كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries
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 كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries    الإثنين 05 مارس 2018, 7:47 am

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Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries
Edited by
Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf
Mahmood Aliofkhazraei  


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

CHAPTER
Strategies for static failure
analysis on aerospace
structures 1
Javier S. Milla´n, In?aki Armenda´riz, Juan Garc?´a-Mart?´nez, Roberto Gonza´lez
Materials and Structures Department, Instituto Nacional de Te´cnica Aeroespacial (INTA),
Torrejo´n de Ardoz, Madrid Spain
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 4
2 Delamination Growth in Composites . 4
2.1 VCCT Fundamentals .5
2.2 Experimental Benchmark and FEM Simulation .7
2.3 FEMs Comparison 8
2.4 Delamination Growth Tool .9
2.5 Correlation Between FEM Simulations and Tests .9
2.6 Mesh Size Effects 10
2.7 Comparison of Mixed-Mode Failure Criteria 10
2.8 Conclusion and Further Work in Delamination Growth Analysis .10
3 Debonding Onset and Growth . 12
3.1 DCB Coupon: Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness Test .13
3.2 FE Modeling 13
3.3 CZ Fundamentals .14
3.4 Mesh Dependency 14
3.5 Experimental Results .16
3.6 Correlation FEM Simulation—Tests .17
3.7 Conclusion and Future Work in Debonding Analysis .20
4 Crack Growth in Metallic Structures 20
4.1 CTOA Criterion—Experimental Obtaining of CTOAC .21
4.2 Crack Growth Tool 23
4.3 Benchmarks Description .23
4.4 FEM Modeling .24
4.5 Correlation Simulations—Tests .24
4.6 Crack Growth in Metallic Structures—Conclusion and Future Work .26
References 26
CHAPTER
Strategies for dynamic failure
analysis on aerospace
structures 2
In?aki Armenda´riz*, Javier S. Milla´n*, Jose´ M. Encinas*, Jose´ Olarrea†
Materials and Structures Department, Instituto Nacional de Te´cnica Aeroespacial (INTA),
Torrejo´n de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain*
E.T.S.I. Aerona´uticos, Universidad Polite´cnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain†
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 29
2 Land Incidents; Low-Velocity Impacts 31
2.1 FEM Modeling and Analysis 31
2.2 Conclusion and Recommendations 33
3 Land Incidents; Frangibility of Airport Structures 34
3.1 Design to be Analyzed 34
3.2 Numerical Analysis Tool Used in Impact Problems 35
3.3 Model Correlation with Lateral Loading Test .37
3.4 Mechanical Properties and Failure Criterion Validation 37
3.5 Frangibility Simulation Results 38
4 Flight Incidents; Blade Loss of a Transport Aircraft . 40
4.1 Blade-Loss Phenomenon .42
4.2 Description of the Models .43
4.3 FEM Model and Simplified Model 44
4.4 Analysis Considerations, Implicit and Explicit Method, Time Step 44
4.5 Loads and Boundary Conditions .47
4.6 Load Cases Analyzed 48
4.7 Results .49
4.8 Conclusion 51
5 Conclusion . 53
Acknowledgments 54
References 54
CHAPTER
The evolution of failure
analysis at NASA’s Kennedy
Space Center and lessons
learned
3
Maria C. Wright, Victoria L. Long, Steven J. McDanels
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 57
2 Long-Duration Space Operations 58
2.1 Skylab .58
2.2 International Space Station .58
3 Failure in LEO: The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint . 60
3.1 STS-117 Mission Overview .60
3.2 SARJ Hardware Overview 60
3.3 STS-117 Mission Details 61
4 The Problem 62
4.1 Troubleshooting During the STS-120 Mission .62
4.2 Initial KSC SARJ Investigation 63
4.3 NASA SARJ Investigation .65
4.4 Expedition 16 Sample Analysis .66
4.5 Postanalysis On-Orbit Inspection .70
4.6 The Repair on STS-126, November 2008 70
4.7 What About the Port-SARJ? .71
5 Conclusion . 71
References 72
CHAPTER
Fleet impact resulting from a
space shuttle Columbia main
engine controller wire failure
during Mission STS-93
4CHAPTER
Fatigue failures of
aeronautical items: Trainer
aircraft canopy lever reverse,
rescue helicopter main rotor
blade and fighter-bomber
aircraft ground-attack main
