كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 5th ed - James G. Speight
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 5th ed - James G. Speight

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عدد المساهمات : 14528
التقييم : 23592
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 29
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 5th ed - James G. Speight    السبت 22 يوليو 2017, 6:07 pm

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The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 5th ed
James G. Speight


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Contents
Preface xxiii
Author xxv
Section i History, occurrence, and Recovery
Chapter 1 History and Terminology 3
1 1 Historical Perspectives 3
1 2 Modern Perspectives 9
1 3 Defnitions and Terminology 12
1 4 Native Materials 14
1 4 1 Petroleum 14
1 4 2 Opportunity Crudes and High-Acid Crudes 15
1 4 3 Heavy Oil 16
1 4 4 Foamy Oil 16
1 4 5 Extra Heavy Oil 17
1 4 6 Bitumen 17
1 4 7 Wax 18
1 4 8 Asphaltite and Asphaltoid 18
1 4 9 Bituminous Rock and Bituminous Sand 19
1 4 10 Kerogen 20
1 4 11 Natural Gas 20
1 5 Manufactured Materials 22
1 5 1 Wax 22
1 5 2 Resid 22
1 5 3 Asphalt 23
1 5 4 Tar and Pitch 23
1 5 5 Coke 24
1 5 6 Synthetic Crude Oil 24
1 6 Derived Materials 24
1 6 1 Asphaltenes, Carbenes, and Carboids 24
1 6 2 Resins and Oils 25
1 7 Oil Prices 26
1 7 1 Pricing Strategies 26
1 7 2 Oil Price History 27
1 7 3 Future of Oil 28
1 7 4 Epilogue 28
References 28
Chapter 2 Classifcation 31
2 1 Introduction 31
2 2 Classifcation Systems 32
2 2 1 Classifcation as a Hydrocarbon Resource 32
2 2 2 Classifcation by Chemical Composition 34
2 2 3 Correlation Index 35vi Contents
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
2 2 4 Density 36
2 2 5 API Gravity 37
2 2 6 Viscosity 38
2 2 7 Carbon Distribution 38
2 2 8 Viscosity-Gravity Constant 38
2 2 9 UOP Characterization Factor 39
2 2 10 Recovery Method 39
2 2 11 Pour Point 40
2 3 Miscellaneous Systems 41
2 4 Reservoir Classifcation 42
2 4 1 Identifcation and Quantifcation 42
2 4 2 Future 44
References 44
Chapter 3 Origin and Occurrence 47
3 1 Introduction 47
3 2 Origin 47
3 2 1 Abiogenic Origin 48
3 2 2 Biogenic Origin 49
3 2 2 1 Deposition of Organic Matter 51
3 2 2 2 Establishment of Source Beds 51
3 2 2 3 Nature of the Source Material 53
3 2 2 4 Transformation of Organic Matter into Petroleum 55
3 2 2 5 Accumulation in Reservoir Sediments 57
3 2 2 6 In Situ Transformation of Petroleum 61
3 2 3 Differences between Abiogenic Theory and Biogenic Theory 64
3 2 4 Relationship of Petroleum Composition and Properties 65
3 3 Occurrence 67
3 3 1 Reserves 67
3 3 2 Conventional Petroleum 70
3 3 3 Natural Gas 71
3 3 4 Heavy Oil 72
3 3 5 Bitumen 73
References 75
Chapter 4 Reservoirs and Reservoir Fluids 79
4 1 Introduction 79
4 2 Reservoirs 79
4 2 1 Structural Types 80
4 2 2 Heterogeneity 81
4 3 Classes of Fluids 82
4 4 Evaluation of Reservoir Fluids 83
4 4 1 Sampling Methods 84
4 4 2 Data Acquisition and QA/QC 85
4 5 Physical Composition and Molecular Weight 87
4 5 1 Asphaltene Separation 87
4 5 2 Fractionation 89
4 5 3 Molecular Weight 91
4 6 Reservoir Evaluation 95
References 96Contents vii
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Chapter 5 Kerogen 99
5 1 Introduction 99
5 2 Properties 99
5 3 Composition 102
5 4 Classifcation 102
5 5 Isolation 104
5 6 Methods for Probing Kerogen Structure 104
5 6 1 Ultimate (Elemental) Analysis 104
5 6 2 Functional Group Analysis 105
5 6 3 Oxidation 105
5 6 4 Thermal Methods 106
5 6 5 Acid-Catalyzed Hydrogenolysis 107
