كتاب Mechanical Design of Machine Components - Second Edition
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Mechanical Design of Machine Components - Second Edition

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عدد المساهمات : 14528
التقييم : 23592
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 29
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Mechanical Design of Machine Components - Second Edition   الأحد 03 سبتمبر 2017, 10:07 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Mechanical Design of Machine Components - Second Edition
 Ansel C. Ugural


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Contents
Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxvii
Author xxix
Symbols . xxxi
Abbreviations xxxvii
Section I Basics
1. Introduction 3
1.1. Scope.of.the.Book .3
1.2. Mechanical.Engineering.Design .4
1.2.1. ABET.Defnition.of.Design 5
1.3. Design.Process 5
1.3.1. Phases.of.Design .6
1.3.1.1. Identifcation.of.Need .6
1.3.1.2. Defnition.of.the.Problem .6
1.3.1.3. Synthesis .7
1.3.1.4. Analysis 7
1.3.1.5. Testing.and.Evaluation .7
1.3.1.6. Presentation 7
1.3.2. Design.Considerations .8
1.4. Design.Analysis .8
1.4.1. Engineering.Modeling .8
1.4.2. Rational.Design.Procedure 9
1.4.3. Methods.of.Analysis .9
1.5. Problem.Formulation.and.Computation 10
1.5.1. Solving.Mechanical.Component.Problems . 10
1.5.1.1. Signifcant.Digits . 11
1.5.2. Computational.Tools.for.Design.Problems . 11
1.5.3. Best.Time.to.Solve.Problems .12
1.6. Factor.of.Safety.and.Design.Codes 12
1.6.1. Defnitions . 13
1.6.2. Selection.of.a.Factor.of.Safety . 13
1.6.3. Design.and.Safety.Codes . 14
1.7. Units.and.Conversion 15
1.8. Loading.Classes.and.Equilibrium . 16
1.8.1. Conditions.of.Equilibrium . 17
1.8.2. Internal.Load.Resultants 18
1.8.3. Sign.Convention 19
1.9. Free-Body.Diagrams.and.Load.Analysis . 19
1.10. Case.Studies.in.Engineering 23
1.11. Work,.Energy,.and.Power 26
1.11.1. Transmission.of.Power.by.Rotating.Shafts.and.Wheels .28viii Contents
1.12. Stress.Components 30
1.12.1. Sign.Convention 31
1.12.2. Special.Cases.of.State.of.Stress . 32
1.13. Normal.and.Shear.Strains 33
Problems .35
2. Materials 47
2.1. Introduction 47
2.2. Material.Property.Defnitions 47
2.3. Static.Strength .49
2.3.1. Stress–Strain.Diagrams.for.Ductile.Materials 49
2.3.1.1. Yield.Strength 50
2.3.1.2. Strain.Hardening:.Cold.Working 52
2.3.1.3. Ultimate.Tensile.Strength 52
2.3.1.4. Offset.Yield.Strength 53
2.3.2. Stress–Strain.Diagram.for.Brittle.Materials 53
2.3.3. Stress–Strain.Diagrams.in.Compression .53
2.4. Hooke’s.Law.and.Modulus.of.Elasticity .54
2.5. Generalized.Hooke’s.Law . 57
2.5.1. Volume.Change .58
2.6. Thermal.Stress–Strain.Relations 62
2.7. Temperature.and.Stress–Strain.Properties 63
2.7.1. Short-Time.Effects.of.Elevated.and.Low.Temperatures 63
2.7.2. Long-Time.Effects.of.Elevated.Temperatures:.Creep 64
