كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes

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عدد المساهمات : 14729
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 29
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes    الثلاثاء 26 ديسمبر 2017, 10:34 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes
Ioan D. Marinescu
University of Toledo
Toledo, Ohio, USA
W. Brian Rowe
Liverpool John Moores University
Liverpool, United Kingdom
Boris Dimitrov
Institute for Precision Engineering
Bucharest, Romania
Ichiro Inasaki
Keio University
Yokohama-shi, Japan


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1 ABRASIVE PROCESSES .
1.1.1 Grinding .
1.1.2 Honing .
1.1.3 Lapping
1.1.4 Polishing .
1.2 ABRASIVES
1.3 TRIBOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
1.3.1 Two-body Abrasion .
1.3.2 Three-body Abrasion .
1.4 A TYPICAL GRINDING PROCESS .
1.5 A TRIBOLOGICAL SYSTEM
REFERENCES .
2. Tribosystems of Abrasive Machining Processes .
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 STRUCTURE OF TRIBOMECHANICAL
PROCESSING
2.2.1 The Interconnecting Elements in the
Tribosystem Structure
2.2.2 The Optimum Properties of the
Tribosystem .
2.2.3 Interrelationships Between System Elements .
2.2.4 The Total Structural System
2.3 THE THREE TRIBOSYSTEMS IN
ABRASIVE MACHINING .
2.3.1 Bonded Abrasive Processes .
2.3.2 Loose Abrasive Processes
2.3.3 Dressing Processes .
2.3.4 Basic Parameters of the Tribosystem Structure
2.4 MODELING TRIBOSYSTEMS OF ABRASIVE
PROCESSES
2.4.1 The Influence of the Workmaterials
in Modeling
2.4.2 The Influence of the Shape and Size
of the Contact Surface
2.4.3 The Influence and Measurement of
Cutting Forces .
2.5 CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES .
3. Kinematic Models of Abrasive Contacts .
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.1.1 Machine Control Variables
3.1.2 Workpiece Material Removal
3.1.3 Volume Tool Wear .
3.1.4 Grinding Ratio
3.2 BASIC ANALYSIS OF SURFACE GRINDING .
3.2.1 Micromilling Analogy .
3.2.2 Geometric Contact Length
3.2.3 Kinematic Contact Length
3.2.4 Grain Penetration Depth or Uncut
Chip Thickness
3.2.5 Uncut Chip Aspect Ratio
3.3 CYLINDRICAL GRINDING CONTACTS .
3.3.1 External Cylindrical Plunge Grinding .
3.3.2 Removal Rate in Cylindrical
Plunge Grinding .
3.3.3 Effect of G-ratio on Removal Rate
3.3.4 Effect of G-ratio on Depth of Cut
3.3.5 Geometric Contact Length in
Cylindrical Grinding
3.3.6 Uncut Chip Thickness in
Cylindrical Grinding
3.3.7 Basic Parameters for Internal
Cylindrical Grinding
3.3.8 Uncut Chip Aspect Ratio in
Cylindrical Grinding
3.3.9 Angle Grinding of Cylindrical Parts
3.3.10 Comparisons of Surface, Internal,
and External Grinding .
3.3.11 Centerless Grinding
3.4 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STOCHASTIC
NATURE OF GRINDING
3.4.1 Mean Uncut Chip Thickness
3.4.2 Cutting Edge Density
3.4.3 Mean Uncut Chip Cross-sectional Area
3.4.4 Equivalent Chip Thickness .
3.4.5 Grain Spacing .
3.4.6 Effect of Grain Shape
3.4.7 Effect of Increasing Grain Density
3.4.8 Effects on Grain Wear .
3.4.9 Irregular Grain Spacing
3.4.10 Irregular Grain Depth .
3.4.11 Factors Affecting Workpiece Roughness
3.5 EFFECT OF DRESSING
3.6 SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL KINEMATIC
PARAMETERS .