5 7 Structural Models 107
5 8 Kerogen Maturation 109
References 111
Chapter 6 Exploration, Recovery, and Transportation 115
6 1 Introduction 115
6 2 Exploration 116
6 2 1 Gravity Methods 117
6 2 2 Magnetic Methods 118
6 2 3 Seismic Methods 119
6 2 4 Electrical Methods 119
6 2 5 Electromagnetic Methods 120
6 2 6 Radioactive Methods 120
6 2 7 Borehole Logging 120
6 3 Drilling 121
6 3 1 Preparing to Drill 121
6 3 2 Drilling Equipment 122
6 3 3 Drilling Rig 124
6 3 4 Drilling 125
6 4 Well Completion 125
6 5 Recovery 126
6 5 1 Primary Recovery 128
6 5 2 Secondary Recovery 130
6 5 3 Enhanced Oil Recovery 132
6 6 Products and Product Quality 141
6 7 Transportation 142
References 147
Chapter 7 Recovery of Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen 149
7 1 Introduction 149
7 2 Mining 153
7 2 1 Tar Sand Mining 154
7 2 2 Hot-Water Process 156
7 2 3 Other Processes 158
7 3 Nonmining Methods 160
7 3 1 Steam-Based Processes 161
7 3 2 Combustion Processes 162
7 3 3 Other Processes 165viii Contents
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7 4 Upgrading during Recovery 173
7 4 1 Partial Upgrading at the Surface 174
7 4 1 1 Thermal Cracking Processes 175
7 4 1 2 Solvent Processes 176
7 4 2 Upgrading during In Situ Recovery 176
7 4 2 1 Steam Distillation 177
7 4 2 2 Mild Thermal Cracking 177
7 4 2 3 Partial Combustion 178
7 4 2 4 Solvent Deasphalting 180
7 4 2 5 Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery 181
7 4 3 Epilogue 181
References 182
Section ii composition and Properties
Chapter 8 Chemical Composition 187
8 1 Introduction 187
8 2 Ultimate (Elemental) Composition 188
8 3 Chemical Composition 189
8 3 1 Hydrocarbon Components 190
8 3 1 1 Paraffn Hydrocarbons 191
8 3 1 2 Cycloparaffn Hydrocarbons (Naphthenes) 193
8 3 1 3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 194
8 3 1 4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 196
8 3 2 Nonhydrocarbon Components 196
8 3 2 1 Sulfur Compounds 197
8 3 2 2 Oxygen Compounds 198
8 3 2 3 Nitrogen Compounds 199
8 3 2 4 Metallic Constituents 201
8 3 2 5 Porphyrins 202
8 4 Chemical Composition by Distillation 203
8 4 1 Gases and Naphtha 205
8 4 2 Middle Distillates 206
8 4 3 Vacuum Residua (1050°F+) 208
References 208
Chapter 9 Fractional Composition 211
9 1 Introduction 211
9 2 Distillation 212
9 2 1 Atmospheric Pressure 216
9 2 2 Reduced Pressures 216
9 2 3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation 218
9 3 Solvent Treatment 219
9 3 1 Asphaltene Separation 221
9 3 1 1 Influence of Solvent Type 221
9 3 1 2 Influence of the Degree of Dilution 224Contents ix
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9 3 1 3 Influence of Temperature 224
9 3 1 4 Influence of Contact Time 224
9 3 2 Fractionation 225
9 4 Adsorption 227
9 4 1 Chemical Factors 227
9 4 2 Fractionation Methods 228
9 4 2 1 General Methods 228
9 4 2 2 ASTM Methods 231
9 5 Chemical Methods 233
9 5 1 Acid Treatment 233
9 5 2 Molecular Complex Formation 235
9 5 2 1 Urea Adduction 235
9 5 2 2 Thiourea Adduction 236
9 5 2 3 Adduct Composition 236
9 5 2 4 Adduct Structure 237
9 5 2 5 Adduct Properties 237
9 6 Use of the Data 238
References 240
Chapter 10 Petroleum Analysis 243
10 1 Introduction 243
10 2 Petroleum Assay 243
10 3 Physical Properties 246
10 3 1 Elemental (Ultimate) Analysis 246
10 3 2 Density and Specifc Gravity 247
10 3 3 Viscosity 249
10 3 4 Surface and Interfacial Tension 251
10 3 5 Metal Content 253
10 3 6 Total Acid Number 254
10 4 Thermal Properties 254
10 4 1 Volatility 255
10 4 2 Liquefaction and Solidifcation 258
10 4 3 Carbon Residue 260
