كتاب Sociology - Fourteenth Edition
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 كتاب Sociology - Fourteenth Edition

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Sociology - Fourteenth Edition   الخميس 15 نوفمبر 2018, 10:36 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Sociology
Fourteenth Edition
John J. Macionis
Kenyon College


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Brief contents
Part I The Foundations of Sociology
1 The Sociological Perspective 1
2 Sociological Investigation 24
Part II The Foundations of Society
3 Culture 52
4 Society 78
5 Socialization 100
6 Social Interaction in Everyday Life 124
7 Groups and Organizations 144
8 Sexuality and Society 166
9 Deviance 192
Part III Social Inequality
10 Social Stratification 268
11 Social Class in the United States 244
12 Global Stratification 268
13 Gender Stratification 392
14 Race and Ethnicity 318
15 Aging and the Elderly 346
Part IV Social Institutions
16 The Economy and Work 368
17 Politics and Government 392
18 Families 416
19 Religion 440
20 Education 464
21 Health and Medicine 486
Part V Social Change
22 Population, Urbanization, and Environment 510
23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements 538
24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies 562Boxes xvii
Maps xix
Preface xxi
Part I The Foundations of Sociology
1 The Sociological Perspective 1
The Sociological Perspective 2
Seeing the General in the Particular 2
Seeing the Strange in the Familiar 3
Seeing Society in Our Everyday
Lives 5
Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisis 5
The Importance of a Global Perspective 6
Applying the Sociological Perspective 8
Sociology and Public Policy 8
Sociology and Personal Growth 8
Careers: The “Sociology Advantage” 9
The Origins of Sociology 9
Social Change and Sociology 9
Science and Sociology 11
Sociological Theory 12
The Structural-Functional Approach 12
The Social-Conflict Approach 13
Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approach 14
The Race-Conflict Approach 14
The Symbolic-Interaction Approach 16
Applying the Approaches: The Sociology of Sports 17
The Functions of Sports 17
Sports and Conflict 17
Sports as Interaction 18
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 20
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 21
Making the Grade 22
2 Sociological Investigation 24
Basics of Sociological
Investigation 27
Science as One Type of Truth 27
Common Sense versus Scientific
Evidence 27
Three Ways to Do Sociology 29
Positivist Sociology 29
Interpretive Sociology 33
Critical Sociology 34
Research Orientations and Theory 34
Gender and Research 35
Research Ethics 35
Methods of Sociological Research 36
Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment 36
Asking Questions: Survey Research 38
In the Field: Participant Observation 41
Using Available Data: Existing Sources 43
The Interplay of Theory and Method 45
Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological
Investigation 45
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 48
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 49
Making the Grade 50
Part II The Foundations of Society
3 Culture 52
What Is Culture? 54
Culture and Human Intelligence 57
Culture, Nation, and Society 57
How Many Cultures? 57
The Elements of Culture 58
Symbols 58
Language 59
Values and Beliefs 61
Norms 62
Ideal and Real Culture 63
Material Culture and Technology 63
New Information Technology and Culture 64
Cultural Diversity: Many Ways of Life in One World 64
High Culture and Popular Culture 64
Subculture 64
Multiculturalism 65
Counterculture 66
Cultural Change 67
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism 69
A Global Culture? 69
Theories of Culture 70
The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Theory 70
Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Theory 70
Evolution and Culture: Sociobiology 71
Culture and Human Freedom 72
Culture as Constraint 72
viii
contentsCulture as Freedom 72
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 74
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 75
Making the Grade 76
4 Society 78
Gerhard Lenski: Society
and Technology 80
Hunting and Gathering Societies 81
Horticultural and Pastoral
Societies 82
Agrarian Societies 82
Industrial Societies 84
Postindustrial Societies 84
The Limits of Technology 85
Karl Marx: Society and Conflict 85
Society and Production 86
Conflict and History 86
Capitalism and Class Conflict 87
Capitalism and Alienation 87
Revolution 88
Max Weber: The Rationalization of Society 88
Two Worldviews: Tradition and Rationality 88
Is Capitalism Rational? 90
Weber’s Great Thesis: Protestantism and Capitalism 90
Rational Social Organization 91
Emile Durkheim: Society and Function 92
Structure: Society beyond Ourselves 92
Function: Society as System 92
Personality: Society in Ourselves 92
Modernity and Anomie 93
Evolving Societies: The Division of Labor 93
Critical Review: Four Visions of Society 94
What Holds Societies Together? 94
How Have Societies Changed? 94
Why Do Societies Change? 95
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 96
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 97
