كتاب ASM Handbook Vol 13B - Corrosion (Materials)
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 كتاب ASM Handbook Vol 13B - Corrosion (Materials)

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب ASM Handbook Vol 13B - Corrosion (Materials)   الخميس 28 سبتمبر 2017, 4:39 pm

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ASM Handbook Vol 13B - Corrosion (Materials)
ASM International Handbook Committee


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Contents
Corrosion of Ferrous Metals 1
Introduction to Corrosion of Ferrous Metals
Jay W. Larson 3
Industry Overview . 3
Steel Products and Characteristics 3
Role of Corrosion 3
Corrosion of Carbon and Alloy Steels
Corrosion of Wrought Carbon Steels
Toshiaki Kodama . 5
Atmospheric Corrosion . 5
Aqueous Corrosion 7
Soil Corrosion 8
Corrosion in Concrete . 9
Boiler Service 10
Corrosion of Wrought Low-Alloy Steels
Thomas G. Oakwood . 11
Corrosive Environments Encountered in the Use of
Alloy Steels . 11
Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Alloy
Steels 11
Corrosion of Low-Alloy Steels in Specific End-Use
Environments . 13
Corrosion of Weathering Steels
F.B. Fletcher 28
Copper-Bearing Steels . 28
High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels . 28
Atmospheric Corrosion Testing 28
Estimating Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of
Weathering Steels 29
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance of Weathering
Steels 29
Corrosion Behavior under Different Exposure
Conditions 30
Case Histories and Design Considerations . 30
Corrosion of Metallic Coated Steels
C. Ramadeva Shastry 35
Zinc-Base Coatings . 35
Aluminum-Base Coatings . 37
Zinc-Aluminum Alloy Coatings 38
Aluminum-Zinc Alloy Coatings 38
Corrosion of Organic Coated Steels
Hiroyuki Tanabe 40
How Paint Films Deter Corrosion . 40
Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures by
Organic Coatings . 40
Design of Steel Structures for Coating . 40
Paint Systems for Bridges . 41
Prepaint Processing . 41
Differences between Prepaint and Postpaint . 41
Part Design Consideration in Coated Steel Sheet . 41
Selection Guideline . 42
Advantages of Prepainted Steels . 42
Corrosion of Cast Irons
Thomas C. Spence . 43
Basic Metallurgy of Cast Irons . 43
Influence of Alloying . 43
Influence of Microstructure . 44
Commercially Available Cast Irons 44
Forms of Corrosion . 45
Resistance to Corrosive Environments . 46
Coatings . 48
Selection of Cast Irons 49
Corrosion of Cast Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Raymond W. Monroe . 51
Atmospheric Corrosion . 51
Other Environments 53
Corrosion of Stainless Steels
Corrosion of Wrought Stainless Steels
John F. Grubb, Terry DeBold, James D. Fritz . 54
Identification Systems for Stainless Steels 54
Families of Stainless Steels . 55
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance . 57
Effects of Composition 58
Effects of Processing, Design, Fabrication, and External
Treatments . 58
Forms of Corrosion of Stainless Steels . 62
Corrosion in Specific Environments . 63
Corrosion in Various Applications 70
Corrosion Testing 75
Corrosion of Cast Stainless Steels
Malcolm Blair 78
Composition and Microstructure . 78
Corrosion Behavior of H-Type Alloys 79
Corrosion Behavior of C-Type Alloys 81
Corrosion of Nonferrous Metals and Specialty Products 89
Introduction to Corrosion of Nonferrous Metals and Specialty Products
Paul Crook . 93
Copper . 93
Nickel 93
Titanium 93
Aluminum 94
Specialty Products . 94
Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