10 4 4 Aniline Point 261
10 4 5 Specifc Heat 261
10 4 6 Latent Heat 262
10 4 7 Enthalpy or Heat Content 262
10 4 8 Thermal Conductivity 262
10 4 9 Pressure–Volume–Temperature Relationships 263
10 4 10 Heat of Combustion 263
10 4 11 Critical Properties 264
10 5 Electrical Properties 264
10 5 1 Conductivity 264
10 5 2 Dielectric Constant 264
10 5 3 Dielectric Strength 265
10 5 4 Dielectric Loss and Power Factor 265
10 5 5 Static Electrifcation 266
10 6 Optical Properties 266
10 6 1 Refractive Index 266
10 6 2 Optical Activity 267x Contents
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10 7 Spectroscopic Methods 268
10 7 1 Infrared Spectroscopy 269
10 7 2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 269
10 7 3 Mass Spectrometry 269
10 8 Chromatographic Methods 270
10 8 1 Gas Chromatography 270
10 8 2 Simulated Distillation 273
10 8 3 Adsorption Chromatography 274
10 8 4 Gel Permeation Chromatography 275
10 8 5 Ion-Exchange Chromatography 276
10 8 6 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 277
10 8 7 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography 278
10 9 Molecular Weight 278
10 10 Use of the Data 279
References 280
Chapter 11 Structural Group Analysis 283
11 1 Introduction 283
11 2 Methods for Structural Group Analysis 285
11 2 1 Physical Property Methods 288
11 2 1 1 Direct Method 288
11 2 1 2 Waterman Ring Analysis 290
11 2 1 3 Density Method 291
11 2 1 4 n–d–M Method 291
11 2 1 5 Dispersion–Refraction Method 292
11 2 1 6 Density–Temperature Coeffcient Method 292
11 2 1 7 Molecular Weight–Refractive Index Method 293
11 2 1 8 Miscellaneous Methods 293
11 2 2 Spectroscopic Methods 295
11 2 2 1 Infrared Spectroscopy 295
11 2 2 2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 299
11 2 2 3 Mass Spectrometry 302
11 2 2 4 Electron Spin Resonance 304
11 2 2 5 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 304
11 2 2 6 X-Ray Diffraction 306
11 2 3 Heteroatom Systems 307
11 2 3 1 Nitrogen 308
11 2 3 2 Oxygen 308
11 2 3 3 Sulfur 309
11 2 3 4 Metals 309
11 3 Miscellaneous Methods 309
References 310
Chapter 12 Asphaltene Constituents 315
12 1 Introduction 315
12 2 Separation 316
12 3 Composition 319
12 4 Molecular Weight 324Contents xi
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
12 5 Reactions 327
12 6 Solubility Parameter 331
12 7 Structural Aspects 334
References 340
Chapter 13 Structure of Petroleum 345
13 1 Introduction 345
13 2 Molecular Species in Petroleum 346
13 2 1 Volatile Fractions 346
13 2 2 Nonvolatile Constituents 346
13 2 2 1 Composition 346
13 2 2 2 Structure 346
13 2 2 3 Molecular Weight 347
13 2 3 Resin Constituents 347
13 2 3 1 Composition 348
13 2 3 2 Structure 348
13 2 3 3 Molecular Weight 349
13 3 Petroleum System 349
13 4 Stability/Instability of the Petroleum System 354
13 5 Effects on Recovery and Refning 362
13 5 1 Effects on Recovery Operations 363
13 5 2 Effects on Refning Operations 366
References 367
Chapter 14 Instability and Incompatibility 371
14 1 Introduction 371
14 2 General Aspects 375
14 3 Factors Influencing Instability and Incompatibility 376
14 3 1 Elemental Analysis 376
14 3 2 Density and Specifc Gravity 376
14 3 3 Volatility 376
14 3 4 Viscosity 377
14 3 5 Asphaltene Content 377
14 3 6 Pour Point 379
14 3 7 Acidity 379
14 3 8 Metals (Ash) Content 379
14 3 9 Water Content, Salt Content, and Bottom Sediment and Water 380
14 4 Methods for Determining Instability and Incompatibility 381
14 5 Effect of Asphaltene and Heteroatom Constituents 385
References 387
Section iii Refning
Chapter 15 Introduction to Refning Processes 391
