247
5.3.3.2 Cellulosic thickeners .248
5.3.3.3 Associative cellulosic thickeners .249
5.3.3.4 Associative acrylic thickeners 249
5.3.3.5 Hydrophobically modifed ethoxylated urethanes 249
5.4 Flow and leveling agents .250
5.4.1 Solvents 251
5.4.2 Polymeric leveling agents .251
5.4.2.1 Polyacrylates .251
5.4.2.2 Cellulose acetobutyrate 252
5.4.2.3 Other polymers 252
5.4.3 Silicones .252
5.4.4 Fluorosurfactants 253
5.5 Defoaming and anti-foaming additives 253
5.5.1 Foam formation and flm stabilization 253
5.5.1.1 Electrostatic repulsion effect . 254
5.5.1.2 Marangoni effect (Gibbs elasticity) 254
5.5.2 Defoamers and anti-foam 254
5.5.2.1 Requirements for defoamers . 254
5.5.2.2 Composition of defoamers .255
5.6 Additives for surface modifcation .2565.6.1 Slip and mar additives 256
5.6.2 Matting agents .257
5.7 Adhesion promoters 258
5.8 Additives for flm formation 260
5.8.1 Driers 260
5.8.2 Curing catalysts .263
5.8.2.1 Catalysts for polyurethane coatings .263
5.8.2.2 Catalysts for epoxy system . 264
5.8.2.3 Acid catalysts for baking systems 264
5.8.3 Photoinitiators 265
5.8.4 Coalescing agents 267
5.9 Anti-skinning agents 269
5.9.1 Types of anti-skinning agents 269
5.9.1.1 Phenols .269
5.9.1.2 Oximes .270
5.10 Light stabilizers .270
5.10.1 UV absorbers 271
5.10.2 Radical scavengers 272
5.11 Biocides 273
5.11.1 In-can preservatives .273
5.11.2 Dry-flm preservatives .274
5.12 Corrosion inhibitors 275
5.12.1 Flash-rust inhibitors .275
5.11.2 Inhibitors for long-term protection 276
5.13 Freeze-thaw stabilizers 276
5.14 Moisture scavengers 277
5.15 Additives to modify conductivity 277
Authors . 279
Index


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