2.8. Moduli.of.Resilience.and.Toughness 65
2.8.1. Modulus.of.Resilience 65
2.8.2. Modulus.of.Toughness .66
2.9. Dynamic.and.Thermal.Effects .68
2.9.1. Strain.Rate 69
2.9.2. Ductile–Brittle.Transition 69
2.10. Hardness .72
2.10.1. Brinell.Hardness .73
2.10.2. Rockwell.Hardness .73
2.10.3. Vickers.Hardness 73
2.10.4. Shore.Scleroscope .73
2.10.5. Relationships.among.Hardness.and.Ultimate.Strength.in.Tension 74
2.11. Processes.to.Improve.Hardness.and.the.Strength.of.Metals .75
2.11.1. Mechanical.Treatment 75
2.11.1.1. Cold.Working . 76
2.11.1.2. Hot.Working 76
2.11.2. Heat.Treatment 76
2.11.3. Coatings 77
2.11.3.1. Galvanization .78
2.11.3.2. Electroplating .78
2.11.3.3. Anodizing 78
2.12. General.Properties.of.Metals 78
2.12.1. Iron.and.Steel .79
2.12.2. Cast.Irons .79Contents ix
2.12.3. Steels .79
2.12.3.1. Plain.Carbon.Steels .80
2.12.3.2. Alloy.Steels .80
2.12.3.3. Stainless.Steels .80
2.12.3.4. Steel.Numbering.Systems 81
2.12.4. Aluminum.and.Copper.Alloys .82
2.13. General.Properties.of.Nonmetals 82
2.13.1. Plastics 83
2.13.2. Ceramics.and.Glasses .84
2.13.3. Composites .84
2.13.3.1. Fiber-Reinforced.Composite.Materials 85
2.14. Selecting.Materials .86
2.14.1. Strength.Density.Chart 86
Problems .88
3. Stress and Strain 95
3.1. Introduction 95
3.2. Stresses.in.Axially.Loaded.Members 95
3.2.1. Design.of.Tension.Members 96
3.3. Direct.Shear.Stress.and.Bearing.Stress .98
3.4. Thin-Walled.Pressure.Vessels 100
3.5. Stress.in.Members.in.Torsion . 102
3.5.1. Circular.Cross.Sections 102
3.5.2. Noncircular.Cross.Sections . 104
3.6. Shear.and.Moment.in.Beams . 107
3.6.1. Load,.Shear,.and.Moment.Relationships . 107
3.6.2. Shear.and.Moment.Diagrams . 108
3.7. Stresses.in.Beams . 110
3.7.1. Assumptions.of.Beam.Theory 110
3.7.2. Normal.Stress 111
3.7.2.1. Curved.Beam.of.a.Rectangular.Cross.Section 113
3.7.3. Shear.Stress 114
3.7.3.1. Rectangular.Cross.Section . 114
3.7.3.2. Various.Cross.Sections . 115
3.8. Design.of.Beams . 118
3.8.1. Prismatic.Beams 118
3.8.2. Beams.of.Constant.Strength 120
3.8.3. Composite.Beams 123
3.9. Plane.Stress .125
3.9.1. Mohr’s.Circle.for.Stress 128
3.9.1.1. Axial.Loading 130
3.9.1.2. Torsion . 130
3.10. Combined.Stresses . 132
3.11. Plane.Strain . 137
3.11.1. Mohr’s.Circle.for.Strain 138
3.12. Measurement.of.Strain;.Strain.Rosette . 140
3.13. Stress-Concentration.Factors 142x Contents
3.14. Importance.of.Stress-Concentration.Factors.in.Design 144
3.14.1. Fatigue.Loading 144
3.14.2. Static.Loading 145
*3.15. Three-Dimensional.Stress . 147
3.15.1. Principal.Stresses.in.Three.Dimensions 148
3.15.2. Simplifed.Transformation.for.Three-Dimensional.Stress . 150
3.15.3. Octahedral.Stresses 151
*3.16. Equations.of.Equilibrium.for.Stress 153
*3.17. Strain–Displacement.Relations:.Exact.Solutions . 154
3.17.1. Problems.in.Applied.Elasticity . 155
Problems . 156
4. De?ection and Impact . 173
4.1. Introduction 173