wheel
5
Manuele Bernabei, Laura Allegrucci, Mikael Amura
Chemistry Department, Italian Air Force—Flight Test Centre, Pratica di Mare AFB, Pomezia,
Rome, Italy
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 88
Case 1: Fatigue Fracture of an Aircraft Canopy Lever Reverse . 88
1 Introduction . 88
2 Results 90
2.1 Macrofractography .90
2.2 Microfractography 90
2.3 Chemical Analysis 94
2.4 Hardness Measurements .95
2.5 Microstructural Analysis .95
2.6 Microanalysis .95
2.7 FEA 96
2.8 Fatigue Life Assessment .96
3 Analysis of the Results . 97
4 Conclusion . 98
Case 2: Failure of a Helicopter Main Rotor Blade . 98
1 Introduction . 98
2 Results 100
2.1 Fractography 100
2.2 Chemical Analysis 101
2.3 Hardness Measurements .101
2.4 Microstructural Analysis .101
2.5 Fatigue Life Estimation 102
2.6 Nondestructive Testing .105
3 Blade Maintenance . 105
4 Conclusion . 106
Case 3: Fatigue Fracture of a Ground-Attack Aircraft Main Wheel . 106
1 Introduction . 106
2 Results 107
2.1 Chemical Analysis 107
2.2 Microstructural Analysis .108
2.3 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 108
2.4 Hardness Measurements .108
2.5 Metrologic Measurements .108
2.6 Visual Observations and Macrofractography 108
2.7 Microfractography 110
2.8 Finite Element Analysis 111
2.9 Maintenance History and NDT Efficiency Assessment .113
3 Discussion . 114
4 Conclusion . 116
References 116
Steven J. McDanels
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Space Shuttle Columbia Wiring Hardware Overview 76
2 Investigation 77
3 Conclusion . 84
Acknowledgments 86
References 86
CHAPTER
Failure investigations of
helicopter tail rotor gearbox
casings at Agustawestland
Limited
6
Fiona Belben
AWL Materials Technology Laboratory, AgustaWestland Ltd., Yeovil, Somerset, United Kingdom
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 118
2 Background to the Problem . 118
3 Case 1: Failure Investigation 1 (F1) . 120
3.1 Procedure 121
3.2 Results .121
3.3 Discussion .122
3.4 Conclusion 125
4 Case 2: Failure Investigation 2 (F2) . 125
4.1 Procedure 125
4.2 Results .125
4.3 Discussion .129
4.4 Conclusion 129
5 Case 3: Failure Investigation 3 (F3) . 129
5.1 Procedure 130
5.2 Results .130
5.3 Discussion .130
5.4 Conclusion 130
6 Review of Mechanical Properties 131
6.1 Procedure 131
6.2 Results .131
6.3 Discussion .133
6.4 Conclusion 136
7 Other TRGB Fatigue Investigations . 136
8 Other Fatigue Failure Investigations . 138
9 Housing Design-Going Forward 138
9.1 Current Center Housing 138
9.2 Gearbox Housings on New Aircraft .139
Acknowledgments 139
References 139
CHAPTER
Failures of Rotorcraft and
Fixed-Wing Aircraft
Aerospace Components 7
Victor K. Champagne, Marc S. Pepi
US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Adelphi, Maryland, USA
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 141
2 Synopsis of a Utility Helicopter Forward Longeron Failure . 142
2.1 Discussion of a Utility Helicopter Forward Longeron Failure .152
2.2 Lessons Learned from a Utility Helicopter Forward Longeron Failure .152
3 Synopsis of CH-47 Chinook Spiral Bevel Gear Failure . 153
3.1 Discussion of CH-47 Chinook Spiral Bevel Gear Failure .156
3.2 Lessons Learned from the CH-47 Chinook Spiral Bevel Gear Failure .157
4 Synopsis of the MS3314 General-Purpose Bomb 1000-Pound Suspension Lug
Failures . 157
4.1 Discussion of the MS3314 GP Bomb 1000-Pound Suspension Lug
Failures .160
4.2 Lessons Learned from the MS3314 GP Bomb 1000-Pound Suspension
Lug Failures 161
5 Synopsis of the AM355 Main Rotor Part Failure from an Army Attack
Helicopter 162
5.1 Discussion of the AM355 Main Rotor Part Failure .163
5.2 Lessons Learned from the AM355 Main Rotor Part Failure 163
6 Conclusion . 164
References 164
CHAPTER
Suspension and landing
gear failures 8
Edgar A. Ossa, Marco Paniagua
Material Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering, Universidad Eafit,
Medell?´n, Colombia
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 168
2 Causes of Suspension Systems Failures . 169
2.1 Metallurgical Failures .169
2.2 Design Failures 170
2.3 Processing Failures 170
