كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Chemicals, Concrete, and Power Industries
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 كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Chemicals, Concrete, and Power Industries

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عدد المساهمات : 14906
التقييم : 24498
تاريخ التسجيل : 30/06/2009
العمر : 30
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Chemicals, Concrete, and Power Industries    السبت 10 مارس 2018, 8:26 pm

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Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Chemicals, Concrete, and Power Industries
Edited by
Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf
Mahmood Aliofkhazraei  


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

CHAPTER
Progressive failures of
components in chemical
process industry: Case
history investigation and
root-cause analysis
George A. Pantazopoulos*, Pandora P. Psyllaki†
ELKEME Hellenic Research Centre for Metals S.A., Athens, Greece*
Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Egaleo, Greece†
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Overview of Failure Mechanisms . 1
2 Analytical Techniques 4
3 Case Studies 4
3.1 Creep Fracture of a Carbon Steel Superheater Tube Installed in
a Power-Plant Unit .4
3.1.1 Summary 4
3.1.2 Background Information 6
3.1.3 Failure Analysis 7
3.1.4 Discussion and Conclusions .14
3.2 Corrosion Failure of a Stainless Steel Filter Grid Operated in
a Petrochemical Plant 15
3.2.1 Summary 15
3.2.2 Background Information 15
3.2.3 Failure Analysis 17
3.2.4 Discussion and Conclusion 21
References 22
CHAPTER
Engineering failure analysis
in chemical process
industries 2
Kashif M. Deen* and Ijaz H. Khan*,†,{
Corrosion Control Research Cell, Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, CEET,
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan*
Institute of Chemical Engineering & Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan†
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 26
2 How to Conduct Failure Investigation . 30
2.1 Understanding the Problems .30
2.2 Onsite Investigation 31
2.3 Selecting the Samples 31
2.4 Execution of Laboratory Testing .31
2.5 Compiling the Data 32
2.6 Drawing Conclusion 32
2.7 Suggesting Remedies .33
3 Case Studies 33
3.1 Study of a Spent Caustic Drainage Line Pipe Failure in an Oil
Refinery 33
3.1.1 Background .33
3.1.2 Brief Description of Process and Experimentation .34
3.1.3 Visual Observations and Testing .36
3.1.4 Critical Review of Process Design .37
3.1.5 Analysis of Solutions .37
3.1.6 Electrochemical Testing .37
3.1.7 Conclusions .38
3.1.8 Recommendations 39
3.2 Failure of Plate Heat Exchanger due to Pitting 39
3.2.1 Background .39
3.2.2 Analytical Approach 39
3.2.3 Description of Process 41
3.2.4 Review of the Process .41
3.2.5 Testing Results and Findings .42
3.2.6 Conclusion .43
3.2.7 Recommendations 44
Acknowledgment 45
References 46
CHAPTER
Boiler tube failures: Some
case studies 3
Atanu Saha
CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, West Bengal, India
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 49
1.1 Short-Term Overheating 51
1.2 High-Temperature Creep .51
1.3 Hydrogen Damage 53
1.4 Caustic Corrosion/Gouging 53
2 Case Studies 54
2.1 Case 1: High-Temperature Creep .55
2.1.1 Examination Details 56
2.2 Case 2: Hydrogen Damage 62
2.2.1 Examination Details 62
3 Conclusion . 67
Acknowledgments 67
References 67
CHAPTER
Creep damage of high
alloyed reformer tubes 4
Eugenio Guglielmino*, Rosanna Pino*, Chiara Servetto†, Andrea Sili*
Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering,
University of Messina, Messina, Italy*
IIS Service Srl, Genova, Italy†
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 69
1.1 Chemical Composition and Microstructural Features of Reformer Tube .71
1.2 Prediction of Creep Life by Means of the Larson-Miller Parameter 73
1.3 A Procedure for Nondestructive Testing on Reformer Tubes .75
2 Case History 77
2.1 Experimental Methods 78
2.1.1 LOTIS Measurements 78
2.1.2 Metallographic Examinations and Mechanical Tests 78
2.2 Results of the Experimental Investigations .80