4.1.1. Comparison.of.Various.De?ection.Methods 173
4.2. De?ection.of.Axially.Loaded.Members 174
4.3. Angle.of.Twist.of.Shafts 179
4.3.1. Circular.Sections . 179
4.3.2. Noncircular.Sections 180
4.4. De?ection.of.Beams.by.Integration . 181
4.5. Beam.De?ections.by.Superposition 184
4.6. Beam.De?ection.by.the.Moment-Area.Method . 189
4.6.1. Moment-Area.Theorems 189
4.6.2. Application.of.the.Moment-Area.Method . 190
4.7. Impact.Loading 194
4.8. Longitudinal.and.Bending.Impact 195
4.8.1. Freely.Falling.Weight . 195
4.8.2. Horizontally.Moving.Weight 197
4.9. Torsional.Impact . 202
*4.10. Bending.of.Thin.Plates 205
4.10.1. Basic.Assumptions 205
4.10.2. Strain–Displacement.Relations .206
4.10.3. Plate.Stress,.Curvature,.and.Moment.Relations . 207
4.11. De?ection.of.Plates.by.Integration 208
4.11.1. Boundary.Conditions .209
Problems . 211
5. Energy Methods and Stability 225
5.1. Introduction 225
5.2. Strain.Energy 226
5.2.1. Components.of.Strain.Energy .227
5.3. Strain.Energy.in.Common.Members 229
5.3.1. Axially.Loaded.Bars .229
5.3.2. Circular.Torsion.Bars 231
5.3.3. Beams 232
5.4. Work–Energy.Method .234
5.5. Castigliano’s.Theorem .235
5.5.1. Application.to.Trusses 240Contents xi
5.6. Statically.Indeterminate.Problems 242
5.7. Virtual.Work.Principle 246
5.7.1. Castigliano’s.First.Theorem . 247
*5.8. Use.of.Trigonometric.Series.in.Energy.Methods . 247
5.9. Buckling.of.Columns .250
5.9.1. Pin-Ended.Columns .250
5.9.2. Columns.with.Other.End.Conditions 252
5.10. Critical.Stress.in.a.Column .253
5.10.1. Long.Columns .254
5.10.2. Short.Columns.or.Struts 255
5.10.3. Intermediate.Columns .255
5.11. Initially.Curved.Columns . 261
5.11.1. Total.De?ection . 262
5.11.2. Critical.Stress . 262
5.12. Eccentric.Loads.and.the.Secant.Formula 263
5.12.1. Short.Columns .266
5.13. Design.Formulas.for.Columns .268
*5.14. Beam–Columns 272
*5.15. Energy.Methods.Applied.to.Buckling 275
*5.16. Buckling.of.Rectangular.Plates 278
Problems .280
Section II Failure Prevention
6. Static Failure Criteria and Reliability .303
6.1. Introduction 303
6.2. Introduction.to.Fracture.Mechanics 303
6.3. Stress–Intensity.Factors .304
6.4. Fracture.Toughness 306
6.5. Yield.and.Fracture.Criteria . 311
6.6. Maximum.Shear.Stress.Theory 312
6.6.1. Typical.Case.of.Combined.Loading . 313
6.7. Maximum.Distortion.Energy.Theory . 315
6.7.1. Yield.Surfaces.for.Triaxial.State.of.Stress 316
6.7.2. Typical.Case.of.Combined.Loading . 317
6.8. Octahedral.Shear.Stress.Theory 317
6.9. Comparison.of.the.Yielding.Theories . 321
6.10. Maximum.Principal.Stress.Theory . 321
6.11. Mohr’s.Theory 323
6.12. Coulomb–Mohr.Theory 324
6.13. Reliability 327
6.14. Normal.Distributions 328
6.15. Reliability.Method.and.Margin.of.Safety .330
Problems .333
7. Fatigue Failure Criteria 343
7.1. Introduction 343
7.2. Nature.of.Fatigue.Failures 344xii Contents
7.3. Fatigue.Tests 345
7.3.1. Reversed.Bending.Test .345