REFERENCES
4. Contact Mechanics
4.1 CONTACT AREA
4.2 CONTACT LENGTH .
4.2.1 Due To Deflection
4.2.2 Due To Depth of Cut
4.2.3 Combined Deflection and Depth of Cut .
4.3 SMOOTH BODY ANALYSIS .
4.4 ROUGH SURFACE ANALYSIS .
4.5 EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS
OF ROUGHNESS FACTOR (Rr) .
4.5.1 Comparison With Measurements by Verkerk
4.5.2 Effect of Depth of Cut .
4.5.3 Effect of Workspeed
4.5.4 Evaluation of Roughness Factor, Rr,
and Contact Length, lc
4.6 ELASTIC STRESSES DUE TO ABRASION .
4.7 SUMMARY OF CONTACT STRESS
IMPLICATIONS .
REFERENCES
5. Forces, Friction, and Energy
5.1 INTRODUCTION .
5.2 FORCES AND POWER .
5.3 FORCES: SPECIFIC ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY.
5.4 EXAMPLES OF MATERIALS AND
THEIR GRINDING CONDITIONS
5.4.1 Gray Cast Iron
5.4.2 Medium Carbon Steel, AISI 1055
5.4.3 C1023 Nickel-based Alloy
5.5 THE SIZE EFFECT .
5.5.1 The Sliced Bread Analogy .
5.5.2 Cutting, Ploughing, and Rubbing .
5.5.3 Threshold Force for Cutting .
5.5.4 Grain Sharpness
5.6 EFFECT OF WEAR FLAT AREA ON
SPECIFIC ENERGY .
5.6.1 Chip Formation Energy .
5.6.2 Sliding Energy .
5.6.3 The Ploughing Energy
5.7 WEAR AND DRESSING CONDITIONS
5.8 EFFECT OF DRESSING TOOL WEAR .
5.9 THE NATURE OF THE GRINDING FORCES .
5.10 FORCE RATIO AND FRICTION COEFFICIENT .
5.10.1 Blunt Asperity Contact
(Adhesion Friction)
5.10.2 Sharp Asperity Contact
(Abrasive Cone Friction) .
5.10.3 Combined Cone and Sphere Model .
5.11 ADHESIVE AND ABRASIVE WHEEL WEAR
5.12 SLIP-LINE FIELD SOLUTIONS .
5.12.1 Wave Model of Rubbing
5.12.2 Wave Removal Model of Wear .
5.12.3 Chip Removal Models of Abrasion .
5.13 THREE-DIMENSIONAL PYRAMID
MODEL OF GRINDING .
5.14 LIMIT CHARTS .
5.15 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND
WHEELSPEED
REFERENCES .
6. Thermal Design of Processes .
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 EXAMPLES OF SURFACE DAMAGE .
6.2.1 Discoloration
6.2.2 Softening
6.2.3 Re-hardening .
6.2.4 Cracks .
6.2.5 Spheroidal Swarf .
6.2.6 Tensile Residual Stresses
6.2.7 Mechanically Induced Stresses .
6.3 THERMAL MODELING—KEY DEVELOPMENTS
6.4 RATE OF HEAT GENERATION
6.5 TEMPERATURES IN GRINDING .
6.6 HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE WORKPIECE
6.7 FLUX DISTRIBUTION
6.8 PECLET NUMBER .
5.9 THE NATURE OF THE GRINDING FORCES .
5.10 FORCE RATIO AND FRICTION COEFFICIENT .
5.10.1 Blunt Asperity Contact
(Adhesion Friction)
5.10.2 Sharp Asperity Contact
(Abrasive Cone Friction) .
5.10.3 Combined Cone and Sphere Model .
5.11 ADHESIVE AND ABRASIVE WHEEL WEAR
5.12 SLIP-LINE FIELD SOLUTIONS .
5.12.1 Wave Model of Rubbing
5.12.2 Wave Removal Model of Wear .
5.12.3 Chip Removal Models of Abrasion .
5.13 THREE-DIMENSIONAL PYRAMID
MODEL OF GRINDING .
5.14 LIMIT CHARTS .
5.15 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND
WHEELSPEED
REFERENCES .
6. Thermal Design of Processes .
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 EXAMPLES OF SURFACE DAMAGE .