3 Causes of Landing Gear Systems Failures 170
3.1 Metallurgical Failures .170
3.2 Processing Failures 171
3.3 Environmental Failures .171
3.4 Design Failures 171
3.5 Overload Failures .172
4 Cases of Suspension and Landing Gear Systems Failures 172
4.1 Processing and Design Failure of a Car Suspension System Ball Joint .172
4.1.1 Fractographic Study . 173
4.1.2 Metallographic Analysis 174
4.1.3 Finite Elements Analysis . 175
4.1.4 Conclusion and Recommendations 176
4.2 Failure of a Landing Gear Due to Overload 177
4.2.1 Fractographic Analysis . 177
4.2.2 Estimation of Failure Load 180
4.3 Discussion .181
4.4 Failure of a Nose-Landing Gear AFT Lock-Link 181
4.4.1 Fractographic Analysis . 181
4.4.2 Metallographic Analysis 184
4.4.3 Analysis . 185
4.5 Failure of the Rear Cantilever Spring Landing Gear of a Fumigation
Aircraft .185
5 Conclusion . 188
References 188
CHAPTER
Fatigue as a cause of
failure of aircraft engine
cylinder head 9
Branimir Krstic*, Bosko Rasuo†, Dragan Trifkovic*, Igor Radisavljevic{,
Zoran Rajic{, Mirko Dinulovic†
University of Defence in Belgrade, Military Academy, Generala Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33,
Belgrade, Serbia*
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kraljice Marije 16, Belgrade, Serbia†
Military Technical Institute, Ratka Resanovica 1, Belgrade, Serbia{
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 191
2 Description of Failures 193
3 Experimental Details . 196
4 Results 196
4.1 Visual Inspection .196
4.2 Macrofractography .197
4.2.1 Macrofractography of the CH I (Failure Case I) 197
4.2.2 Macrofractography of the CH II (Failure Case II) 199
4.3 Microfractography 201
4.4 Metallography 202
4.5 Chemical Composition 205
4.6 Hardness Measurements .208
4.7 Finite Element Analysis 208
5 Discussion . 211
6 Conclusion and Recommendations . 212
Acknowledgments 213
References 213
CHAPTER
Analysis of an engine bevel
pinion failure 10
Swati Biswas, Mudigere D. Ganeshachar, Varada N. Satish Kumar, Jivan Kumar,
Sangli N. Narendra Babu
Gas Turbine Research Establishment, Bengaluru, India
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 215
2 Background Information About the Failure 217
3 Investigations 219
3.1 Visual and Stereo-Binocular 219
3.1.1 Fractured Piece of the Bevel Pinion . 219
3.1.2 Pinion Housing 222
3.1.3 Vertical Quill Shaft . 223
3.2 Microhardness and Optical Microscopy 224
3.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy .224
4 Analysis of Failure Cause 225
5 Conclusion . 227
6 Recommendation 227
Acknowledgments 227
References 227
CHAPTER
Failure due to synergistic
fracture and pitting
corrosion of ruptured bolts
in a LARZAC engine of
Alpha Jet
11
Ahmed Z. Farahat*, Abdel S.H. Makhlouf†
Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, CMRDI,
Helwan, Cairo, Egypt*
Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering and
Computer Science, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley†
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 229
2 Laboratory Evaluation of the Damaged Bolts . 231
3 Failure Analysis Summary . 231
3.1 Physical and Visual Evaluation of the Bolts Samples .231
3.2 Surface Examination Using SEM Images 231
3.3 Chemical Composition Examination .232
4 Conclusion . 233
5 Recommendations 235
Reference 235
CHAPTER
A failure-processing
scheme based on Kalman
prediction and the
reliability analysis for
25 kVA generators used
on IDF
12
Shang-Kuo Yang
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chin Yi University of Technology,
Taichung, Taiwan
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 237
2 25 kVA Generator . 239
3 Kalman Filter and the Simulation System . 240
3.1 Kalman Filter .240
3.2 State-Space Models of the Generator .242
3.2.1 Continuous State-Space Model 242
3.2.2 Discrete State-Space Model 243
3.3 Aging Model 244
4 Simulations and Results 244
4.1 Parameters 244
4.2 Number of Simulation Samples .245
4.3 Results: Comparison Between Kalman Prediction and MCS .246
5 Failure Processing Scheme . 253
6 Discussions . 255
7 Reliability Analysis . 255
8 Conclusion . 257
Nomenclature 258
References 259