7.4. S–N.Diagrams .347
7.4.1. Endurance.Limit.and.Fatigue.Strength .348
7.4.1.1. Bending.Fatigue.Strength 348
7.4.1.2. Axial.Fatigue.Strength 349
7.4.1.3. Torsional.Fatigue.Strength .349
7.4.2. Fatigue.Regimes 350
7.5. Estimating.the.Endurance.Limit.and.Fatigue.Strength .350
7.6. Modifed.Endurance.Limit . 352
7.7. Endurance.Limit.Reduction.Factors 352
7.7.1. Surface.Finish.Factor 353
7.7.2. Reliability.Factor .354
7.7.3. Size.Factor 354
7.7.4. Temperature.Factor .355
7.7.5. Fatigue.Stress-Concentration.Factor 355
7.8. Fluctuating.Stresses .358
7.9. Theories.of.Fatigue.Failure .360
7.10. Comparison.of.the.Fatigue.Criteria . 361
7.11. Design.for.Simple.Fluctuating.Loads 362
7.11.1. Design.Graphs.of.Failure.Criteria 364
7.12. Design.for.Combined.Fluctuating.Loads . 370
7.12.1. Alternative.Derivation . 372
7.13. Prediction.of.Cumulative.Fatigue.Damage 372
7.13.1. Miner’s.Cumulative.Rule . 373
7.14. Fracture.Mechanics.Approach.to.Fatigue 374
Problems . 376
8. Surface Failure .385
8.1. Introduction 385
8.2. Corrosion .385
8.2.1. Corrosion.and.Stress.Combined .386
8.2.1.1. Stress.Corrosion .386
8.2.1.2. Corrosion.Fatigue 388
8.2.2. Corrosion.Wear . 389
8.2.2.1. Fretting .389
8.2.2.2. Cavitation.Damage 389
8.3. Friction .390
8.4. Wear . 391
8.4.1. Adhesive.Wear 391
8.4.2. Abrasive.Wear . 392
8.5. Wear.Equation 392
8.6. Contact-Stress.Distributions . 396
8.7. Spherical.and.Cylindrical.Surfaces.in.Contact 397
8.7.1. Two.Spheres.in.Contact 398
8.7.2. Two.Cylinders.in.Contact 400
*8.8. Maximum.Stress.in.General.Contact 403Contents xiii
8.9. Surface-Fatigue.Failure .407
8.9.1. Stresses.Affecting.Surface.Fatigue .408
8.10. Prevention.of.Surface.Damage .409
Problems . 410
Section III Applications
9. Shafts and Associated Parts 417
9.1. Introduction 417
9.2. Materials.Used.for.Shafting . 418
9.3. Design.of.Shafts.in.Steady.Torsion 419
9.4. Combined.Static.Loadings.on.Shafts 420
9.4.1. Bending,.Torsion,.and.Axial.Loads 420
9.4.2. Bending.and.Torsion 421
9.5. Design.of.Shafts.for.Fluctuating.and.Shock.Loads .426
9.5.1. Shock.Factors .427
9.5.2. Steady-State.Operation .427
9.5.3. Displacements .428
9.6. Interference.Fits 432
9.7. Critical.Speed.of.Shafts .433
9.7.1. Rayleigh.Method .433
9.7.2. Dunkerley’s.Method .434
9.7.3. Shaft.Whirl .434
9.8. Mounting.Parts .438
9.8.1. Keys .438
9.8.2. Pins 438
9.8.3. Screws .438
9.8.4. Rings.and.Collars 439
9.8.5. Methods.of.Axially.Positioning.of.Hubs .440
9.9. Stresses.in.Keys 440
9.10. Splines 442
9.11. Couplings 443
9.11.1. Clamped.Rigid.Couplings .443
9.11.2. Flanged.Rigid.Couplings .444
9.11.3. Flexible.Couplings 445
9.12. Universal.Joints 446
Problems .447
10. Bearings and Lubrication . 457
10.1. Introduction 457
Part.A:.Lubrication and.Journal Bearings . 457
10.2. Lubricants 458
10.2.1. Liquid.Lubricants 458
10.2.2. Solid.Lubricants 458
10.3. Types.of.Journal.Bearings . 459xiv Contents