2.2.1 Internal Diameter Measurements and Hardness Tests .80
2.2.2 Metallurgical Analysis—Optical Microscopy Observations .80
2.2.3 Metallurgical Analysis—SEM Observations .83
2.2.4 Creep Test and Residual Life Prediction 85
3 Conclusion . 89
References 89
CHAPTER
Failure analysis of reinforced
concrete structures
subjected to chloride
penetration and
reinforcements corrosion
5
Elyson A.P. Liberati*, Caio G. Nogueira†, Edson D. Leonel*,{, Alaa Chateauneuf{
Department of Structural Engineering, School of Engineering of Sa?o Carlos, University of Sa?o
Paulo, Sa?o Carlos, SP, Brazil*
Department of Civil Engineering, Sa?o Paulo State University, Bauru, SP, Brazil†
Polytech Clermont Ferrand, University Blaise Pascal, Clermont Ferrand, France{
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 94
2 Physical Nonlinearity of Materials . 96
2.1 Damage Mechanics Model for Concrete 96
2.2 Plasticity Model for Steel 98
3 Geometric Nonlinearity . 98
4 Shear Strength Model . 100
4.1 Intact Concrete and Aggregate Interlock Resistant Contributions 101
4.2 Dowel Action Strength Contribution .101
4.3 Shear Reinforcements Strength Contribution 103
4.4 Shear Resistance Improvements into the Nonlinear
Solution Technique 105
5 Fick’s Diffusion Law 106
6 Corrosion Laws 108
7 Applications . 109
7.1 Two-Dimensional Reinforced Concrete Frame .110
7.2 Simple Supported Reinforced Concrete Beams. Corroded and
Noncorroded Cases 115
8 Conclusion . 118
Acknowledgment 118
References 119
CHAPTER
Investigation of failure
behavior of thin-walled
tubular components and
development of a procedure
for evaluation of their
mechanical and fracture
properties
7
Mahendra K. Samal
Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 161
2 Material . 163
3 Experiment on Ring Specimens for Evaluation of Transverse Mechanical
Properties 164
4 Fracture Experiment on Tubular Specimens Using Conical Mandrels . 168
5 Fracture Experiment on Tubular Specimens Using a Pair of Semi-Cylindrical
Mandrels . 169
6 Results and Discussion . 172
6.1 Results of the Test Setup with Conical-Type Loading Mandrel 172
6.2 FE Analysis of the Test Setup with Conical-Type Loading Mandrel 175
6.3 Results of Test Setup with Pair of Split Semi-Cylindrical
Loading Mandrels .177
7 Conclusion . 184
References 185
CHAPTER
Seismic risk of RC water
storage elevated tanks:
Case study 8
Hocine Hammoum, Karima Bouzelha, Drifa Slimani
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou, Algeria
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 188
2 Seismic Vulnerability 189
3 Vulnerability Method of CNR-GNDT 190
4 General Presentation of the Vulnerability Index Method 191
5 Case Study . 193
5.1 The Bracing System .193
5.2 Qualities of the Bracing System .193
5.3 Seismic Behavior .194
5.3.1 Hydrodynamic Effect Assessment by the Approximate
Method of Housner 196
5.3.2 Evaluation of the Masses 197
5.3.3 Evaluation of Stiffnesses . 198
5.3.4 Calculation of Eigenpulsations . 199
5.3.5 Determination of the Eigenmodes 201
5.3.6 Evaluation of the Seismic Force by the Dynamic Method
of Spectral Modal Analysis 202
5.3.7 Calculation of the Acceleration Sa 203
5.3.8 Evaluation of the Safety Factor 204
5.4 Soil Type .206
5.5 Regularity in Plan 207
5.6 Regularity in Elevation 208
5.7 Quality of the Nodes .210
5.8 Seismic Zone .210
5.9 The Clashing .210
5.10 Site Effect .211
5.11 Details 211
5.12 Maintenance 211
5.13 Determination of the Vulnerability Index 212
6 Conclusion . 214
References 215
CHAPTER
Reliability and material
failure analysis of water
and wastewater systems:
Case studies
9
Katarzyna Miszta-Kruk
Department of Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment, Faculty of Environmental Engineering,
Warsaw, Poland
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal Infrastructure 217
2 Material and Age Structure of Utility Networks . 219
3 Damage Analysis 224
4 Reliability of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal Infrastructure 228
5 Examples of Serious Failures of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal
Systems: Case Study 232
6 Conclusion . 239
References 240
CHAPTER
A reliable analysis method
for estimating large