Making the Grade 98
5 Socialization 100
Social Experience: The Key
to Our Humanity 102
Human Development: Nature and
Nurture 102
Social Isolation 103
Understanding Socialization 104
Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality 104
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 105
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development 106
Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Gender and Moral
Development 106
George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the
Social Self 107
Erik H. Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development 109
Agents of Socialization 109
The Family 110
The School 111
The Peer Group 112
The Mass Media 112
Socialization and the Life Course 115
Childhood 115
Adolescence 115
Adulthood 115
Old Age 116
Death and Dying 117
The Life Course: Patterns and Variations 117
Resocialization: Total Institutions 118
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 120
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 121
Making the Grade 122
6 Social Interaction in Everyday Life 124
Social Structure: A Guide to
Everyday Living 126
Status 127
Status Set 127
Ascribed and Achieved Status 127
Master Status 127
Role 127
Role Set 128
Role Conflict and Role Strain 128
Role Exit 129
The Social Construction of Reality 129
“Street Smarts” 130
The Thomas Theorem 131
Ethnomethodology 131
Reality Building: Class and Culture 131
Dramaturgical Analysis: The “Presentation of Self” 132
Performances 132
Nonverbal Communication 132
Gender and Performances 133
Idealization 134
Embarrassment and Tact 134
Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications 135
Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling 135
Language: The Social Construction of Gender 136
Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor 137
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 140
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 141
Making the Grade 142
Contents ix7 Groups and Organizations 144
Social Groups 146
Primary and Secondary Groups 147
Group Leadership 148
Group Conformity 148
Reference Groups 149
In-Groups and Out-Groups 150
Group Size 150
Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender 151
Networks 151
Formal Organizations 153
Types of Formal Organizations 153
Origins of Formal Organizations 153
Characteristics of Bureaucracy 153
Organizational Environment 154
The Informal Side of Bureaucracy 154
Problems of Bureaucracy 155
Oligarchy 156
The Evolution of Formal Organizations 156
Scientific Management 156
The First Challenge: Race and Gender 157
The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization 158
The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work 158
The “McDonaldization” of Society 159
The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends 160
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 162
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 163
Making the Grade 164
8 Sexuality and Society 166
Understanding Sexuality 168
Sex: A Biological Issue 169
Sex and the Body 169
Sex: A Cultural Issue 170
The Incest Taboo 171
Sexual Attitudes in the United States 172
The Sexual Revolution 172
The Sexual Counterrevolution 173
Premarital Sex 173
Sex between Adults 175
Extramarital Sex 175
Sex over the Life Course 175
Sexual Orientation 175
What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation? 176
How Many Gay People Are There? 178
The Gay Rights Movement 178
Sexual Issues and Controversies 179
Teen Pregnancy 179
كلمة محذوفةography 179
Prostitution 180
Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape 182
Theories of Sexuality 184
Structural-Functional Theory 183
Symbolic-Interaction Theory 184
Social-Conflict and Feminist Theories 185
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 188
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 189
Making the Grade 190
9 Deviance 192
What Is Deviance? 194
Social Control 194
The Biological Context 194
Personality Factors 195
The Social Foundations of
Deviance 196
The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Theories 197
Durkheim’s Basic Insight 197
Merton’s Strain Theory 197
Deviant Subcultures 198
Labeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Theories 200
Labeling Theory 200
The Medicalization of Deviance 201
The Difference Labels Make 201
Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory 201
Hirschi’s Control Theory 202
Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Theory 202
Deviance and Power 203
Deviance and Capitalism 203
White-Collar Crime 203
Corporate Crime 204
Organized Crime 204
Deviance, Race, and Gender 205
Hate Crimes 205
The Feminist Perspective: Deviance and Gender 206
Crime 207
Types of Crime 207
Criminal Statistics 207
The Street Criminal: A Profile 208
Crime in Global Perspective 209
The U.S. Criminal Justice System 211
Due Process 211
Police 212
Courts 212
Punishment 212
The Death Penalty 214
Community-Based Corrections 215
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 218
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 219
Making the Grade 220
x ContentsPart III Social Inequality
10 Social Stratification 222
What Is Social