10.4. Forms.of.Lubrication .460
10.4.1. Hydrodynamic.Lubrication . 461
10.4.2. Mixed.Lubrication 461
10.4.3. Boundary.Lubrication 461
10.4.4. Elastohydrodynamic.Lubrication . 462
10.4.5. Hydrostatic.Lubrication . 462
10.5. Lubricant.Viscosity 465
10.5.1. Units.of.Viscosity 466
10.5.2. Viscosity.in.terms.of.Saybolt.Universal.Seconds .466
10.5.3. Effects.of.Temperature.and.Pressure . 467
10.6. Petroff’s.Bearing.Equation 469
10.6.1. Friction.Torque 470
10.6.2. Friction.Power . 471
10.7. Hydrodynamic.Lubrication.Theory 472
10.7.1. Reynolds’s.Equation.of.Hydrodynamic.Lubrication . 472
10.7.1.1. Long.Bearings 472
10.7.1.2. Short.Bearings 475
10.8. Design.of.Journal.Bearings . 475
10.8.1. Lubricants 476
10.8.2. Bearing.Load . 476
10.8.3. Length–Diameter.Ratio 476
10.8.4. Clearance 476
10.8.5. Design.Charts 476
10.9. Lubricant.Supply.to.Journal.Bearings . 481
10.9.1. Splash.Method . 481
10.9.2. Miscellaneous.Methods . 481
10.9.3. Pressure-Fed.Systems .482
10.9.4. Methods.for.Oil.Distribution 482
10.10. Heat.Balance.of.Journal.Bearings 483
10.10.1.Heat.Dissipated .483
10.10.2.Heat.Developed .484
10.11. Materials.for.Journal.Bearings .484
10.11.1.Alloys 484
10.11.2.Sintered.Materials .486
10.11.3.Nonmetallic.Materials 486
Part.B:.Rolling-Element.Bearings .486
10.12. Types.and.Dimensions.of.Rolling.Bearings .487
10.12.1.Ball.Bearings 487
10.12.2.Roller.Bearings 489
10.12.3.Special.Bearings 490
10.12.4.Standard.Dimensions.for.Bearings 490
10.13. Rolling.Bearing.Life . 492
10.14. Equivalent.Radial.Load . 493
10.14.1.Equivalent.Shock.Loading . 493
10.15. Selection.of.Rolling.Bearings . 495
10.15.1.Reliability.Requirement . 496
10.16. Materials.and.Lubricants.of.Rolling.Bearings .499
10.17. Mounting.and.Closure.of.Rolling.Bearings .500
Problems .502Contents xv
11. Spur Gears .507
11.1. Introduction 507
11.2. Geometry.and.Nomenclature 508
11.2.1. Properties.of.Gear.Tooth 509
11.3. Fundamentals . 512
11.3.1. Basic.Law.of.Gearing 512
11.3.2. Involute.Tooth.Form . 513
11.4. Gear.Tooth.Action.and.Systems.of.Gearing . 514
11.4.1. Standard.Gear.Teeth . 514
11.5. Contact.Ratio.and.Interference 517
11.6. Gear.Trains 519
11.6.1. Planetary.Gear.Trains 521
11.7. Transmitted.Load . 523
11.7.1. Dynamic.Effects 524
11.8. Bending.Strength.of.a.Gear.Tooth:.The.Lewis.Formula 526
11.8.1. Uniform.Strength.Gear.Tooth . 527
11.8.2. Effect.of.Stress.Concentration . 529
11.8.3. Requirement.for.Satisfactory.Gear.Performance .530
11.9. .Design.for.the.Bending.Strength.of.a Gear Tooth:.The.AGMA.Method . 531
11.10. Wear.Strength.of.a.Gear.Tooth:.The.Buckingham.Formula 537
11.11. Design.for.the.Wear.Strength.of.a.Gear.Tooth:.The.AGMA.Method .540
11.12. Materials.for.Gears 545
11.13. Gear.Manufacturing 545
11.13.1.Forming.Gear.Teeth 546
11.13.2.Finishing.Processes 547
Problems .547
12. Helical, Bevel, and Worm Gears .555
12.1. Introduction 555
