كتاب Rolling Contacts - Tribology in Practice Series
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Rolling Contacts - Tribology in Practice Series

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عدد المساهمات : 14729
التقييم : 24067
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 29
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Rolling Contacts - Tribology in Practice Series   السبت 06 يناير 2018, 10:05 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Rolling Contacts
Tribology in Practice Series
by T A Stolarski and S Tobe
Series Editors M J Neale, T A Polak, and C M Taylor


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Contents
Series Editors’ Foreword xiii
Preface xv
Notation xvii
Chapter 1 Introduction to Rolling Contacts 1
1.1 Historical perspective 1
1.2 Practical use of rolling contact 2
1.3 Need to lubricate the rolling contact 5
1.3.1 Lubrication in the contact area 5
1.3.2 Reasons for lubrication 7
1.4 References 9
Chapter 2 Elements of Surface Contact of Solids 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Distribution of stresses within the contact zone 12
2.3 Deformations resulting from contact loading 18
2.4 Contact between bodies of revolution 19
2.4.1 Stress distribution within the contact 21
2.4.2 Contact with combined normal and tangential
loads 23
2.4.3 Three-dimensional contact 24
2.5 Contact of real surfaces 30
2.6 Criterion for deformation mode 34
2.6.1 Surface plastic deformations 35
2.7 Thermal effects during rolling 38
2.7.1 Moving source of heat 39
2.8 Contact of bodies with interposing film 40
2.8.1 Background to the analysis 41
2.8.2 Case of contacting cylinders 42
2.8.3 Contacting spheres 45
2.9 Crack formation in contacting elastic bodies 45
2.9.1 Description of the contact 46viii Rolling Contacts
2.10 Contacts deviating from the Hertz theory 50
2.10.1 Friction at the contact interface 50
2.10.2 Adhesion at the contact interface 51
2.11 References 54
Chapter 3Fundamentals of Rolling Motion 55
3.1 General features of rolling contact 55
3.2 Source of friction in rolling contact 58
3.3 Rolling friction force 60
3.4 Free rolling 62
3.4.1 Cylinder on a plane 62
3.4.2 Sphere on a plane 64
3.5 Material damping during rolling 65
3.6 Slip at the surface of contact 68
3.7 Internal friction 72
3.8 References 74
Chapter 4 Dynamic Characteristics of Rolling Motion 75
4.1 Introduction 75
4.2 Analytical evaluation of friction torque 76
4.2.1 Friction during rolling 76
4.2.2 Friction torque in the rolling contact 79
4.2.3 Total friction torque 88
4.2.4 Variable components of friction torque 91
4.3 Elastic and damping characteristics of the rolling
contact 106
4.3.1 Static stiffness of the rolling contact 106
4.4 Dimensional accuracy and contact stiffness 115
4.4.1 Radial stiffness as a function of inaccuracies 116
4.4.2 Effect of variable dimensions and variable
stiffness 121
4.4.3 Effect of waviness of raceways 122
4.5 Ball motion in a rolling contact bearing 125
4.5.1 Inertia forces and moments acting on the ball 125
4.5.2 Relative motions of the rolling elements 129
4.5.3 Friction at the contact interface 135
4.6 References 143
Chapter 5 Rolling Contact Bearings 145
5.1 Phenomenology of friction during rolling 145
5.2 Friction torque 150
5.2.1 Friction coefficient 152Contents ix
5.3 Contact stresses and deformations 153
5.3.1 Contact between elastic bodies 153
5.3.2 Elastic deformations in bearings 157
5.3.3 Permanent deformations 160
5.4 Load distribution within bearings 163
5.4.1 Radial bearings 163
5.4.2 Thrust bearings 167
5.5 Kinematics of bearing elements 167
5.5.1 Rotational speed of the elements and the cage 167
5.5.2 Contact cycles due to rolling 171
5.6 Inertia forces 171
5.6.1 Centrifugal forces 171
5.6.2 Crankpin bearings 173
5.6.3 Forces of gyration 174
5.7 Load-carrying capacity 175
5.7.1 Dynamic capacity 175
5.7.2 Static capacity 181
5.7.3 Equivalent bearing loads 184
5.8 Lubrication of bearings 195
5.8.1 Elastohydrodynamic lubrication 196
5.9 References 198
Chapter 6 Rolling Contacts in Land Locomotion 201
6.1 Rail–wheel systems 201
6.1.1 Traction at the rail–wheel interface 202
6.1.2 Braking process 205
6.1.3 Traction enhancing techniques 205
6.1.4 Consequences of wheel and rail wear 207
6.1.5 Ribbed tyre 207
6.2 Tyre–road interactions 210
6.2.1 Relationship between friction and traction 211
6.2.2 Characteristics of the traction 214