excavator structural
strength
10
Ying Li*, Yong-An Tian†, Samuel Frimpong{
Bucyrus International Inc., Houston, TX, USA*
Beijing Sevenstar Electronics Co., Beijing, China†
University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO, USA{
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 243
2 Shovel Structure and Operation Process 246
2.1 Structure Description .246
2.2 Operation Description .246
3 Structural Dynamics Analysis Method of Shovel Front-End Mechanism 248
3.1 Finite Element Modeling of Front-End Structure .248
3.2 Dynamics Loading of Front-End Structure 249
3.3 Equivalent SR and Life Estimation of Front-End Structure .249
4 Results and Discussion . 252
4.1 Simulation and Validation of Front-End Model 252
4.2 Shovel Front-End Fatigue Life Prediction .254
5 Conclusion . 256
Nomenclature 256
Acknowledgments 257
References 257
CHAPTER
The reliability design of
mechanical system and its
parametric accelerated life
testing
11
Seong-woo Woo
Korea Testing Co., Daejeon City, South Korea
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 259
2 Design Verification Activities in R&D, QA (Performance/Reliability), and
Manufacture QC and Their Traps . 261
3 Reliability Quantitative Specifications . 263
4 Conceptual Framework of Specifications for Quality Assurance . 267
5 Case Study of Verification Specification: Robotics . 268
6 Parametric Accelerated Life Testing 270
6.1 Accelerated Factor .272
6.2 Sample Size Equation 273
7 Conclusion . 274
References 275
CHAPTER
A nonlocal damage
mechanics-based
approach suitable
for failure assessment and
remaining life estimation
of critical industrial
components
12
Mahendra K. Samal
Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 278
2 Nonlocal Rousselier’s Damage Model 280
3 Beremin’s Model for Cleavage Fracture 284
4 Types of Fracture Mechanics Specimens Analyzed in Upper Shelf and DBTT
Regime 285
5 Material and Experiment . 286
6 Results and Discussion . 291
6.1 Effect of Mesh Size on the Load Deformation and Fracture Resistance
Behavior of the 1T SEB Specimen .291
6.2 Effect of Crack Depth on Load-Deformation Response of 1T SEB
Specimens 293
6.3 Effect of Geometry, Specimen Size, and Loading Condition on the
Load-Deformation Response 295
6.4 Effect of Symmetry Boundary Conditions on Crack Growth Simulation 296
6.5 Effect of Crack Depth on the Probability of Cleavage Fracture in the
DBTT Regime 297
6.6 Extent of Stable Crack Growth (Before Cleavage Fracture) in the DBTT
Regime .300
6.7 Effect of Specimen Geometry and Loading Condition on Probability
of Cleavage Fracture in the DBTT Regime 302
6.8 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability of Cleavage Fracture
in the DBTT Regime .302
6.9 Effect of Specimen Size on Probability of Cleavage Fracture
in the DBTT Regime .304
6.10 Analysis of SEB Specimen with Crack at the Ferrite-Buttering
Interface .304
7 Conclusion . 306
References 307
CHAPTER
A concise filtergram wear
particle atlas and some
case studies 13
William Liu
Industrial Services, SGS New Zealand Limited, Auckland, New Zealand
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction 312
2 The Wear Particle Analysis Techniques . 312
3 Rubbing Wear Particles 314
4 Cutting Wear Particles 315
5 Laminar Particles . 316
Case 1: The Catastrophic Wear in a Race Car Gearbox 320
6 Fatigue Wear Particles 321
Case 2: The Wind Turbine Gearbox Premature Failures .324
7 Severe Sliding Wear Particles . 324
Case 3: The Seizure Failures of a Bulldozer Diesel Engine 325
8 The Oxide Wear Particles 326
Case 4: The Wear Particle with Multi-Oxide Scales from an Oil Sample
with High Moisture Content 329
9 The Spherical Particles . 331
10 Copper Alloy Wear Particles . 331
Case 5: The Impending Catastrophic Wear in a Gearbox (250 Kw)
due to the Oil Starvation 334
11 Babbitt Alloy Wear Particles . 335
12 Oil Degradation Particles 336
12.1 Friction Polymer 337
12.2 Varnish Particles 339
12.3 Additive Degradation Particles 340
12.4 Pseudo-Metal Wear Particles . 342
12.5 Case Study 6: The Varnish Deposit and the Onset Damage on the
Bearing Pads of a 55 Mw Gas Turbine Load Gearbox . 343
13 The Microorganism Debris 345
14 Conclusion . 345
