حل كتاب Fox and McDonald’s Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 8th ed Solution Manual
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 حل كتاب Fox and McDonald’s Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 8th ed Solution Manual

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Fox and McDonald’s Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 8th ed Solution Manual
Philip J. Pritchard, John W. Mitchell


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Contents
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 2
Note to Students 2
Scope of Fluid Mechanics 3
Definition of a Fluid 3
1.2 Basic Equations 4
1.3 Methods of Analysis 5
System and Control Volume 6
Differential versus Integral Approach 7
Methods of Description 7
1.4 Dimensions and Units 9
Systems of Dimensions 9
Systems of Units 10
Preferred Systems of Units 11
Dimensional Consistency and “Engineering”
Equations 11
1.5 Analysis of Experimental Error 13
1.6 Summary 14
Problems 14
CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL
CONCEPTS 17
2.1 Fluid as a Continuum 18
2.2 Velocity Field 19
One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows 20
Timelines, Pathlines, Streaklines, and
Streamlines 21
2.3 Stress Field 25
2.4 Viscosity 27
Newtonian Fluid 28
Non-Newtonian Fluids 30
2.5 Surface Tension 31
2.6 Description and Classification of Fluid
Motions 34
Viscous and Inviscid Flows 34
Laminar and Turbulent Flows 36
Compressible and Incompressible Flows 37
Internal and External Flows 38
2.7 Summary and Useful Equations 39
References 40
Problems 40
CHAPTER 3 FLUID STATICS 47
3.1 The Basic Equation of Fluid Statics 48
3.2 The Standard Atmosphere 51
3.3 Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid 52
Incompressible Liquids: Manometers 52
Gases 57
3.4 Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surfaces 59
Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Submerged
Surface 59
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Submerged
Surface 66
3.5 Buoyancy and Stability 69
3.6 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion
(/college/pritchard) 72
3.7 Summary and Useful Equations 72
References 73
Problems 73
CHAPTER 4 BASIC EQUATIONS IN
INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL
VOLUME 82
4.1 Basic Laws for a System 84
Conservation of Mass 84
Newton’s Second Law 84
The Angular-Momentum Principle 84
The First Law of Thermodynamics 85
The Second Law of Thermodynamics 85
4.2 Relation of System Derivatives to the
Control Volume Formulation 85
Derivation 86
Physical Interpretation 88
4.3 Conservation of Mass 89
Special Cases 90
4.4 Momentum Equation for Inertial Control
Volume 94
Differential Control Volume Analysis 105
Control Volume Moving with Constant
Velocity 109
4.5 Momentum Equation for Control
Volume with Rectilinear
Acceleration 111
viii4.6 Momentum Equation for Control Volume
with Arbitrary Acceleration (on the Web) 117
4.7 The Angular-Momentum Principle 117
Equation for Fixed Control Volume 117
4.8 The First and Second Laws of
Thermodynamics 121
Rate of Work Done by a Control Volume 122
Control Volume Equation 123
4.9 Summary and Useful Equations 128
Problems 129
CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS
OF FLUID MOTION 144
5.1 Conservation of Mass 145
Rectangular Coordinate System 145
Cylindrical Coordinate System 149
*5.2 Stream Function for Two-Dimensional
Incompressible Flow 151
5.3 Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics) 153
Fluid Translation: Acceleration of a Fluid Particle
in a Velocity Field 154
Fluid Rotation 160
Fluid Deformation 163
5.4 Momentum Equation 167
Forces Acting on a Fluid Particle 167
Differential Momentum Equation 168
Newtonian Fluid: Navier–Stokes Equations 168
*5.5 Introduction to Computational Fluid
Dynamics 176
The Need for CFD 176
Applications of CFD 177
Some Basic CFD/Numerical Methods Using a
Spreadsheet 178
The Strategy of CFD 182
Discretization Using the Finite-Difference
Method 183
Assembly of Discrete System and Application of
Boundary Conditions 184
Solution of Discrete System 185
Grid Convergence 185
Dealing with Nonlinearity 186
Direct and Iterative Solvers 187
Iterative Convergence 188
Concluding Remarks 189
5.6 Summary and Useful Equations 190
References 192
Problems 192
CHAPTER 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID
FLOW 198
6.1 Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow:
Euler’s Equation 199
6.2 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Euler’s
Equation Along a Streamline for
Steady Flow 202
Derivation Using Streamline Coordinates 202
Derivation Using Rectangular Coordinates 203
Static, Stagnation, and Dynamic Pressures 205
Applications 207
Cautions on Use of the Bernoulli
Equation 212
6.3 The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy
Equation 213
6.4 Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade
Line 217
6.5 Unsteady Bernoulli Equation: Integration of
Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline
(on the Web) 219
*6.6 Irrotational Flow 219
Bernoulli Equation Applied to Irrotational
Flow 219
Velocity Potential 220
Stream Function and Velocity Potential for
Two-Dimensional, Irrotational, Incompressible
Flow: Laplace’s Equation 221
Elementary Plane Flows 223
Superposition of Elementary Plane Flows 225
6.7 Summary and Useful Equations 234
References 235
Problems 236
CHAPTER 7 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
AND SIMILITUDE 244
7.1 Nondimensionalizing the Basic Differential
Equations 245
7.2 Nature of Dimensional Analysis 246
7.3 Buckingham Pi Theorem 248
7.4 Significant Dimensionless Groups in Fluid
Mechanics 254
*Section may be omitted without loss of continuity in the text material.