6.2.1 Discoloration
6.2.2 Softening
6.2.3 Re-hardening .
6.2.4 Cracks .
6.2.5 Spheroidal Swarf .
6.2.6 Tensile Residual Stresses
6.2.7 Mechanically Induced Stresses .
6.3 THERMAL MODELING—KEY DEVELOPMENTS
6.4 RATE OF HEAT GENERATION
6.5 TEMPERATURES IN GRINDING .
6.6 HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE WORKPIECE
6.7 FLUX DISTRIBUTION
6.8 PECLET NUMBER .
7.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLECULAR
DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF
ABRASIVE PROCESSES
7.4 APPLICATION EXAMPLES FOR
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION
OF ABRASIVE PROCESSES .
7.4.1 Orthogonal Cutting of a Ductile,
Single-crystalline Material
7.4.2 A Model for Investigating the
Pile-up Formation in Abrasive Machining
7.4.3 Machining of Ductile, Polycrystalline Materials.
7.4.4 Indenting a Brittle Semiconductor Material .
7.5 SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
REFERENCES
8. Fluid Delivery
8.1 THE ROLE OF PROCESS FLUIDS .
8.2 OVERCOMING THE AIR BARRIER
IN HIGH SPEED GRINDING .
8.3 NOZZLES FOR HIGH SPEED GRINDING .
8.3.1 The Turbulent Orifice Nozzle .
8.3.2 The Transitional and Laminar
Flow Capillary Nozzle
8.3.3 The Slot Nozzle
8.3.4 The Shoe Nozzle
8.4 ENERGY AND MOMENTUM
REQUIREMENTS OF THE
PROCESS FLUID .
8.4.1 Velocity Requirement for a Jet Nozzle .
8.5 USEFUL FLOWRATE THROUGH
THE GRINDING CONTACT
8.6 MECHANICS OF COOLING IN
CREEP GRINDING
8.6.1 Estimating the Thickness of the
Thermal Boundary Layer .
8.6.2 Application of Coolant in Creep Grinding
8.7 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES .
9. Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID)
Grinding and Polishing
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 BASIC SYSTEM
9.3 BASIC PRINCIPLES
9.4 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF ELID GRINDING .
9.5 GRINDING WHEELS FOR ELID APPLICATIONS
9.6 ELID GRINDING OF CERAMICS
9.7 MATERIAL REMOVAL MECHANISMS
IN GRINDING OF CERAMICS AND GLASSES .
9.8 COMPARISON BETWEEN ELID AND
OTHER GRINDING TECHNIQUES .
9.9 APPLICATIONS OF ELID GRINDING
9.9.1 ELID Face-grinding
9.9.2 ELID Duplex (Double-sided) Grinding .
9.9.3 ELID Lap-grinding
9.9.4 ELID Grinding of Ceramics on a
Vertical Rotary Surface Grinder .
9.9.5 ELID Grinding of Ceramics on a
Vertical Grinding Center
9.9.6 ELID Grinding of Bearing Steels
9.9.7 ELID Grinding of Ceramic Coatings .
9.9.8 ELID Ultra-Precision Grinding of
Aspheric Mirrors .
9.9.9 ELID Grinding of Microspherical Lens .
9.9.10 ELID Grinding of Large Optical
Glass Substrates
9.9.11 ELID Precision Internal Grinding
9.9.12 ELID Grinding of Hard Steels .
9.9.13 ELID Mirror Grinding of Carbon
Fiber Reinforced Plastics
9.9.14 ELID Grinding of Chemical Vapor
Deposited Silicon Nitride .
9.10 CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES .
10. Grinding Wheel and Abrasive Topography .
10.1 BASIC WHEEL SHAPE .
10.1.1 Misalignment .
10.1.2 Profile Errors .
10.1.3 Vibrations .
10.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF MICROTOPOGRAPHY
10.3 TOPOGRAPHICAL DEFINITIONS
10.3.1 Cutting Edge Dullness (?) .
10.3.2 Cutting Edge Density (Ca)
10.3.3 Effective Porosity Ratio (V
pw
)
10.4 MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES .
10.4.1 Stylus Techniques
10.4.2 Microscopy
10.4.3 Comparison of Measurement Ranges .
10.4.4 Replication Techniques
10.4.5 Image Processing
10.5 TOPOGRAPHY CHANGES IN GRINDING
10.6 GRINDING INCONEL 718 .
REFERENCES .