CHAPTER
Fatigue failure in aircraft
structural components 13
Selim G€ urgen*, Melih C. Kus¸han*, Seyid F. Diltemiz†
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eskis¸ehir Osmangazi University, Eskis¸ehir, Turkey*
Turkish Air Force, 1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskis¸ehir, Turkey†
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 261
2 Failure Analysis of an Aircraft Propeller . 263
2.1 Propeller After Failure 264
2.2 Failure Mechanism of the Propeller Blade 266
2.3 Discussion on the Failure of Propeller Blade .269
3 Failure Analysis of a Flap Actuator Rod 270
3.1 Failure Mechanism of the Actuator Rod 271
3.2 Discussion on the Failure of Actuator Rod 274
4 Conclusion . 276
References 276
CHAPTER
Chemical analysis
techniques for failure
analysis: Part 2, examples
from the lab
15
William J. Wolfgong
Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, Component Engineering Department, McKinney, Texas
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 309
2 Outgassing—Gaseous Materials Leading to Failures . 310
2.1 Sulfur-Containing Gases Leading to Silver Corrosion 310
2.2 Condensable Materials Analysis .315
3 Contamination at Electrical Contacts . 320
3.1 An Example of an Electrically Resistive Failure Resulting from
Contamination at Contact Surfaces 321
3.2 Intermittents and Opens During Operation of a Slip Ring .324
4 A Surface Appearance Question 329
4.1 Investigation of Discolored Wafers .329
5 Failures as a Result of Cleaning 331
5.1 Shorting Connectors .331
6 A Metallurgical Example . 334
7 Conclusion . 337
References 338
CHAPTER
Characterization of steel
cut-edge properties for
improved life predictions
for preventing automotive
structural failure
16
Daniel J. Thomas
College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Cut-Edge Characteristics Properties . 341
2 Cut-Edge Fatigue Crack Initiation and Growth . 348
3 Prestrain Fatigue Life Performance 354
4 Fatigue Life Prediction 358
5 Conclusion . 362
References 363
CHAPTER
Failure analysis cases of
components of automotive
and locomotive engines 17
Zhiwei Yu, Xiaolei Xu
Key Laboratory of Ship-Machinery Maintenance & Manufacture Ministry of Communication, PRC
Department of Materials Science, Engineering Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, PR China
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Case 1: Brittle Cracking of Gear-Teeth Due to Segregation of Excessive
Inclusions 366
1.1 Background .366
1.2 Observation Results 366
1.2.1 Visual Observations 366
1.2.2 SEM Observations . 368
1.2.3 Metallurgical Examination . 369
1.3 Failure Causes Analysis 370
1.4 Conclusion 370
1.5 Recommendations .371
2 Case 2: Fatigue Fracture of Fuel Injection Pipe Because of Surface
Machining Dent 371
2.1 Background .371
2.2 Observation Results 371
2.3 Failure Causes Analysis 374
2.4 Conclusion 374
3 Case 3: Fatigue Cracking of Carburized Plunger-Sleeves Due to Raw
Material Defect and Improper Heat Treatment 374
3.1 Background .374
3.2 Observation Results 375
3.2.1 Observations on Surface Damage 375
3.2.2 Observations on Fracture Surface 375
3.2.3 Microcomposition Analysis on Inclusions on the Fracture
Surface 377
3.2.4 Microstructure Examination 378
3.3 Oxidation and Carburizing Simulation Tests in Laboratory 380
3.4 Failure Causes Analysis 381
3.5 Conclusion 382
3.6 Recommendations .382
4 Case 4: Intergranular Fracture of Carburized Splined-Shaft Due
to Case Internal Oxidation and Defective Design . 382
4.1 Background .382
4.2 Observation Results 383
4.2.1 Fractographic Observation 383
4.2.2 Microstructure Examination 386
4.3 Failure Causes Analysis 388
4.4 Conclusion 389
5 Recommendations 390
References 390
CHAPTER
Failure mechanisms and
modes analysis of vehicle
exhaust components and
systems
18
Zhigang Wei*, Thomas Goehring*, Melany Mioduszewski*, Limin Luo*,
Adam Kotrba*, Marek Rybarz†, Kay Ellinghaus{, Markus Pieszkalla{
Tenneco Inc., Grass Lake, Jackson, Michigan, USA*
Tenneco Automotive Polska sp. z o.o. Rybnik, Poland†
Tenneco GmbH, Edenkoben, Germany{
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 394