Contents ix7.5 Flow Similarity and Model Studies 256
Incomplete Similarity 258
Scaling with Multiple Dependent Parameters 263
Comments on Model Testing 266
7.6 Summary and Useful Equations 267
References 268
Problems 268
CHAPTER 8 INTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE
VISCOUS FLOW 275
8.1 Internal Flow Characteristics 276
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 276
The Entrance Region 277
PART A. FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR
FLOW 277
8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow Between Infinite
Parallel Plates 277
Both Plates Stationary 278
Upper Plate Moving with Constant Speed, U 283
8.3 Fully Developed Laminar Flow in a Pipe 288
PART B. FLOW IN PIPES AND DUCTS 292
8.4 Shear Stress Distribution in Fully Developed
Pipe Flow 293
8.5 Turbulent Velocity Profiles in Fully Developed
Pipe Flow 294
8.6 Energy Considerations in Pipe Flow 297
Kinetic Energy Coefficient 298
Head Loss 298
8.7 Calculation of Head Loss 299
Major Losses: Friction Factor 299
Minor Losses 303
Pumps, Fans, and Blowers in Fluid Systems 308
Noncircular Ducts 309
8.8 Solution of Pipe Flow Problems 309
Single-Path Systems 310
Multiple-Path Systems 322
PART C. FLOW MEASUREMENT 326
8.9 Restriction Flow Meters for Internal Flows 326
The Orifice Plate 329
The Flow Nozzle 330
The Venturi 332
The Laminar Flow Element 332
Linear Flow Meters 335
Traversing Methods 336
8.10 Summary and Useful Equations 337
References 340
Problems 341
CHAPTER 9 EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE
VISCOUS FLOW 353
PART A. BOUNDARY LAYERS 355
9.1 The Boundary-Layer Concept 355
9.2 Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact
Solution (/college/
pritchard) 359
9.3 Momentum Integral Equation 359
9.4 Use of the Momentum Integral Equation for Flow
with Zero Pressure Gradient 363
Laminar Flow 364
Turbulent Flow 368
Summary of Results for Boundary-Layer Flow
with Zero Pressure Gradient 371
9.5 Pressure Gradients in Boundary-Layer
Flow 371
PART B. FLUID FLOW ABOUT IMMERSED
BODIES 374
9.6 Drag 374
Pure Friction Drag: Flow over a Flat Plate Parallel
to the Flow 375
Pure Pressure Drag: Flow over a Flat Plate Normal
to the Flow 378
Friction and Pressure Drag: Flow over a Sphere
and Cylinder 378
Streamlining 384
9.7 Lift 386
9.8 Summary and Useful Equations 400
References 402
Problems 403
CHAPTER 10 FLUID MACHINERY 412
10.1 Introduction and Classification of Fluid
Machines 413
Machines for Doing Work on a Fluid 413
Machines for Extracting Work (Power) from a
Fluid 415
Scope of Coverage 417
10.2 Turbomachinery Analysis 417
The Angular-Momentum Principle: The Euler
Turbomachine Equation 417
x ContentsVelocity Diagrams 419
Performance—Hydraulic Power 422
Dimensional Analysis and Specific Speed 423
10.3 Pumps, Fans, and Blowers 428
Application of Euler Turbomachine Equation to
Centrifugal Pumps 428
Application of the Euler Equation to Axial Flow
Pumps and Fans 429
Performance Characteristics 432
Similarity Rules 437
Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head 441
Pump Selection: Applications to Fluid
Systems 444
Blowers and Fans 455
10.4 Positive Displacement Pumps 461
10.5 Hydraulic Turbines 464
Hydraulic Turbine Theory 464
Performance Characteristics for Hydraulic
Turbines 466
Sizing Hydraulic Turbines for Fluid
Systems 470
10.6 Propellers and Wind-Power Machines 474