Acknowledgments 352
References 352
CHAPTER
Fatigue failure analysis of
welded structures: An
overview and A case study14
Seyed B. Behravesh, Elfaitori Ibrahim, Hamid Jahed
Fatigue and Stress Analysis Laboratory, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering
Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 355
2 Fatigue Modeling of Welded Structures by Local Approaches 360
2.1 Fracture-Mechanics Approach .360
2.2 Structural Stress Approach .362
2.3 Local Notch Stress/Strain Approach .365
3 Case Study: Fatigue Life Assessment of an Automotive Demo-Structure 366
3.1 Problem Statement 366
3.2 Self-Pierce Riveting .367
3.3 Material Properties and Modeling 368
3.3.1 Material Properties 368
3.3.2 Material Modeling 368
3.4 Fatigue Modeling .370
3.5 LSPR Specimen .372
3.5.1 Specimen and Testing 372
3.5.2 FE Modeling . 376
3.5.3 Simulation Results and Discussion . 376
3.6 Demo-Structure .378
4 Conclusion . 383
Acknowledgments 383
References 383
CHAPTER
Welding-associated
failures in power boilers 15
Iman El-Mahallawi, Waleed Khalifa, Mohamed El-Saady, Mohamed R. El-Koussy
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Material Applications in Power Boilers – Introduction 388
2 Stainless Steels (SSs) and Their Welding Characteristics . 389
2.1 Classification of Stainless Steels (SSs) .389
2.2 Welding Considerations 390
2.2.1 Thermal Properties 390
2.2.2 Electrical Resistivity . 390
2.2.3 Oxidation and Depletion of Chromium 391
2.3 Review of Welding Parameters Relevant to Stainless Steels .391
2.4 Welding Problems 392
2.4.1 Sensitization . 392
2.4.2 Stress-Corrosion Cracking . 393
2.4.3 Cracking . 393
2.4.4 Solidification Cracking 393
2.5 Post-Weld Heat Treatment 393
3 Stress-Corrosion Induced Failures . 394
3.1 Pitting Corrosion of Reboiler 304L Tubes Resulting from Wrong
Material Selection 394
3.2 Failure of a Super-Austenitic Stainless Steel Firefighting Welded
Pipe Line Resulting from Wrong Welding Parameters 398
3.3 Role of Microstructure on SCC Failures of Austenitic SS 401
3.4 Failure of a DSS air Cooling Tube Plate by Sulfide Stress-Corrosion
Cracking 403
4 Conclusion . 408
References 408
CHAPTER
Degradation of protective
PVD coatings 16
Alicja K. Krella
Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk, Poland
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 411
2 Influence of Deposition Parameters on PVD Coating Properties . 413
3 Deformation of Monolayer Coatings . 419
4 Properties of Multi-Layer Coatings . 421
5 Deformation of Multi-Layer Coatings 424
6 Fatigue Strength of PVD Coating 427
7 Degradation Caused by Dynamic Loading (Erosion) . 430
8 Conclusion . 433
References 434
CHAPTER
Application of pyrolysis
gas chromatography/mass
spectrometry (Py-GC/MS)
and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) in
failure analysis for the
identification of organic
compounds in chemical,
rubber, and automotive
industry
17
Peter Kusch*, Dorothee Schroeder-Obst*, Volker Obst†, Gerd Knupp*,
Wolfgang Fink*, Johannes Steinhaus*
Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Rheinbach, Germany*
Dr. Obst Technische Werkstoffe GmbH, Rheinbach, Germany†
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 442
2 Experimental 445
2.1 Samples 445
2.2 Instrumentation and Analytical Conditions .445
2.3 Derivatization and Direct GC/MS Analysis .446
3 Results 447
3.1 Application of Py-GC/MS and SEM in Failure Analysis in the
Automotive Industry .447
3.1.1 Case 1: Defect Work in Paint on the Surface of a
Rubber Membrane from the Pressure Vessel of an
Automotive Integral Accumulator . 447
3.1.2 Case 2: Identification of the Composition of Claimed
Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid 451
3.1.3 Case 3: Identification of the Composition of Sludge
on the Surface of the Compressor Wall from car air
Conditioner . 455
3.2 Application of Py-GC/MS and SEM in Failure
Analysis in the Rubber and
Automotive Industry .459
3.3 Application of Py-GC/MS in Failure
Analysis in the Chemical Industry 461
3.4 Application of Py-GC/MS in Failure
Analysis of a Medical Device .463
4 Conclusion . 468
Acknowledgment 468
References 468


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