15 1 Introduction 391
15 2 Dewatering and Desalting 394
15 3 Early Processes 395xii Contents
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
15 4 Distillation 396
15 4 1 Historical Development 396
15 4 2 Modern Processes 396
15 4 2 1 Atmospheric Distillation 396
15 4 2 2 Vacuum Distillation 398
15 4 2 3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation 399
15 5 Thermal Methods 399
15 5 1 Historical Development 399
15 5 2 Modern Processes 401
15 5 2 1 Thermal Cracking 401
15 5 2 2 Visbreaking 402
15 5 2 3 Coking 403
15 6 Catalytic Methods 406
15 6 1 Historical Development 406
15 6 2 Modern Processes 407
15 6 3 Catalysts 408
15 7 Hydroprocesses 409
15 7 1 Historical Development 409
15 7 2 Modern Processes 410
15 7 2 1 Hydrofning 412
15 8 Reforming 412
15 8 1 Historical Development 412
15 8 2 Modern Processes 412
15 8 2 1 Thermal Reforming 412
15 8 2 2 Catalytic Reforming 413
15 8 3 Catalysts 413
15 9 Isomerization 414
15 9 1 Historical Development 414
15 9 2 Modern Processes 415
15 9 3 Catalysts 415
15 10 Alkylation Processes 416
15 10 1 Historical Development 416
15 10 2 Modern Processes 417
15 10 3 Catalysts 417
15 11 Polymerization Processes 418
15 11 1 Historical Development 418
15 11 2 Modern Processes 418
15 11 3 Catalysts 418
15 12 Solvent Processes 419
15 12 1 Deasphalting Processes 419
15 12 2 Dewaxing Processes 420
15 13 Refning Heavy Feedstocks 421
15 14 Petroleum Products 424
15 15 Petrochemicals 425
15 16 Future of Refning 427
15 16 1 Feedstocks 427
15 16 2 Refnery Confguration 428
References 431Contents xiii
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Chapter 16 Refning Chemistry 433
16 1 Introduction 433
16 2 Cracking 435
16 2 1 Thermal Cracking 435
16 2 2 Catalytic Cracking 436
16 2 3 Dehydrogenation 438
16 2 4 Dehydrocyclization 439
16 3 Hydrogenation 439
16 3 1 Hydrocracking 439
16 3 2 Hydrotreating 440
16 4 Isomerization 440
16 5 Alkylation 441
16 6 Polymerization 442
16 7 Process Chemistry 442
16 7 1 Thermal Chemistry 442
16 7 2 Hydroconversion Chemistry 450
16 7 3 Chemistry in the Refnery 451
16 7 3 1 Visbreaking 451
16 7 3 2 Hydroprocessing 454
References 456
Chapter 17 Distillation 459
17 1 Introduction 459
17 2 Pretreatment 460
17 3 Atmospheric Pressure and Reduced Pressure Distillation 461
17 3 1 Atmospheric Pressure Distillation 463
17 3 2 Reduced Pressure Distillation 466
17 4 Equipment 469
17 4 1 Columns 469
17 4 2 Packing 471
17 4 3 Trays 471
17 5 Other Processes 473
17 5 1 Stripping 473
17 5 2 Rerunning 473
17 5 3 Stabilization and Light-End Removal 473
17 5 4 Superfractionation 475
17 5 5 Azeotropic Distillation 475
17 5 6 Extractive Distillation 476
17 6 Options for Heavy Feedstocks 478
References 478
Chapter 18 Thermal Cracking 481
18 1 Introduction 481
18 2 Early Processes 485
18 3 Commercial Processes 486
18 3 1 Visbreaking 487
18 3 2 Coking Processes 492xiv Contents
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
18 3 2 1 Delayed Coking 493
18 3 2 2 Fluid Coking 496
18 3 2 3 Flexicoking 498
18 4 Options for Heavy Feedstocks 499
18 4 1 Asphalt Coking Technology (ASCOT) Process 500
18 4 2 Cherry-P (Comprehensive Heavy Ends Reforming Refnery)
Process 500
18 4 3 Decarbonizing 501
18 4 4 ET-II Process 501
18 4 5 Eureka Process 502
18 4 6 Fluid Thermal Cracking Process 503
18 4 7 High Conversion Soaker Cracking Process 505
18 4 8 Mixed-Phase Cracking 506
18 4 9 OrCrude Process 506
18 4 10 Selective Cracking 507
18 4 11 Shell Thermal Cracking 507
18 4 12 Tervahl-T Process 509
References 510
Chapter 19 Catalytic Cracking 513
19 1 Introduction 513