G. Kaufman 95
Pitting Corrosion . 95
Solution Potentials . 96
Effects of Composition and Microstructure on
Corrosion . 97
Corrosion Ratings of Alloys and Tempers 101
Galvanic Corrosion and Protection . 101
Deposition Corrosion . 104
Intergranular Corrosion . 104
Stress-Corrosion Cracking . 105
Effect of Stress-Intensity Factor 106
Exfoliation Corrosion 110
Corrosion Fatigue 111
Erosion-Corrosion . 112
Atmospheric Corrosion . 112
Filiform Corrosion . 114
Corrosion in Waters . 114
Corrosion in Soils 117
Resistance of Anodized Aluminum 118
Effects of Nonmetallic Building Materials . 119
Contact with Foods, Pharmaceuticals, and
Chemicals 120
Care of Aluminum . 121
Corrosion of Copper and Copper Alloys
Corrosion of Copper and Copper Alloys
Arthur Cohen . 125
Effects of Alloy Composition . 125
Types of Attack . 127
Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Specific
Environments . 131
Stress Corrosion Cracking of Copper Alloys in Specific
Environments . 151
Protective Coatings 154
Corrosion Testing 154
Corrosion of Cobalt and Cobalt-Base Alloys
Corrosion of Cobalt and Cobalt-Base Alloys . 164
Alloys Resistant to Aqueous Corrosion
Paul Crook, Jim Wu 164
High-Carbon Co-Cr-W Alloys 164
Low-Carbon Co-Cr-Mo Alloys . 165
High-Carbon Co-Cr-Mo Alloys 166
Low-Carbon Co-Mo-Cr-Si Alloys 166
Age-Hardenable Co-Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys 166
Product Forms . 166
Aqueous Corrosion Properties
Paul Crook . 166
Hydrochloric Acid . 167
Sulfuric Acid . 167
Phosphoric Acid 167
Hydrofluoric Acid 168
Nitric Acid . 168
Organic Acids 168
Salts . 168
Seawater 169
Alkalis 169
Environmental Cracking
Paul Crook . 169
Applications and Fabrication
Steve Matthews, Jim Wu 170
Hardfacing with the High-Carbon Co-Cr-W
Alloys 171
Welding of Wrought Cobalt Alloys 172
Alloys Resistant to High-Temperature Corrosion
Dwaine Klarstrom . 172
High-Temperature Corrosion Properties
Dwaine Klarstrom, Krishna Srivastava 172
Oxidation . 172
Sulfidation 173
Carburization . 173
Corrosion by Halogens 174
Corrosion by Molten Salts . 175
Applications and Fabrication for High-Temperature Service
Lee Flower, Steve Matthews . 175
Forming and Annealing . 175
Welding Characteristics 175
Corrosion of Low Melting Metals and Alloys
Corrosion of Tin and Tin Alloys . 177
Pure Tin . 177
Soft Solders . 179
Pewter 181
Bearing Alloys . 181
Other Tin Alloys 182
Tin and Tin-Alloy Coatings 182
Tinplate 186
Corrosion Testing of Coatings 188
Corrosion of Lead and Lead Alloys
Safaa J. Alhassan 195
The Nature of Lead Corrosion 195
Corrosion in Water 195
Atmospheric Corrosion . 196
Corrosion in Underground Ducts 197
Corrosion in Soil . 199
Resistance to Chemicals 200
Tin-Lead Solder Alloys . 203
Corrosion of Magnesium and Magnesium-Base Alloys
Corrosion of Magnesium and Magnesium-Base Alloys
Barbara A. Shaw, Ryan C. Wolfe 205
Environmental Factors 206
Corrosion in Real and Simulated Environments . 207
Localized Corrosion Mechanisms . 211
Galvanic Corrosion 214
Protection of Assemblies . 216
Protective Coating Systems . 220
Inhibitors 222
Industry-Proven Protection Systems . 222
Novel Magnesium Alloys with Improved Corrosion
Resistance 224
Corrosion of Bulk Vapor-Deposited Alloys . 225
Metal-Matrix Composites 226
Corrosion of Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys
Corrosion of Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys
Paul Crook . 228
Introduction to Alloys Resistant to Aqueous Corrosion
Paul Crook, Dwaine Klarstrom, Jim Crum 228
Commercially Pure Nickel 228
Nickel-Copper Alloys 229
Nickel-Molybdenum Alloys 229