Stratification? 224
Caste and Class Systems 225
The Caste System 225
The Class System 226
Caste and Class: The United Kingdom 227
Another Example: Japan 228
Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Union 229
China: Emerging Social Classes 230
Ideology: Supporting Stratification 231
Plato and Marx on Ideology 231
Historical Patterns of Ideology 231
Functions of Social Stratification 231
The Davis-Moore Thesis 231
Stratification and Conflict 233
Karl Marx: Class Conflict 233
Why No Marxist Revolution? 234
Max Weber: Class, Status, and Power 234
Stratification and Interaction 235
Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective 236
Hunting and Gathering Societies 236
Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societies 236
Industrial Societies 236
The Kuznets Curve 237
Social Stratification: Facts and Values 238
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 240
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 241
Making the Grade 242
11 Social Class in the United States 244
Dimensions of Social
Inequality 246
Income 246
Wealth 247
Power 247
Occupational Prestige 248
Schooling 248
U.S. Stratification: Merit and Caste 248
Ancestry 248
Race and Ethnicity 248
Gender 249
Social Classes in the United States 249
The Upper Class 249
The Middle Class 250
The Working Class 251
The Lower Class 251
The Difference Class Makes 251
Health 251
Values and Attitudes 251
Politics 252
Family and Gender 252
Social Mobility 254
Research on Mobility 254
Mobility by Income Level 255
Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender 256
Mobility and Marriage 256
The American Dream: Still a Reality? 256
The Global Economy and the U.S. Class Structure 257
Poverty in the United States 257
The Extent of Poverty 258
Who Are the Poor? 259
Explaining Poverty 260
The Working Poor 262
Homelessness 262
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 264
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 265
Making the Grade 266
12 Global Stratification 268
Global Stratification: An
Overview 270
A Word about Terminology 271
High-Income Countries 272
Middle-Income Countries 273
Low-Income Countries 274
Global Wealth and Poverty 275
The Severity of Poverty 276
The Extent of Poverty 277
Poverty and Children 278
Poverty and Women 278
Slavery 278
Explanations of Global Poverty 279
Global Stratification: Applying Theory 280
Modernization Theory 280
Dependency Theory 283
Global Stratification: Looking Ahead 286
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 288
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 289
Making the Grade 290
13 Gender Stratification 292
Gender and Inequality 294
Male-Female Differences 294
Gender in Global Perspective 295
Patriarchy and Sexism 296
Gender and Socialization 297
Gender and the Family 298
Gender and the Peer Group 298
Contents xiGender and Schooling 298
Gender and the Mass Media 298
Gender and Social Stratification 299
Working Women and Men 299
Gender, Income, and Wealth 301
Housework: Women’s “Second Shift” 301
Gender and Education 302
Gender and Politics 302
Gender and the Military 303
Are Women a Minority? 303
Minority Women: Intersection Theory 304
Violence against Women 304
Violence against Men 305
Sexual Harassment 306
كلمة محذوفةography 307
Theories of Gender 308
Structural-Functional Analysis 308
Symbolic-Interaction Analysis 309
Social-Conflict Analysis 309
Feminism 310
Basic Feminist Ideas 310
Types of Feminism 311
Opposition to Feminism 312
Gender: Looking Ahead 313
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 314
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 315
Making the Grade 316
14 Race and Ethnicity 318
The Social Meaning of Race
and Ethnicity 320
Race 320
Ethnicity 322
Minorities 322
Prejudice and Stereotypes 323
Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale 324
Racism 326
Theories of Prejudice 326
Discrimination 328
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination 328
Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle 328
Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction 328
Pluralism 328
Assimilation 329
Segregation 329
Genocide 329
Race and Ethnicity in the United States 330
Native Americans 330
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants 332
African Americans 332
Asian Americans 334
Hispanic Americans/Latinos 336
Arab Americans 338
White Ethnic Americans 339
Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead 340
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 342
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 343
Making the Grade 344
15 Aging and the Elderly 346
The Graying of the
United States 348
Birth Rate: Going Down 348
Life Expectancy: Going Up 349
An Aging Society: Cultural
Change 349
The “Young Old” and the “Old Old” 350
Growing Old: Biology and Culture 350
Biological Changes 350
Psychological Changes 351
Aging and Culture 352
Age Stratification: A Global Survey 352
Transitions and Challenges of Aging 354
Finding Meaning 354
Social Isolation 355
Retirement 355
Aging and Poverty 355
Caregiving 357
Ageism 357
The Elderly: A Minority? 358
Theories of Aging 358
Structural-Functional Theory: Aging and Disengagement 358
