كتاب Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture

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عدد المساهمات : 14582
التقييم : 23748
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 29
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture    الخميس 21 ديسمبر 2017, 9:49 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture
Linda Null
Pennsylvania State University
Julia Lobur
Pennsylvania State University


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Contents
Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 The Main Components of a Computer 3
1.3 An Example System: Wading through the Jargon 4
1.4 Standards Organizations 10
1.5 Historical Development 12
1.5.1 Generation Zero: Mechanical Calculating Machines (1642–1945) 12
1.5.2 The First Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers (1945–1953) 14
1.5.3 The Second Generation: Transistorized Computers (1954–1965) 19
1.5.4 The Third Generation: Integrated Circuit Computers (1965–1980) 21
1.5.5 The Fourth Generation: VLSI Computers (1980–????) 22
1.5.6 Moore’s Law 24
1.6 The Computer Level Hierarchy 25
1.7 The von Neumann Model 27
1.8 Non-von Neumann Models 29
Chapter Summary 31
Further Reading 31
References 32
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 33
Exercises 34
CHAPTER
1Data Representation in Computer Systems 37
2.1 Introduction 37
2.2 Positional Numbering Systems 38
2.3 Decimal to Binary Conversions 38
2.3.1 Converting Unsigned Whole Numbers 39
2.3.2 Converting Fractions 41
2.3.3 Converting between Power-of-Two Radices 44
2.4 Signed Integer Representation 44
2.4.1 Signed Magnitude 44
2.4.2 Complement Systems 49
2.5 Floating-Point Representation 55
2.5.1 A Simple Model 56
2.5.2 Floating-Point Arithmetic 58
2.5.3 Floating-Point Errors 59
2.5.4 The IEEE-754 Floating-Point Standard 61
2.6 Character Codes 62
2.6.1 Binary-Coded Decimal 62
2.6.2 EBCDIC 63
2.6.3 ASCII 63
2.6.4 Unicode 65
2.7 Codes for Data Recording and Transmission 67
2.7.1 Non-Return-to-Zero Code 68
2.7.2 Non-Return-to-Zero-Invert Encoding 69
2.7.3 Phase Modulation (Manchester Coding) 70
2.7.4 Frequency Modulation 70
2.7.5 Run-Length-Limited Code 71
2.8 Error Detection and Correction 73
2.8.1 Cyclic Redundancy Check 73
2.8.2 Hamming Codes 77
2.8.3 Reed-Soloman 82
Chapter Summary 83
Further Reading 84
References 85
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 85
Exercises 86
CHAPTER
2
xxii ContentsBoolean Algebra and Digital Logic 93
3.1 Introduction 93
3.2 Boolean Algebra 94
3.2.1 Boolean Expressions 94
3.2.2 Boolean Identities 96
3.2.3 Simplification of Boolean Expressions 98
3.2.4 Complements 99
3.2.5 Representing Boolean Functions 100
3.3 Logic Gates 102
3.3.1 Symbols for Logic Gates 102
3.3.2 Universal Gates 103
3.3.3 Multiple Input Gates 104
3.4 Digital Components 105
3.4.1 Digital Circuits and Their Relationship to Boolean Algebra 105
3.4.2 Integrated Circuits 106
3.5 Combinational Circuits 106
3.5.1 Basic Concepts 107
3.5.2 Examples of Typical Combinational Circuits 107
3.6 Sequential Circuits 113
3.6.1 Basic Concepts 114
3.6.2 Clocks 114
3.6.3 Flip-Flops 115
3.6.4 Examples of Sequential Circuits 117
3.7 Designing Circuits 120
Chapter Summary 121
Further Reading 122
References 123
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 123
Exercises 124
Focus on Karnaugh Maps 130
3A.1 Introduction 130
3A.2 Description of Kmaps and Terminology 131
3A.3 Kmap Simplification for Two Variables 133
3A.4 Kmap Simplification for Three Variables 134
3A.5 Kmap Simplification for Four Variables 137
3A.6 Don’t Care Conditions 140
3A.7 Summary 141
Exercises 141
CHAPTER
3
Contents xxiiiMARIE: An Introduction to a Simple Computer 145