6.2.3 Analysis of dry road traction 218
6.2.4 Traction under wet conditions 222
6.2.5 Analysis of wet road traction 226
6.2.6 Practical approach to traction modelling 234
6.3 References 236
Chapter 7 Machine Elements in Rolling Contact 239
7.1 Contact of meshing gears 239
7.1.1 Peculiarities of contact between gear teeth 239
7.1.2 Geometry of contact between gear teeth 241x Rolling Contacts
7.2 Friction in meshing gears 243
7.2.1 Tooth losses 246
7.3 Outline of elastohydrodynamic theory 248
7.3.1 Estimates of film thickness 251
7.4 Application of elastohydrodynamic theory to gears 252
7.4.1 Film thickness between gear teeth 253
7.4.2 Operating temperature 257
7.4.3 Oil viscosity in relation to surface condition 259
7.5 Boundary contact in gear lubrication 261
7.5.1 Running-in process 262
7.6 Scuffing in meshing gears 263
7.6.1 Flash temperature as a criterion for
scuffing 263
7.6.2 Phenomenon of scuffing 266
7.6.3 Probability of scuffing 268
7.7 Tooth face pitting 274
7.7.1 Fatigue fracture 279
7.7.2 Impact fracture 280
7.7.3 Tooth loading 281
7.8 Cam–follower system 285
7.8.1 Reciprocating engine cam 286
7.8.2 Analysis of the follower motion 289
7.8.3 Tangent cam with a roller follower 291
7.8.4 Camshaft torque 297
7.8.5 Convex cam with a roller follower 300
7.8.6 General case of a convex cam with a roller
follower 302
7.8.7 Convex cam with a flat follower 306
7.8.8 Stresses within the cam–tappet contact 309
7.8.9 Lubrication of the cam–tappet contact 312
7.8.10 Design considerations 313
7.9 References 314
Chapter 8 Non-metallic Rolling Contacts 317
8.1 General considerations 317
8.1.1 Approaches to polymer fatigue 319
8.1.2 Loading conditions in rolling contact 319
8.2 Phenomenology of polymer fatigue 320
8.2.1 Physical states of stressed polymers 321
8.2.2 Response to applied stress 323
8.2.3 Phenomenological description of fatigue 324Contents xi
8.3 Behaviour of polymers in rolling contact 329
8.3.1 Characteristics of rolling contact conditions 330
8.3.2 Thermodynamic equilibrium in rolling contact 331
8.3.3 Mechanics of polymer rolling contact 337
8.3.4 Fatigue considerations 340
8.4 Model rolling polymer contact 344
8.4.1 Experimental setting 344
8.4.2 Kinematics of the model contact 345
8.4.3 Performance of some polymers in rolling contact 348
8.5 Technical ceramics in rolling contact 350
8.5.1 Ceramic materials 350
8.5.2 Ceramic bearings 352
8.5.3 Manufacture of silicon nitride balls 356
8.5.4 Dimensional quality of ceramic bearing
components 357
8.5.5 Material quality 358
8.5.6 Surface quality 359
8.5.7 Failure modes of ceramics in rolling contact 361
8.6 References 362
Chapter 9 Coated Surfaces in Rolling Contact 365
9.1 Introduction 365
9.2 Coating processes 365
9.2.1 Thermal spray 365
9.2.2 Electroplating 372
9.2.3 Physical vapour deposition 377
9.2.4 Chemical vapour deposition 379
9.3 Application of coatings to rolling contact elements 383
9.3.1 Rollers for steel forming 383
9.3.2 Rollers for papermaking and printing 385
9.3.3 Fracture of coatings during rolling 388
9.4 References 389
Chapter 10 Rolling in Metal Forming 391
10.1 Introduction 391
10.2 Forces acting in the contact region 392
10.2.1 Forces acting in the roll gap 392
10.2.2 Neutral point and no-slip angle 395
10.2.3 Expressions for the no-slip angle 397
10.2.4 Maximum value of the no-slip angle 398
10.2.5 Rolling when bar motion is impeded 399xii Rolling Contacts
10.3 Forward slip during rolling 400
10.3.1 Introduction 400
10.3.2 Expressions for forward slip 400
10.4 Friction between the rolls and the material 404
10.4.1 Role of friction in rolling 404
10.4.2 Friction in hot rolling 405
10.4.3 Friction in cold rolling 407
10.4.4 Evaluation of friction measuring methods 408
10.4.5 Coned compression tests 409
10.4.6 Friction coefficient variation along the arc of
contact 412
10.5 Theories of metal rolling 416
10.5.1 Introduction 416
10.5.2 Equation describing the friction hill 417
10.5.3 Theory of von Karman 421
10.5.4 Simplification of von Karman’s equation 423
10.5.5 Modification of von Karman’s equation 424
10.5.6 Effect of front and back tension on the pressure
distribution 426
10.5.7 Shortfalls of rolling theories 428
10.5.8 Theory of rolling by Orowan 429
10.5.9 Variations of the Orowan equation 437
10.6 Discussion of metal rolling theories 438
10.7 References 439
Index 441


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