19 2 Early Processes 517
19 3 Commercial Processes 517
19 3 1 Fixed-Bed Processes 518
19 3 2 Fluid-Bed Processes 518
19 3 2 1 Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking 518
19 3 2 2 Model IV Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking Unit 518
19 3 2 3 Orthoflow Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking 519
19 3 2 4 Shell Two-Stage Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking 520
19 3 2 5 Universal Oil Products Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking 520
19 3 3 Moving-Bed Processes 520
19 3 3 1 Airlift Thermofor Catalytic Cracking (Socony
Airlift TCC Process) 520
19 3 3 2 Houdresid Catalytic Cracking 520
19 3 3 3 Houdriflow Catalytic Cracking 520
19 3 3 4 Suspensoid Catalytic Cracking 521
19 4 Options for Heavy Feedstocks 521
19 4 1 Asphalt Residual Treating Process 522
19 4 2 Aquaconversion 522
19 4 3 Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process 523
19 4 4 Heavy Oil Treating Process 524
19 4 5 R2R Process 524
19 4 6 Reduced Crude Oil Conversion Process 526
19 4 7 Shell FCC Process 527
19 4 8 S&W Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process 528
19 5 Catalysts 529
19 5 1 Catalyst Properties 529
19 5 2 Catalyst Treatment 529
19 5 2 1 Demet 530
19 5 2 2 Met-X 530Contents xv
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19 6 Process Parameters 530
19 6 1 Reactor 531
19 6 2 Coking 532
19 6 3 Catalyst Variables 534
19 6 4 Process Variables 535
19 6 5 Additives 535
References 536
Chapter 20 Solvent Processes 539
20 1 Introduction 539
20 2 Commercial Processes 539
20 2 1 Deasphalting Process 540
20 2 2 Options for Heavy Feedstocks 547
20 2 2 1 Deep Solvent Deasphalting Process 547
20 2 2 2 Demex Process 549
20 2 2 3 MDS Process 551
20 2 2 4 Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction Process 552
20 2 2 5 Solvahl Process 553
20 2 2 6 Lube Deasphalting 553
20 3 Dewaxing Processes 553
References 558
Chapter 21 Hydrotreating and Desulfurization 561
21 1 Introduction 561
21 2 Process Parameters and Reactors 568
21 2 1 Hydrogen Partial Pressure 569
21 2 2 Space Velocity 569
21 2 3 Reaction Temperature 570
21 2 4 Catalyst Life 570
21 2 5 Feedstock Effects 570
21 2 6 Reactors 572
21 2 6 1 Downflow Fixed-Bed Reactor 572
21 2 6 2 Upflow Expanded-Bed Reactor 573
21 2 6 3 Ebullating Bed Reactor 574
21 2 6 4 Demetallization Reactor (Guard Bed Reactor) 574
21 3 Commercial Processes 575
21 3 1 Autofning Process 576
21 3 2 Ferrofning Process 576
21 3 3 Gulf HDS Process 576
21 3 4 Hydrofning Process 576
21 3 5 Isomax Process 578
21 3 6 Ultrafning Process 578
21 3 7 Unifning Process 578
21 3 8 Unionfning Process 579
21 4 Options for Heavy Feedstocks 579
21 4 1 Residuum Desulfurization and Vacuum Residuum
Desulfurization Process 580
21 4 2 Residfning Process 580
21 5 Catalysts 581xvi Contents
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
21 6 Biodesulfurization 585
21 7 Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Polishing 586
References 588
Chapter 22 Hydrocracking 591
22 1 Introduction 591
22 2 Commercial Processes 597
22 2 1 Process Design 598
22 3 Options for Heavy Feedstocks 601
22 3 1 Asphaltenic Bottom Cracking Process 602
22 3 2 CANMET Process 603
22 3 3 Eni Slurry Technology Process 604
22 3 4 (HC)3 Process 604
22 3 5 H-Oil Process 605
22 3 6 Hydrovisbreaking Process 606
22 3 7 Hyvahl F Process 607
22 3 8 IFP Hydrocracking Process 608
22 3 9 Isocracking Process 608
22 3 10 LC-Fining Process 609
22 3 11 MAKfning Process 611
22 3 12 Microcat-RC Process 612
22 3 13 Mild Hydrocracking Process 613