Nickel-Chromium Alloys 230
Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys . 230
Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys . 231
Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys . 231
Product Forms . 231
Aqueous Corrosion Properties
Paul Crook, Sabrina Meck, Jim Crum, Raul Rebak . 231
Hydrochloric Acid . 231
Sulfuric Acid . 233
Phosphoric Acid 234
Hydrofluoric Acid 234
Hydrobromic Acid . 235
Nitric Acid . 236
Organic Acids 236
Salts . 236
Seawater 237
Alkalis 238
Environmental Cracking
Raul Rebak 238
Commercially Pure Nickel 238
Nickel-Copper Alloys 238
Nickel-Molybdenum Alloys 239
Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys . 239
Ni-Cr, Ni-Cr-Fe, and Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys 240
Applications and Fabrication
Brian Baker, Paul Crook, Lee Flower, Mark Rowe . 241
Petrochemical and Refining 241
Chemical Processing . 241
Power Industry . 241
Fabrication . 241
Alloys Resistant to High-Temperature Corrosion
Dwaine Klarstrom . 243
High-Temperature Corrosion Properties
Dwaine Klarstrom, Krishna Srivastava 244
Oxidation . 244
Carburization . 244
Metal Dusting 246
Sulfidation 246
Corrosion by Halogens 247
Corrosion by Molten Salts . 248
Applications
Brian Baker, Jim Crum, Lee Flower . 248
Petrochemical and Refining 248
Heating and Heat Treating 249
Aircraft Gas Turbines 250
Power Industry . 250
Corrosion of Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys
Corrosion of Titanium and Titanium Alloys
Ronald W. Schutz . 252
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance . 252
Forms of Corrosion and Related Test Methods 253
Corrosion in Specific Media 260
Expanding the Corrosion Resistance of Titanium 284
Appendix 1: General Corrosion Data for Unalloyed
Titanium 286
Appendix 2: General Corrosion Data for Titanium
Alloys 290
Corrosion of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys
Te-Lin Yau, Richard C. Sutherlin 300
General Characteristics 301
Variables Affecting Corrosion 302
Pitting 306
Crevice Corrosion 307
Intergranular Corrosion . 307
Stress-Corrosion Cracking . 307
Delayed Hydride Cracking 308
Effects of Surface Condition . 309
Galvanic Corrosion 309
Microbiologically Induced Corrosion . 309
Erosion-Corrosion . 310
Fretting Corrosion . 310
Effects of Tin Content in Zirconium . 310
Corrosive Environments 311
Effects of Fabrication on Corrosion 318
Protection Measures 319
Industrial Applications of Zirconium and Its
Alloys 320
Safety . 322
Conclusions . 322
Corrosion of Niobium and Niobium Alloys
Richard C. Sutherlin, Ronald A. Graham . 325
Niobium Alloys . 325
Mechanisms of Corrosion Resistance . 325
Applications . 333
Corrosion of Tantalum and Tantalum Alloys . 337
Mechanism of Corrosion Resistance . 337
Corrosion in Specific Media 337
Hydrogen Embrittlement, Galvanic Effects, and Cathodic
Protection of Tantalum 348
Corrosion Resistance of Tantalum-Base Alloys . 348
Corrosion of Hafnium and Hafnium Alloys
D.R. Holmes . 354
Production 354
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hafnium 354
Aqueous Corrosion Testing of Hafnium and Hafnium
Alloys 355
Corrosion Resistance of Hafnium . 356
Applications . 358
Corrosion of Beryllium and Aluminum-Beryllium Composites
Warren J. Haws . 360
Health and Safety 360
Effects of Impurities and Composite Composition . 360
Corrosion of Beryllium in Air . 360
Aqueous Corrosion of Beryllium 362
Stress-Corrosion Cracking . 363
High-Temperature Corrosion 363
In-Process, Handling, and Storage Corrosion Problems
and Procedures . 363