12.2. Helical.Gears .555
12.3. Helical.Gear.Geometry . 557
12.3.1. Virtual.Number.of.Teeth . 559
12.3.2. Contact.Ratios 559
12.4. Helical.Gear.Tooth.Loads . 561
12.5. Helical.Gear.Tooth.Bending.and.Wear.Strengths . 562
12.5.1. Lewis.Equation 562
12.5.2. Buckingham.Equation 563
12.5.3. AGMA.Equations 563
12.6. Bevel.Gears 570
12.6.1. Straight.Bevel.Gears . 571
12.6.1.1. Geometry 571
12.6.2. Virtual.Number.of.Teeth . 573
12.7. Tooth.Loads.of.Straight.Bevel.Gears . 573
12.8. Bevel.Gear.Tooth.Bending.and.Wear.Strengths 575
12.8.1. Lewis.Equation 575
12.8.2. Buckingham.Equation 576
12.8.3. AGMA.Equations 576
12.9. Worm.Gearsets . 578
12.9.1. Worm.Gear.Geometry 578xvi Contents
12.10. Worm.Gear.Bending.and.Wear.Strengths 581
12.10.1.Lewis.Equation 581
12.10.2.Limit.Load.for.Wear . 582
12.10.3.AGMA.Equations 582
12.11. Thermal.Capacity.of.Worm.Gearsets 582
12.11.1.Worm.Gear.Effciency 584
Problems . 587
13. Belts, Chains, Clutches, and Brakes 593
13.1. Introduction 593
Part.A:.Flexible.Elements 594
13.2. Belts 594
13.2.1. Flat.and.Round.Belts 594
13.2.2. V.Belts . 595
13.2.3. Timing.Belts . 595
13.3. Belt.Drives . 597
13.3.1. Transmitted.Power . 598
13.3.2. Contact.Angle 598
13.3.3. Belt.Length.and.Center.Distance 599
13.3.4. Maintaining.the.Initial.Tension.of.the.Belt . 601
13.4. Belt.Tension.Relationships 601
13.4.1. Flat.or.Round.Belt.Drives 602
13.4.2. V-Belt.Drives 604
13.5. Design.of.V-Belt.Drives .605
13.6. Chain.Drives .608
13.7. Common.Chain.Types . 610
13.7.1. Roller.Chains . 610
13.7.1.1. Chordal.Action 610
13.7.2. Power.Capacity.of.Roller.Chains 612
13.7.3. Inverted-Tooth.Chains . 615
Part.B:.High.Friction.Devices . 616
13.8. Materials.for.Brakes.and.Clutches . 616
13.9. Internal.Expanding.Drum.Clutches.and.Brakes . 618
13.10. Disk.Clutches.and.Brakes . 619
13.10.1.Disk.Clutches . 619
13.10.1.1.Uniform.Wear . 620
13.10.1.2.Uniform.Pressure . 621
13.10.2.Disk.Brakes 622
13.10.2.1.Caliper-Type.Disk.Brakes 623
13.11. Cone.Clutches.and.Brakes 625
13.11.1.Uniform.Wear 625
13.11.2.Uniform.Pressure 626
13.12. Band.Brakes 628
13.13. Short-Shoe.Drum.Brakes .630
13.13.1.Self-Energizing.and.Self-Locking.Brakes 631
13.14. Long-Shoe.Drum.Brakes . 632
13.14.1.External.Long-Shoe.Drum.Brakes 633
13.14.1.1.Symmetrically.Loaded.Pivot-Shoe.Brakes 636
13.14.2.Internal.Long-Shoe.Drum.Brakes .638Contents xvii
13.15. Energy.Absorption.and.Cooling .639
13.15.1.Energy.Sources 639
13.15.2.Temperature.Rise 640
Problems .641
14. Mechanical Springs 649
14.1. Introduction 649
14.2. Torsion.Bars .649
14.3. Helical.Tension.and.Compression.Springs 651
14.3.1. Stresses . 652
14.3.2. De?ection .654
14.3.3. Spring.Rate .655
14.4. Spring.Materials .656
14.4.1. Spring.Wire 657
14.4.1.1. Ultimate.Strength.in.Tension 657
14.4.1.2. Yield.Strength.in.Shear.and.Endurance.Limit.in.Shear 658
14.5. Helical.Compression.Springs .660
14.5.1. Design.Procedure.for.Static.Loading . 661