11. Abrasives and Abrasive Tools
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 CONVENTIONAL ABRASIVE
GRAIN MATERIALS
11.2.1 Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3)-based Abrasives
11.2.2 Garnet
11.2.3 Quartz
11.2.4 Silicon Carbide (SiC) .
11.2.5 Polishing Abrasives .
11.2.6 Abrasive Wheel Type-marking .
11.3 SUPERABRASIVES .
11.3.1 Natural Diamond
11.3.2 Synthetic Diamond
11.3.3 Chemical-Physical Properties of Diamond
11.3.4 Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN)
11.3.5 Boron Nitride (B4N)
11.4 STRUCTURE OF SUPERABRASIVES
11.4.1 Structure of Diamond .
11.4.2 Structure of Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) .
11.4.3 PCD Diamond .
11.4.4 CVD Diamond
11.5 GRIT SIZES, GRIT SHAPES, AND PROPERTIES
11.5.1 Grit Sizes .
11.5.2 Modern Grain Developments .
11.5.3 Friability
11.5.4 Hardness
11.5.5 Grain Shape .
11.5.6 Specific Gravity
11.5.7 Porosity .
11.5.8 Properties of Diamond
11.5.9 Properties of CBN .
11.6 BONDS .
11.6.1 Bonds for Conventional Abrasives
11.6.2 Bonds for Single-layer Superabrasives
11.6.3 Bonds for Multilayer Diamond .
11.6.4 Bonds for Multilayer CBN
11.7 DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION OF
GRINDING WHEELS .
11.7.1 Conventional Grinding Wheels
11.7.2 Multilayer Superabrasive Grinding Wheels
11.7.3 Electroplated Single-layer Superabrasive
Grinding Wheels
11.7.4 Wheel Shape and Tolerances
11.7.5 Wheel Balancing .
11.7.6 Design of High-speed Wheels .
11.7.7 Chatter Suppression
11.8 ABRASIVE PASTES .
11.8.1 Binders for Abrasive Pastes .
11.9 COATED ABRASIVES AND ABRASIVE BELTS
11.9.1 Coated Abrasive Tools
11.9.2 Backing Materials for Coated Abrasives
11.9.3 Adhesives for Abrasive Belts
11.9.4 Comparison Between Grinding
Wheels and Abrasive Belts
11.9.5 Abrasive Belts in Furniture Production
11.9.6 Abrasive Grains for Abrasive Belts .
11.9.7 Backings for Abrasive Belts
REFERENCES
United States Patents .
American National Standards Institute
Japanese Industrial Standards
International Standards Organization .
Grinding Wheel Manufacturers’ Literature .
12. Conditioning of Abrasive Wheels .
12.1 INTRODUCTION .
12.2 GRINDING WHEEL PREPARATION .
12.3 GRINDING WHEEL CONDITIONING .
12.3.1 Introduction .
12.3.2 Cleaning-up a Wheel
12.3.3 Truing
12.3.4 Dressing
12.4 DRESSING TOOLS
12.4.1 Introduction .
12.4.2 Ultra-hard Materials for Dressing Tools
12.4.3 Traverse Dressers
12.4.4 Roll Dressers
12.5 TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONDITIONING
VITRIFIED CONVENTIONAL WHEELS .
12.5.1 Conditioning by Traversing the
Diamond Tool Across the Wheel .
12.5.2 Diamond Roller Dressing .
12.5.3 Crush Dressing .
12.5.4 Continuous Dressing (CD) Using a
Diamond Roller .
12.6 TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONDITIONING
SUPERABRASIVE WHEELS .