Corrosion-Protection Surface Treatments and
Coatings . 365
Corrosion of Uranium and Uranium Alloys
Jennifer A. Lillard, Robert J. Hanrahan, Jr. 370
Aqueous Corrosion 370
Atmospheric Corrosion . 375
Environmentally Assisted Cracking 379
Protective Coatings and Surface Modification 380
Storage of Uranium . 381
Environmental, Safety, and Health Considerations 382
Corrosion of Precious Metals and Alloys
Corrosion of Precious Metals and Alloys
Gaylord D. Smith . 385
Silver 385
Gold . 388
Platinum . 390
Palladium . 392
Rhodium 395
Iridium . 396
Ruthenium . 398
Osmium . 399
Anodic Behavior of the Noble Metals 400
Corrosion of Zinc and Zinc Alloys
Corrosion of Zinc and Zinc Alloys
X. Gregory Zhang 402
Applications of Zinc 402
Corrosion Performance 403
Corrosion in Waters, Solutions, Soils and Other
Environments . 409
Corrosion Forms 411
Corrosion of Specialty Products
Corrosion of Brazed and Soldered Joints
Manish Dighe 418
Fundamentals of Corrosion of Joints 418
Corrosion of Soldered Joints . 418
Corrosion of Brazed Joints 418
Role of Proper Brazing Procedures in Minimizing
Corrosion . 420
Corrosion Resistance of Particular Brazing Alloy Systems 420
Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection in Atmospheric and
Aqueous Environments
Seiji Kuroda, Andrew Sturgeon . 422
Coating Types 422
Aluminum Coatings and Zinc Coatings 422
Thermal Spray Application Methods for TSA and TSZ
Coatings . 423
Field Exposure Tests of TSA and TSZ Coatings 425
Application History of TSA and TSZ Coatings for
Corrosion Prevention . 426
Dense Barrier Coatings by High-Velocity Spraying
Processes 427
The Future Use of Thermal Spray Coatings . 429
Corrosion of Thermal Spray Coatings at High Temperatures
Tapio Ma¨ntyla¨, Mikko Uusitalo 430
Oxidation . 430
Hot Corrosion 431
Corrosion-Resistant Coatings in Boilers . 431
Waste Incinerators . 432
Erosion-Corrosion in Boilers . 433
Corrosion of Electroplated Hard Chromium
Allen R. Jones 434
Corrosion of Chromium Electrodeposits 434
Optimizing Corrosion Resistance 434
Duplex Coatings 440
Corrosion-Resistance Data 440
Applications . 440
Corrosion of Clad Metals
Robert Baboian 442
The Cladding Process 442
Properties of Clad Metals 443
Designing with Clad Metals 443
Designing Clad Metals for Corrosion Control 443
Corrosion-Resistant Powder Metallurgy Alloys
Barbara Shaw 447
Evaluating the Corrosion Resistance of P/M Alloys 447
P/M Stainless Steels 454
Influence of Processing Parameters on the Corrosion
Resistance of P/M Stainless Steels 457
P/M Superalloys 468
Corrosion of Amorphous Metals
John R. Scully, Ashley Lucente . 476
Synthesis of Metallic Glasses 476
Devitrification and Structural Relaxation . 477
Mechanisms of Corrosion Resistance . 478
Corrosion Behavior of Fully Amorphous and Partially
Devitrified Metallic Glasses: A Historial Review 478
General Corrosion Behavior of All Classes of
Amorphous Alloys . 480
Localized Corrosion Behavior of All Classes of
Amorphous Alloys . 482
Environmental Cracking Behavior 485
Conclusion . 486
Corrosion of Intermetallics
P.K. Datta, H.L. Du, J.S. Burnell-Gray 490
High-Temperature Corrosion of Intermetallics . 490
Aqueous Corrosion 504
Corrosion of Cemented Carbides 513
Effect of Composition on Properties . 514
Applications of Cemented Carbides 515
Selection of Cemented Carbides for Corrosion
Applications . 516
Corrosion in Aqueous Media 516
Oxidation Resistance of Cemented Carbides 522
Saw Tips and Corrosion 523
Coating of Cemented Carbides . 523
Special Surface Treatments . 524
Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites
L.H. Hihara . 526
Background 526
Parameters Affecting MMC Corrosion . 526
Corrosion of MMC Systems 531
Corrosion Protection of MMCs . 538
Other Concerns 539
Environmental Performance of Nonmetallic Materials 543
Introduction to Environmental Performance of Nonmetallic
Materials
David C. Silverman . 545
Thermosetting Resins and Resin-Matrix Composites . 545
Elastomers . 545
Rubber Linings 545
Protective Coatings 546
Ceramics and Refractories 546
Concrete . 546
Performance of Refractories in Severe Environments
James P. Bennett, Kyei-Sing Kwong, George Oprea,
Michel Rigaud, Stephen M. Winder 547
Background and Theory 547
Testing . 551
Corrosion of Steelmaking Refractories . 551
Refractories for Glass-Melting Applications 554
Refractories for Aluminum Smelting and Refining
Applications . 557
Chemical-Resistant Masonry for Corrosive Liquid
Environments . 560
Performance of Ceramics in Severe Environments
Nathan S. Jacobson, Dennis S. Fox, James L. Smialek,
Elizabeth J. Opila, Christopher Dellacorte, Kang N. Lee 565
High-Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of
Silica-Forming Ceramics . 565
Oxidation of Precursor-Derived Ceramics, Composites,
and Non-Silica-Forming Ceramics 571
Corrosion of Oxide Ceramics 572
Environmental Barrier Coatings 572
Effects of Oxidation and Corrosion on Mechanical
Properties . 574
High-Temperature Wear of Advanced Ceramics 575
Environmental Performance of Concrete
William C. Panarese 579
Types and Causes of Concrete Degradation . 579
Addressing Durability with the Prescriptive Approach 583
Addressing Durability with the Performance
Approach . 584
Sustainability . 586
Degradation of Protective Coatings
Kenneth B. Tator . 589
Molecular Composition of a Polymer . 589
Environmental Effects Resulting in Coating
Deterioration 591
Environmental Performance of Thermosetting Plastics and Resin
Matrix Composites
Terry W. Cowley 600
Fabrication of FRP Equipment 600
Resins and Their Resistance to Various Environments 600
Curing Thermosetting Resin Types 602
Environmental Performance of Rubber Linings
Larry DeLashmit . 605
Commonly Used Polymers 605
Industrial Applications 607
Environmental Performance of Elastomers
Jim Alexander, Pradip Khaladkar, Bert Moniz, Bill Stahl,
Tommy Taylor 608
Factors Governing the Performance of Elastomers 608
Factors Affecting Chemical Resistance 610
Performance Evaluation 612
Failure Analysis . 615
Elastomer Failure Modes 615
Elastomer Material Identification 617
Quantifying Performance 617
Global Cost of Corrosion 619
Global Cost of Corrosion—A Historical Review
R. Bhaskaran, N. Palaniswamy, N.S. Rengaswamy,
M. Jayachandran . 621
United States of America 621
United Kingdom 622
Australia 623
Japan 623
Canada . 623
Germany 624
Poland 624
South Africa . 624
Czechoslovakia 624
Belgium . 624
Netherlands 624
Sweden 624
Finland . 624
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) 624
Kuwait . 624
India . 625
Basque Region . 625
Global Direct Cost of Corrosion . 625
Global Indirect Cost of Corrosion . 625
Global Cost of Corrosion 626
Gallery of Corrosion Damage 629
Gallery of Corrosion Damage
Peter Elliott . 631
Reference Information 647
Periodic Table of Elements . 649
Crystal Structure 651
Density of Metals and Alloys 658
Reference Electrodes . 662
Overpotential . 663
Electrochemical Series 665
Galvanic Series of Metals and Alloys in Seawater . 672
Compatibility Guide 673
Corrosion Rate Conversion . 675
Metric Conversion Guide 676
Abbreviations and Symbols . 679
Index 682


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