Symbolic-Interaction Theory: Aging and Activity 359
Social-Conflict Theory: Aging and Inequality 359
Death and Dying 360
Historical Patterns of Death 360
The Modern Separation of Life and Death 360
Ethical Issues: Confronting Death 360
Bereavement 362
Aging: Looking Ahead 362
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 364
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 365
Making the Grade 366
Part IV Social Institutions
16 The Economy and Work 368
The Economy: Historical
Overview 370
The Agricultural Revolution 370
The Industrial Revolution 371
xii ContentsThe Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society 371
Sectors of the Economy 372
The Global Economy 373
Economic Systems: Paths to Justice 373
Capitalism 373
Socialism 375
Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism 376
Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism 376
Changes in Socialist and Capitalist Countries 377
Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy 378
The Decline of Agricultural Work 378
From Factory Work to Service Work 378
The Dual Labor Market 379
Labor Unions 379
Professions 379
Self-Employment 381
Unemployment and Underemployment 381
The Underground Economy 382
Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender 382
Information Technology and Work 383
Corporations 384
Economic Concentration 384
Conglomerates and Corporate Linkages 384
Corporations: Are They Competitive? 384
Corporations and the Global Economy 385
The Economy: Looking Ahead 386
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 388
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 389
Making the Grade 390
17 Politics and Government 392
Power and Authority 394
Traditional Authority 394
Rational-Legal Authority 395
Charismatic Authority 395
Politics in Global Perspective 395
Monarchy 396
Democracy 396
Authoritarianism 399
Totalitarianism 399
A Global Political System? 399
Politics in the United States 399
U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State 400
The Political Spectrum 400
Special-Interest Groups 401
Voter Apathy 402
Should Convicted Criminals Vote? 404
Theories of Power in Society 404
The Pluralist Model: The People Rule 404
The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule 404
The Marxist Model: The System Is Biased 404
Power beyond the Rules 405
Revolution 405
Terrorism 406
War and Peace 407
The Causes of War 407
Social Class, Gender, and the Military 408
Is Terrorism a New Kind of War? 408
The Costs and Causes of Militarism 409
Nuclear Weapons 409
Mass Media and War 409
Pursuing Peace 410
Politics: Looking Ahead 411
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 412
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 413
Making the Grade 414
18 Families 416
Families: Basic Concepts 418
Families: Global Variations 419
Marriage Patterns 419
Residential Patterns 419
Patterns of Descent 420
Patterns of Authority 421
Theories of the Family 422
Functions of the Family: Structural-Functional Theory 422
Inequality and the Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Theories 423
Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Theories 423
Stages of Family Life 424
Courtship 424
Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage 425
Child Rearing 425
The Family in Later Life 426
U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender 427
Social Class 427
Ethnicity and Race 427
Gender 429
Transitions and Problems in Family Life 430
Divorce 430
Remarriage and Blended Families 431
Family Violence 431
Alternative Family Forms 432
One-Parent Families 432
Cohabitation 432
Gay and Lesbian Couples 433
Singlehood 433
New Reproductive Technologies and Families 434
Families: Looking Ahead 434
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 436
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 437
Making the Grade 438
Contents xiiiThe Functions of Schooling 469
Socialization 469
Cultural Innovation 469
Social Integration 469
Social Placement 469
Latent Functions of Schooling 469
Schooling and Social Interaction 470
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 470
Schooling and Social Inequality 471
Social Control 471
Standardized Testing 471
School Tracking 471
Inequality among Schools 471
Access to Higher Education 474
Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Education 474
Privilege and Personal Merit 475
Problems in the Schools 475
Discipline and Violence 475
Student Passivity 476
Dropping Out 477
Academic Standards 477
Grade Inflation 478
Current Issues in U.S. Education 478
School Choice 478
Home Schooling 479
Schooling People with Disabilities 480
Adult Education 480
The Teacher Shortage 480
Schooling: Looking Ahead 481
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 482
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 483
Making the Grade 484
21 Health and Medicine 486
What Is Health? 488
Health and Society 488
Health: A Global Survey 489
Health in Low-Income
Countries 489
Health in High-Income Countries 489
Health in the United States 490
Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Race 490
Cigarette Smoking 491
Eating Disorders 492
Obesity 492
Sexually Transmitted Diseases 493