4.1 Introduction 145
4.1.1 CPU Basics and Organization 145
4.1.2 The Bus 147
4.1.3 Clocks 151
4.1.4 The Input/Output Subsystem 153
4.1.5 Memory Organization and Addressing 153
4.1.6 Interrupts 156
4.2 MARIE 157
4.2.1 The Architecture 157
4.2.2 Registers and Buses 159
4.2.3 The Instruction Set Architecture 160
4.2.4 Register Transfer Notation 163
4.3 Instruction Processing 166
4.3.1 The Fetch-Decode-Execute Cycle 166
4.3.2 Interrupts and I/O 166
4.4 A Simple Program 169
4.5 A Discussion on Assemblers 170
4.5.1 What Do Assemblers Do? 170
4.5.2 Why Use Assembly Language? 173
4.6 Extending Our Instruction Set 174
4.7 A Discussion on Decoding: Hardwired vs. Microprogrammed
Control 179
4.8 Real-World Examples of Computer Architectures 182
4.8.1 Intel Architectures 183
4.8.2 MIPS Architectures 187
Chapter Summary 189
Further Reading 190
References 191
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 192
Exercises 193
A Closer Look at Instruction Set Architectures 199
5.1 Introduction 199
5.2 Instruction Formats 199
5.2.1 Design Decisions for Instruction Sets 200
CHAPTER
5
CHAPTER
4
xxiv Contents5.2.2 Little versus Big Endian 201
5.2.3 Internal Storage in the CPU: Stacks versus Registers 203
5.2.4 Number of Operands and Instruction Length 204
5.2.5 Expanding Opcodes 208
5.3 Instruction Types 210
5.4 Addressing 211
5.4.1 Data Types 211
5.4.2 Address Modes 212
5.5 Instruction-Level Pipelining 214
5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs 219
5.6.1 Intel 220
5.6.2 MIPS 220
5.6.3 Java Virtual Machine 221
Chapter Summary 225
Further Reading 226
References 227
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 228
Exercises 229
Memory 233
6.1 Memory 233
6.2 Types of Memory 233
6.3 The Memory Hierarchy 235
6.3.1 Locality of Reference 237
6.4 Cache Memory 237
6.4.1 Cache Mapping Schemes 239
6.4.2 Replacement Policies 247
6.4.3 Effective Access Time and Hit Ratio 248
6.4.4 When Does Caching Break Down? 249
6.4.5 Cache Write Policies 249
6.5 Virtual Memory 250
6.5.1 Paging 251
6.5.2 Effective Access Time Using Paging 258
6.5.3 Putting It All Together: Using Cache, TLBs, and Paging 259
6.5.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Paging and Virtual Memory 259
6.5.5 Segmentation 262
6.5.6 Paging Combined with Segmentation 263
CHAPTER
6
Contents xxv6.6 A Real-World Example of Memory Management 263
Chapter Summary 264
Further Reading 265
References 266
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 266
Exercises 267
Input/Output and Storage Systems 273
7.1 Introduction 273
7.2 Amdahl’s Law 274
7.3 I/O Architectures 275
7.3.1 I/O Control Methods 276
7.3.2 I/O Bus Operation 280
7.3.3 Another Look at Interrupt-Driven I/O 283
7.4 Magnetic Disk Technology 286
7.4.1 Rigid Disk Drives 288
7.4.2 Flexible (Floppy) Disks 292
7.5 Optical Disks 293
7.5.1 CD-ROM 294
7.5.2 DVD 297
7.5.3 Optical Disk Recording Methods 298
7.6 Magnetic Tape 299
7.7 RAID 301
7.7.1 RAID Level 0 302
7.7.2 RAID Level 1 303
7.7.3 RAID Level 2 303
7.7.4 RAID Level 3 304
7.7.5 RAID Level 4 305
7.7.6 RAID Level 5 306
7.7.7 RAID Level 6 307
7.7.8 Hybrid RAID Systems 308
7.8 Data Compression 309
7.8.1 Statistical Coding 311
7.8.2 Ziv-Lempel (LZ) Dictionary Systems 318
7.8.3 GIF Compression 322
7.8.4 JPEG Compression 323
CHAPTER
7
xxvi ContentsChapter Summary 328
Further Reading 328
References 329
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 330
Exercises 332
Focus on Selected Disk Storage Implementations 335
7A.1 Introduction 335
7A.2 Data Transmission Modes 335
7A.3 SCSI 338
7A.4 Storage Area Networks 350
7A.5 Other I/O Connections 352
7A.6 Summary 354
Exercises 354
System Software 357
8.1 Introduction 357
8.2 Operating Systems 358