14.6. Buckling.of.Helical.Compression.Springs 663
14.6.1. Aspect.Ratio .664
14.7. Fatigue.of.Springs 666
14.8. Design.of.Helical.Compression.Springs.for.Fatigue.Loading .666
14.8.1. Goodman.Criteria.Helical.Springs . 667
14.8.2. Compression.Spring.Surge 668
14.9. Helical.Extension.Springs . 671
14.9.1. Coil.Body 672
14.9.2. End.Hook.Bending.and.Shear . 672
14.10. Torsion.Springs . 675
14.10.1.Helical.Torsion.Springs 675
14.10.2.Fatigue.Loading 677
14.10.3.Spiral.Torsion.Springs 677
14.11. Leaf.Springs 678
14.11.1.Multileaf.Springs 679
14.12. Miscellaneous.Springs 682
14.12.1.Constant-Force.Springs 683
14.12.2.Belleville.Springs 683
14.12.3.Rubber.Springs 686
Problems .687
15. Power Screws, Fasteners, and Connections 695
15.1. Introduction 695
15.2. Standard.Thread.Forms 695
15.2.1. Unifed.and.ISO.Thread.Form 697
15.2.2. Power.Screw.Thread.Forms 698
15.3. Mechanics.of.Power.Screws .700
15.3.1. Torque.to.Lift.the.Load 702
15.3.2. Torque.to.Lower.the.Load 703
15.3.3. Values.of.Friction.Coeffcients . 703
15.3.4. Values.of.Thread.Angle.in.the.Normal.Plane .704xviii Contents
15.4. Overhauling.and.Effciency.of.Power.Screws 704
15.4.1. Screw.Effciency . 705
15.5. Ball.Screws 708
15.6. Threaded.Fastener.Types 709
15.6.1. Fastener.Materials.and.Strengths 710
15.7. Stresses.in.Screws 711
15.7.1. Axial.Stress . 712
15.7.2. Torsional.Shear.Stress . 712
15.7.3. Combined.Torsion.and.Axial.Stress . 712
15.7.4. Bearing.Stress . 713
15.7.5. Direct.Shear.Stress . 713
15.7.6. Buckling.Stress.for.Power.Screws . 714
15.8. Bolt.Tightening.and.Preload . 714
15.8.1. Torque.Requirement 714
15.9. Tension.Joints.under.Static.Loading 715
15.9.1. De?ections.due.to.Preload . 717
15.9.2. Factors.of.Safety.for.a.Joint . 718
15.9.3. Joint-Separating.Force . 718
15.10. Gasketed.Joints . 719
15.11. Determining.the.Joint.Stiffness.Constants .720
15.11.1. Bolt.Stiffness .720
15.11.2. Stiffness.of.Clamped.Parts . 721
15.12. Tension.Joints.under.Dynamic.Loading .725
15.13. Riveted.and.Bolted.Joints.Loaded.in.Shear 730
15.13.1. Joint.Types.and.Effciency 732
15.14. Shear.of.Rivets.or.Bolts.due.to.Eccentric.Loading 735
15.15. Welding .738
15.15.1. Welding.Processes.and.Properties 738
15.15.2. Strength.of.Welded.Joints . 739
15.15.3. Stress.Concentration.and.Fatigue.in.Welds . 740
15.16. Welded.Joints.Subjected.to.Eccentric.Loading 742
15.16.1. Torsion.in.Welded.Joints . 742
15.16.2. Bending.in.Welded.Joints . 743
15.16.2.1. Centroid.of.the.Weld.Group . 744
15.16.2.2. Moments.of.Inertia.of.a.Weld 744
15.17. Brazing.and.Soldering . 746
15.17.1. Brazing.Process 746
15.17.2. Soldering.Process . 746
15.18. Adhesive.Bonding 746
15.18.1. Design.of.Bonded.Joints . 747
Problems . 748
16. Miscellaneous Mechanical Components 761
16.1. Introduction 761
16.2. Basic.Relations 761
16.3. Thick-Walled.Cylinders.under.Pressure . 763