Ethical Issues surrounding Death 496
The Medical Establishment 497
The Rise of Scientific Medicine 497
Holistic Medicine 497
Paying for Medical Care: A Global Survey 498
xiv Contents
19 Religion 440
Religion: Basic Concepts 442
Religion and Sociology 442
Theories of Religion 443
Functions of Religion:
Structural-Functional Theory 443
Constructing the Sacred:
Symbolic-Interaction Theory 443
Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Theory 444
Religion and Social Change 444
Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism 444
Liberation Theology 445
Types of Religious Organizations 446
Church 446
Sect 446
Cult 447
Religion in History 447
Religion in Preindustrial Societies 447
Religion in Industrial Societies 448
World Religions 448
Christianity 448
Islam 448
Judaism 450
Hinduism 450
Buddhism 451
Confucianism 452
Religion: East and West 452
Religion in the United States 452
Religious Affiliation 453
Religiosity 453
Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and Race 453
Religion in a Changing Society 455
Changing Affiliation 455
Secularization 455
Civil Religion 456
“New Age” Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion 456
Religious Revival: “Good Old-Time Religion” 458
Religion: Looking Ahead 459
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 460
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 461
Making the Grade 462
20 Education 464
Education: A Global Survey 466
Schooling and Economic
Development 466
Schooling in India 467
Schooling in Japan 467
Schooling in Great Britain 467
Schooling in the United States 468Paying for Medical Care: The United States 499
The Nursing Shortage 501
Theories of Health and Medicine 501
Structural-Functional Theory: Roles 502
Symbolic-Interaction Theory: The Meaning of Health 502
Social-Conflict and Feminist Theory: Health and Inequality 503
Health and Medicine: Looking Ahead 504
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 506
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 507
Making the Grade 508
Part V Social Change
22 Population, Urbanization, and Environment 510
Demography: The Study
of Population 512
Fertility 512
Mortality 513
Migration 513
Population Growth 514
Population Composition 514
History and Theory of Population Growth 516
Malthusian Theory 516
Demographic Transition Theory 517
Global Population Today: A Brief Survey 518
Urbanization: The Growth of Cities 520
The Evolution of Cities 520
The Growth of U.S. Cities 520
Suburbs and Urban Decline 521
Postindustrial Sunbelt Cities 521
Megalopolis: The Regional City 522
Edge Cities 522
The Rural Rebound 522
Urbanism as a Way of Life 522
Ferdinand T?nnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft 522
Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity 523
Georg Simmel: The Blasé Urbanite 523
The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth 523
Urban Ecology 524
Urban Political Economy 525
Urbanization in Poor Nations 526
Environment and Society 526
The Global Dimension 527
Technology and the Environmental Deficit 527
Culture: Growth and Limits 527
Solid Waste: The Disposable Society 528
Water and Air 529
The Rain Forests 531
Environmental Racism 531
Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and World 532
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 534
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 535
Making the Grade 536
23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements 538
Studying Collective
Behavior 540
Localized Collectivities:
Crowds 541
Mobs and Riots 542
Crowds, Mobs, and Social Change 542
Explaining Crowd Behavior 542
Dispersed Collectivities: Mass Behavior 544
Rumor and Gossip 544
Public Opinion and Propaganda 544
Fashions and Fads 545
Panic and Mass Hysteria 546
Disasters 547
Social Movements 548
Types of Social Movements 548
Claims Making 549
Explaining Social Movements 550
Gender and Social Movements 555
Stages in Social Movements 555
Social Movements and Social Change 556
Social Movements: Looking Ahead 556
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 558
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 559
Making the Grade 560
24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern,
and Postmodern Societies 562
What Is Social Change? 564
Causes of Social Change 565
Culture and Change 565
Conflict and Change 566
Ideas and Change 566
Demographic Change 566
Modernity 566
Four Dimensions of Modernization 566
Ferdinand T?nnies: The Loss of Community 568
Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor 569
Max Weber: Rationalization 569
Karl Marx: Capitalism 570
Theories of Modernity 571
Structural-Functional Theory: Modernity as Mass Society 571
Social-Conflict Theory: Modernity as Class Society 573
Modernity and the Individual 574
Modernity and Progress 576
Modernity: Global Variation 577
Contents xvxvi Contents
Postmodernity 578
Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future 578
Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life 582
Seeing Sociology in Your Everyday Life 583
Making the Grade 584
Sample Tests 586
Glossary 604
References 610
Photo Credits 643
Name Index 645
Subject Index 650


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