8.2.1 Operating Systems History 359
8.2.2 Operating System Design 364
8.2.3 Operating System Services 366
8.3 Protected Environments 370
8.3.1 Virtual Machines 371
8.3.2 Subsystems and Partitions 374
8.3.3 Protected Environments and the Evolution of Systems Architectures 376
8.4 Programming Tools 378
8.4.1 Assemblers and Assembly 378
8.4.2 Link Editors 381
8.4.3 Dynamic Link Libraries 382
8.4.4 Compilers 384
8.4.5 Interpreters 388
8.5 Java: All of the Above 389
8.6 Database Software 395
8.7 Transaction Managers 401
Chapter Summary 403
Further Reading 404
CHAPTER
8
Contents xxviiReferences 405
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 406
Exercises 407
Alternative Architectures 411
9.1 Introduction 411
9.2 RISC Machines 412
9.3 Flynn’s Taxonomy 417
9.4 Parallel and Multiprocessor Architectures 421
9.4.1 Superscalar and VLIW 422
9.4.2 Vector Processors 424
9.4.3 Interconnection Networks 425
9.4.4 Shared Memory Multiprocessors 430
9.4.5 Distributed Computing 434
9.5 Alternative Parallel Processing Approaches 435
9.5.1 Dataflow Computing 435
9.5.2 Neural Networks 438
9.5.3 Systolic Arrays 441
Chapter Summary 442
Further Reading 443
References 443
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 445
Exercises 446
Performance Measurement and Analysis 451
10.1 Introduction 451
10.2 The Basic Computer Performance Equation 452
10.3 Mathematical Preliminaries 453
10.3.1 What the Means Mean 454
10.3.2 The Statistics and Semantics 459
10.4 Benchmarking 461
10.4.1 Clock Rate, MIPS, and FLOPS 462
10.4.2 Synthetic Benchmarks: Whetstone, Linpack, and Dhrystone 464
10.4.3 Standard Performance Evaluation Cooperation Benchmarks 465
10.4.4 Transaction Performance Council Benchmarks 469
10.4.5 System Simulation 476
CHAPTER
10
CHAPTER
9
xxviii Contents10.5 CPU Performance Optimization 477
10.5.1 Branch Optimization 477
10.5.2 Use of Good Algorithms and Simple Code 480
10.6 Disk Performance 484
10.6.1 Understanding the Problem 484
10.6.2 Physical Considerations 485
10.6.3 Logical Considerations 486
Chapter Summary 492
Further Reading 493
References 494
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 495
Exercises 495
Network Organization and Architecture 501
11.1 Introduction 501
11.2 Early Business Computer Networks 501
11.3 Early Academic and Scientific Networks: The Roots and Architecture of
the Internet 502
11.4 Network Protocols I: ISO/OSI Protocol Unification 506
11.4.1 A Parable 507
11.4.2 The OSI Reference Model 508
11.5 Network Protocols II: TCP/IP Network Architecture 512
11.5.1 The IP Layer for Version 4 512
11.5.2 The Trouble with IP Version 4 516
11.5.3 Transmission Control Protocol 520
11.5.4 The TCP Protocol at Work 521
11.5.5 IP Version 6 525
11.6 Network Organization 530
11.6.1 Physical Transmission Media 530
11.6.2 Interface Cards 535
11.6.3 Repeaters 536
11.6.4 Hubs 537
11.6.5 Switches 537
11.6.6 Bridges and Gateways 538
11.6.7 Routers and Routing 539
11.7 High-Capacity Digital Links 548
11.7.1 The Digital Hierarchy 549
CHAPTER
11
Contents xxix11.7.2 ISDN 553
11.7.3 Asynchronous Transfer Mode 556
11.8 A Look at the Internet 557
11.8.1 Ramping on to the Internet 558
11.8.2 Ramping up the Internet 565
Chapter Summary 566
Further Reading 566
References 568
Review of Essential Terms and Concepts 568
Exercises 570
Data Structures and the Computer 575
A.1 Introduction 575
A.2 Fundamental Structures 575
A.2.1 Arrays 575
A.2.2 Queues and Linked Lists 577
A.2.3 Stacks 578
A.3 Trees 581
A.4 Network Graphs 587
Summary 590
Further Reading 590
References 590
Exercises 591
Glossary 595
Answers and Hints for Selected Exercises 633
Index 64


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