Propellers 474
Wind-Power Machines 482
10.7 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 490
Application of the Energy Equation to a
Compressible Flow Machine 490
Compressors 491
Compressible-Flow Turbines 495
10.8 Summary and Useful Equations 495
References 497
Problems 499
CHAPTER 11 FLOW IN OPEN
CHANNELS 507
11.1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 509
Simplifying Assumptions 509
Channel Geometry 511
Speed of Surface Waves and the Froude
Number 512
11.2 Energy Equation for Open-Channel Flows 516
Specific Energy 518
Critical Depth: Minimum Specific Energy 521
11.3 Localized Effect of Area Change
(Frictionless Flow) 524
Flow over a Bump 524
11.4 The Hydraulic Jump 528
Depth Increase Across a Hydraulic Jump 531
Head Loss Across a Hydraulic Jump 532
11.5 Steady Uniform Flow 534
The Manning Equation for Uniform Flow 536
Energy Equation for Uniform Flow 541
Optimum Channel Cross Section 543
11.6 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth 544
Calculation of Surface Profiles 545
11.7 Discharge Measurement Using Weirs 548
Suppressed Rectangular Weir 548
Contracted Rectangular Weirs 549
Triangular Weir 549
Broad-Crested Weir 550
11.8 Summary and Useful Equations 551
References 552
Problems 553
CHAPTER 12 INTRODUCTION TO
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 556
12.1 Review of Thermodynamics 557
12.2 Propagation of Sound Waves 563
Speed of Sound 563
Types of Flow—The Mach Cone 567
12.3 Reference State: Local Isentropic Stagnation
Properties 570
Local Isentropic Stagnation Properties for the
Flow of an Ideal Gas 571
12.4 Critical Conditions 577
12.5 Basic Equations for One-Dimensional
Compressible Flow 577
Continuity Equation 577
Momentum Equation 578
First Law of Thermodynamics 578
Second Law of Thermodynamics 579
Equation of State 579
12.6 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas: Area
Variation 580
Subsonic Flow, M < 1 582
Supersonic Flow, M > 1 583
Sonic Flow, M = 1 583
Reference Stagnation and Critical Conditions
for Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 584
Isentropic Flow in a Converging Nozzle 589
Isentropic Flow in a Converging-Diverging
Nozzle 593
12.7 Normal Shocks 598
Basic Equations for a Normal Shock 599
Normal-Shock Flow Functions for
One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas 601
Contents xi12.8 Supersonic Channel Flow with Shocks 605
12.8 Supersonic Channel Flow with Shocks
(continued, at /college/
pritchard) 607
12.9 Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction
(/college/pritchard) 607
12.10 Frictionless Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with
Heat Exchange (/college/
pritchard) 607
12.11 Oblique Shocks and Expansion Waves
(/college/pritchard) 607
12.12 Summary and Useful Equations 607
References 610
Problems 610
APPENDIX A FLUID PROPERTY DATA 615
APPENDIX B VIDEOS FOR FLUID
MECHANICS 627
APPENDIX C SELECTED PERFORMANCE
CURVES FOR PUMPS AND FANS 629
APPENDIX D FLOW FUNCTIONS FOR
COMPUTATION OF COMPRESSIBLE
FLOW 640
APPENDIX E ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL
UNCERTAINTY 643
APPENDIX F ADDITIONAL COMPRESSIBLE
FLOW FUNCTIONS (/
COLLEGE/PRITCHARD) WF-1
APPENDIX G A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT
EXCEL (/COLLEGE/
PRITCHARD) WG-1
Answers to Selected Problems 649
Index


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