12.6.1 Introduction .
Truing Superabrasive Wheels 476
12.6.3 Dressing Superabrasive Wheels 478
12.7 NONCONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
FOR WHEEL CONDITIONING 479
12.8 REMOVAL MECHANISMS IN
CONVENTIONAL CONDITIONING .480
12.8.1 Introduction 480
12.8.2 Mechanism of Dressing Conventional
Vitrified Wheels .482
12.8.3 Mechanism of Conditioning Superabrasive Wheels 483
12.9 MICROTOPOGRAPHY OF
CONDITIONED WHEEL .486
12.9.1 Introduction 486
12.9.2 Experimental Methods for Representation
of Wheel Microtopography .487
12.10 WEAR OF THE DRESSING TOOLS 488
12.10.1 Introduction 488
12.10.2 Influence of the Wheel Specification 489
12.10.3 Influence of the Ultra-hard Components
of the Dresser 489
12.11 CONCLUSIONS 494
REFERENCES .495
13. Loose Abrasive Processes 499
13.1 INTRODUCTION 499
13.2 TWO-BODY AND THREE-BODY
ABRASION (MECHANISMS) .504
13.3 THE LAPPING PROCESS .507
13.3.1 The Lap .508
13.3.2 The Abrasive .509
13.3.3 The Lapping Fluid 513
13.3.4 Lapping Types .515
13.4 POLISHING PROCESS .518
13.5 CHEMO-MECHANICAL POLISHING (CMP) 524
REFERENCES .528Contents xxiii
14. Process Fluids for Abrasive Machining .531
14.1 PROCESS FLUIDS AS LUBRICANTS 531
14.1.1 Alternative Lubrication Techniques .531
14.1.2 Benefits of Lubricants in
Abrasive Machining 533
14.1.3 Three Main Groups of Fluids 533
14.1.4 Demands Arising from New Materials
and Applications 534
14.2 LUBRICATION REGIMES .534
14.2.1 The Stribeck Curve .534
14.2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 535
14.2.3 Boundary/Mixed Lubrication .536
14.2.4 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) .537
14.2.5 Lubrication in Abrasive Machining Contacts 538
14.3 VISCOSITY .538
14.3.1 Dynamic Viscosity, ? .538
14.3.2 Kinematic Viscosity, ? .539
14.3.3 Dependence of Viscosity on Temperature 539
14.3.4 Viscosity Index for Temperature .539
14.3.5 Viscosity Index for Pressure .540
14.4 FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN
MIXED/BOUNDARY LUBRICATION .540
14.5. CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESS FLUIDS 542
14.6 NEAT OILS 542
14.6.1 Natural Fatty Oils 542
14.6.2 Mineral Oils .543
14.6.3 Synthetic Neat Oils 545
14.6.4 Classification of Neat Oils by Additives .546
14.7 WATER-BASED FLUIDS .546
14.7.1 Physical Aspects .546
14.7.2 Properties of Water as a Base Liquid .549
14.8 WATER SOLUTIONS 550
14.8.1 Mineral Salt Solutions 551
14.8.2 Water Solutions of Synthetic
Organic Compounds 551
14.9 WATER-OIL EMULSIONS .551
14.9.1 Oil-concentrate Emulsions .552xxiv Contents
14.9.2 Semisynthetic Emulsions .552
14.9.3 Synthetic Emulsions .552
14.10 THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES 553
14.11 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PROCESS FLUIDS .555
14.11.1 Density .555
14.11.2 Viscosity and Viscosity Index 555
14.11.3 Color 555
14.11.4 Transparency .556
14.11.5 Fluorescence .556
14.11.6 Detergency 556
14.11.7 Dispersive Ability 556
14.11.8 Foam Depressing .556
14.11.9 Flash Point .557
14.11.10Emulsion Stability .557
14.11.11 Cooling Properties .558
14.11.12Boiling Point .558
14.12 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PROCESS FLUIDS 558
14.12.1 Thermal Stability (TS) .558
14.12.2 Oxidation Stability 559
14.12.3 Catalytic Effects of Metals .559
14.12.4 Fluid Corrosivity 559
14.12.5 Rusting .560
14.12.6 Ash Content .560
14.13 TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF
PROCESS FLUIDS 560
14.13.1 Friction Properties .561
14.13.2 Wear Resistance .561
14.13.3 Extreme Pressure (EP) Properties .561
14.14 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF
PROCESS FLUIDS 562
14.15 DEGRADATION OF FLUID PROPERTIES
DURING OPERATION .563