16.3.1. Solution.of.the.Basic.Relations . 763
16.3.2. Stress.and.Radial.Displacement.for.Cylinder 764Contents xix
16.3.3. Special.Case . 766
16.3.3.1. Internal.Pressure.Only 766
16.3.3.2. External.Pressure.Only . 766
16.3.3.3. Cylinder.with.an.Eccentric.Bore 767
16.3.3.4. Thick-Walled.Spheres 767
16.4. Compound.Cylinders:.Press.or.Shrink.Fits 768
16.5. Disk.Flywheels .772
16.5.1. Stress.and.Displacement 772
16.5.2. Energy.Stored 777
16.6. Thermal.Stresses.in.Cylinders .778
16.6.1. Cylinder.with.a.Central.Hole 779
16.6.2. Steady-Flow.Temperature.Change.T(r) 780
16.6.3. Special.Case . 781
*16.7. Exact.Stresses.in.Curved.Beams 782
16.8. Curved.Beam.Formula 783
*16.9. Circular.Plates 788
*16.10. Thin.Shells.of.Revolution 792
16.10.1.Shell.Theories 792
16.10.2.Geometry.of.Shell.of.Revolution . 792
16.10.3.Symmetrically.Loaded.Shells.of.Revolution . 792
16.10.3.1. Equations.of.Equilibrium 793
16.10.3.2. Compatibility.of.Deformations 794
16.11. Special.Cases.of.Shells.of.Revolution 794
16.11.1.Spherical.Shell . 794
16.11.2.Conical.Shells 795
16.11.3.Circular.Cylindrical.Shells 795
16.12. Pressure.Vessels.and.Piping .800
16.12.1.Short.Catalog.of.Results .800
16.12.2.ASME.Code.for.Pressure.Vessels .804
16.13. Filament-Wound.Pressure.Vessels 805
16.14. Buckling.of.Cylindrical.and.Spherical.Shells 806
16.14.1.Cylindrical.Shells.under.Uniaxial.Compression 806
16.14.2.Cylindrical.and.Spherical.Pressure.Vessels 807
Problems .808
17. Finite Element Analysis in Design 819
17.1. Introduction 819
17.2. Bar.Element . 821
17.2.1. Direct.Equilibrium.Method . 821
17.2.2. Energy.Method . 821
17.2.3. Global.Stiffness.Matrix 822
17.2.4. Axial.Force.in.an.Element 825
17.3. Formulation.of.the.Finite.Element.Method 826
17.3.1. Method.of.Assemblage.of.the.Values.of.[k]e 826
17.3.2. Procedure.for.Solving.a.Problem 826
17.4. Beam.and.Frame.Elements .830
17.4.1. Arbitrarily.Oriented.Beam.Element .834
17.4.2. Arbitrarily.Oriented.Axial–Flexural.Beam.or.Frame.Element 835xx Contents
17.5. Two-Dimensional.Elements 838
17.5.1. Displacement.Functions .838
17.5.2. Strain,.Stress,.and.Displacement.Matrices 839
17.5.3. Governing.Equations.for.2D.Problems 840
17.6. Triangular.Element 841
17.6.1. Displacement.Function 841
17.6.2. Stiffness.Matrix .843
17.6.3. Element.Nodal.Forces.due.to.Surface.Loading 843
17.7. Plane.Stress.Case.Studies 844
17.8. Axisymmetric.Element . 852
Problems .855
18. Case Studies in Machine Design . 867
18.1. Introduction 867
18.2. Floor.Crane.with.Electric.Winch . 867
18.3. High-Speed.Cutter . 892
Problems . 898
Appendix A: Units, Properties of Shapes, and Beam De?ections 905
Appendix B: Material Properties . 921
Appendix C: Stress-Concentration Factors 933
Appendix D: Solution of the Stress Cubic Equation . 939
Appendix E: Introduction to MATLAB 943
Answers to Selected Problems . 947
References .


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