2 Trend Overview of Exhaust Development and Materials Requirements 396
3 Typical Failure Mechanisms and Modes in Vehicle Exhaust Systems . 399
3.1 Mechanical Fatigue 401
3.2 Thermal Fatigue .402
3.3 Corrosion .403
3.4 Tensile 406
3.5 Impact 406
3.6 Oxidation .406
3.7 Urea Corrosion .407
3.8 Erosion-Corrosion .408
4 Failure Modeling and Data Analysis . 408
4.1 Fatigue Failure Modeling 408
4.1.1 Crack Growth Approach . 410
4.1.2 Total Life Approach 412
4.2 Statistical and Probabilistic Data Analysis 413
Example: Probabilistic Distribution of Thermal-Fatigue
Test Data 415
5 Materials Performance Ranking and Selection . 417
5.1 Material Ranking in Cyclic Oxidation and V-Specimen Thermal-Cycling
Resistance 417
5.1.1 Cycling Oxidation Tests 417
5.1.2 V-Shape Specimen Thermal-Cycling Tests 418
5.1.3 A Ranking Formula for Cyclic Oxidation and V-Shape Specimen
Thermal Cycling 418
5.2 Material Ranking in Corrosion Resistance .419
5.2.1 Pitting or Crevice Depth 419
5.2.2 Pitting Corrosion Potential . 419
5.2.3 Pitting Corrosion Resistance Ranking with PREN . 421
6 Case Studies 422
6.1 Case 1: Muffler Bracket Fatigue Failure .422
6.2 Case 2: Probabilistic Thermal-Fatigue Life Assessment .425
7 Conclusion . 429
Acknowledgments 429
References 430
CHAPTER
Failure of structural parts
for large road vehicles 19
V? ´ctor H. Jacobo, Edgar I. Ram?´rez, Rafael Schouwenaars, Armando Ortiz
Department of Materials Science and Manufacturing, DIMEI Universidad Nacional
Auto´noma de Me´xico Avenida Universidad, Coyoaca´n, Me´xico D.F. Mexico
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 433
2 Experimental Procedures 434
3 Case Studies 435
3.1 Welded Hollow Structural Sections 435
3.2 Z-Bar of Air Suspension 438
3.3 Transmission Axle 440
3.4 Torsion Bar 444
3.5 Discussion .445
4 Conclusion . 446
Acknowledgments 446
References 446
CHAPTER
Failure of steel couplings
used in railway transport 20
Teresa L.M. Morgado
Engineering Departmental Unit of Tomar Polytechnic Institute, Escola Superior de Tecnologia
de Abrantes do Instituto Polite´cnico de Tomar, Abrantes, Portugal
ICEMS-IST-UL—Institute of Materials and Surfaces Science and Engineering, Lisbon
University, Lisboa, Portugal
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 449
2 Problem Definition 451
3 Material and Geometry of the Railway Coupling 452
3.1 Material Characterization 454
3.2 Metallographic Analysis 454
3.3 Quantitative Analysis of Casting Defects .455
4 Fatigue Tests: Generate Life Fatigue Curve . 457
5 Service Acquisition and Data Treatment . 459
5.1 Strain Gauge Acquisition 459
5.2 Uniaxial Behavior .460
5.3 Service Stress Analysis .462
6 Life Prediction Approaches . 465
6.1 Life Prediction Using Palmgren-Miner Rule Modified by Haibach .465
6.2 Life Prediction Using Palmgren-Miner Rule and Goodman Equation .466
7 Results and Discussion . 468
8 Conclusion . 468
References 469
CHAPTER
Failure analysis and
prevention in powertrain
systems 21
Mohammad Azadi
Fatigue and Wear in Materials (FWM) Workgroup, Irankhodro Powertrain
Company (IPCO), Tehran, Iran
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1 Introduction . 471
2 Failure Analysis of a Broken Intake Valve 474
2.1 Failure History .474
2.2 Results and Discussions .476
2.2.1 Mechanical Investigations . 476
2.2.2 Material Investigations 478
2.3 Remarkable Notes 481
3 Failure Analysis of a Cracked Cylinder Head 481
3.1 Failure History .481
3.2 Results and Discussions .482
3.2.1 Observation Results . 482
3.2.2 Measurements 482
3.2.3 Material Investigations 484
3.2.4 Mechanical Investigations . 487
3.3 Remarkable Notes 489
References 491


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كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries , كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries , كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries ,كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries ,كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries , كتاب Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Aerospace and Automotive Industries
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