14.16 ANALYSIS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL
AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 564
14.16.1 Water-based Emulsion and/or Solution
Characteristics .564
14.16.2 Corrosion Inhibition 567Contents xxv
14.16.3 Heat Transfer Rate .567
14.16.4 Thermal Reactivity of the Tribosystem .567
14.16.5 Biological Characteristics 569
14.17 TRIBOLOGICAL AND APPLICATION
CHARACTERISTICS 569
14.18 ADJUSTMENT OF FLUID PROPERTIES
IN OPERATION 572
14.19 SELECTION OF PROCESS FLUIDS 573
14.20 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 579
REFERENCES .580
15. Tribochemistry of Abrasive Machining .587
15.1 DEFINITION OF TRIBOCHEMISTRY 587
15.2 MODELING A TRIBOCHEMICAL PROCESS .591
15.2.1 Special Factors in Abrasive Machining .591
15.2.2 The Magma-Plasma Model for
Abrasive Machining 592
15.3 TRIBOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF
ABRASIVE TOOLS 595
15.3.1 General Aspects 595
15.3.2 Triboreactions Between Tool
and Workpiece .595
15.3.3 Triboreactions Between Tool
and Environment 601
15.4 TRIBOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE
WORKMATERIAL STRUCTURE .603
15.4.1 Initial Structure of a Rough-machined
Workpiece 604
15.4.2 The Rehbinder Effect and Tribological
Implications 605
15.4.3 Other Tribochemical Interactions
Between Workmaterial and Surround .606
15.4.4 Influence of the Chemical Composition
of Workmaterial .607
15.4.5 Workmaterial Selection by Tribosimulation .608
15.5 TRIBOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF DRY
ABRASIVE MACHINING .610xxvi Contents
15.6 TRIBOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF WET
ABRASIVE MACHINING . 611
15.6.1 Lubrication by a Tribosorption Layer 611
15.6.2 Lubrication by Chemical
Triboreaction Layers .614
15.6.3 Lubrication in Extreme Pressure (EP)
Conditions 616
15.6.4 Combined Effects of Tribochemical
Processes Induced by Additivation .622
15.7 CONCLUSIONS 625
REFERENCES .626
16. Processed Materials 635
16.1 IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES .635
16.2 STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF METALS 638
16.2.1 Control and Modification of
Structure in Metals 640
16.2.2 Machinability of Metals .643
16.3 STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF NONMETALS .645
16.3.1 Advanced Ceramics 645
16.3.2 Optical Glasses 646
16.3.3 Crystallized Minerals .646
16.4 STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF
TRANSITIONAL MATERIALS .647
16.4.1 Composite Materials 647
16.4.2 Polymers 649
16.5 ADVERSE TRIBOCHEMICAL EFFECTS
IN ABRASIVE MACHINING 650
16.5.1 Physico-Chemical Effects .650
16.5.2 Prevention of Adverse Tribochemical Effects 651
16.6 TRIBOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF
ABRASIVE MACHINING .652
16.6.1 General Aspects 652
16.6.2 Tribology of Metals in Abrasive Machining 653
16.6.3 Tribology of Abrasives in Abrasive Machining .656
16.6.4 Tribology of Ceramic and Glass Processing .657Contents xxvii
16.6.5 Abrasive Machining Tribology of
Polymeric Materials 659
16.7 CONCLUDING COMMENTS 659
REFERENCES .661
Symbols and Units .665
SYMBOLS .665
SI UNITS 671
CONSISTENCY OF UNITS IN EQUATIONS .672
SI – BRITISH CONVERSION FACTORS 672
Glossary 675
Index .69


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كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes , كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes , كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes ,كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes ,كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes , كتاب Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes
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