22 3 14 MRH Process 614
22 3 15 RCD Unibon Process 615
22 3 16 Residfning Process 615
22 3 17 Residue Hydroconversion Process 616
22 3 18 Tervahl-H Process 616
22 3 19 T-Star Process 617
22 3 20 Unicracking Process 617
22 3 21 Uniflex Process 619
22 3 22 Veba Combi Cracking Process 620
22 4 Catalysts 621
References 627
Chapter 23 Hydrogen Production 631
23 1 Introduction 631
23 2 Processes Requiring Hydrogen 634
23 2 1 Hydrotreating 634
23 2 2 Hydrocracking 635
23 3 Feedstocks 636
23 4 Process Chemistry 636
23 5 Commercial Processes 638
23 5 1 Heavy Residue Gasifcation and Combined Cycle Power
Generation 639
23 5 2 Hybrid Gasifcation Process 640
23 5 3 Hydrocarbon Gasifcation 640
23 5 4 Hypro Process 640
23 5 5 Pyrolysis Processes 641
23 5 6 Shell Gasifcation Process 642
23 5 7 Steam–Methane Reforming 642
23 5 8 Steam–Naphtha Reforming 644Contents xvii
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23 5 9 Synthesis Gas Generation 644
23 5 10 Texaco Gasifcation (Partial Oxidation) Process 645
23 5 11 Recovery from Fuel Gas 646
23 6 Catalysts 646
23 6 1 Reforming Catalysts 646
23 6 2 Shift Conversion Catalysts 647
23 6 3 Methanation Catalysts 648
23 7 Hydrogen Purifcation 648
23 7 1 Wet Scrubbing 649
23 7 2 Pressure Swing Adsorption Units 649
23 7 3 Membrane Systems 651
23 7 4 Cryogenic Separation 651
23 8 Hydrogen Management 651
References 652
Chapter 24 Product Improvement and Treating 655
24 1 Introduction 655
24 2 Reforming 656
24 2 1 Thermal Reforming 658
24 2 2 Catalytic Reforming 659
24 2 2 1 Fixed-Bed Processes 661
24 2 2 2 Moving-Bed Processes 665
24 2 3 Fluid-Bed Processes 665
24 3 Isomerization 666
24 3 1 Butamer Process 667
24 3 2 Butomerate Process 668
24 3 3 Hysomer Process 668
24 3 4 Iso-Kel Process 669
24 3 5 Isomate Process 669
24 3 6 Isomerate Process 669
24 3 7 Penex Process 669
24 3 8 Pentafning Process 669
24 4 Hydroisomerization 670
24 5 Alkylation 671
24 5 1 Cascade Sulfuric Acid Alkylation 672
24 5 2 Hydrogen Fluoride Alkylation 673
24 6 Polymerization 673
24 6 1 Thermal Polymerization 674
24 6 2 Solid Phosphoric Acid Condensation 674
24 6 3 Bulk Acid Polymerization 675
24 7 Catalysts 676
24 7 1 Reforming Processes 676
24 7 2 Isomerization Processes 677
24 7 3 Alkylation Processes 677
24 7 4 Polymerization Processes 678
24 8 Treating Processes 678
24 8 1 Caustic Processes 678
24 8 1 1 Dualayer Distillate Process 679
24 8 1 2 Dualayer Gasoline Process 679
24 8 1 3 Electrolytic Mercaptan Process 679xviii Contents
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
24 8 1 4 Ferrocyanide Process 679
24 8 1 5 Lye Treatment 679
24 8 1 6 Mercapsol Process 680
24 8 1 7 Polysulfde Treatment 680
24 8 1 8 Sodasol Process 680
24 8 1 9 Solutizer Process 681
24 8 1 10 Steam-Regenerative Caustic Treatment 681
24 8 1 11 Unisol Process 681
24 8 2 Acid Processes 681
24 8 2 1 Nalfning Process 683
24 8 2 2 Sulfuric Acid Treatment 683
24 8 3 Clay Processes 683
24 8 3 1 Alkylation Effluent Treatment 684
24 8 3 2 Arosorb Process 684
24 8 3 3 Bauxite Treatment 684
24 8 3 4 Continuous Contact Filtration Process 684
24 8 3 5 Cyclic Adsorption Process 684
24 8 3 6 Gray Clay Treatment 685
24 8 3 7 Percolation Filtration Process 685
24 8 3 8 Thermofor Continuous Percolation Process 685
24 8 4 Oxidative Processes 685
24 8 4 1 Bender Process 685
24 8 4 2 Copper Sweetening Process 686
24 8 4 3 Doctor Process 686
24 8 4 4 Hypochlorite Sweetening Process 687
24 8 4 5 Inhibitor Sweetening Process 687
24 8 4 6 Merox Process 687
24 8 5 Solvent Processes 687
References 689
Chapter 25 Gas Processing 691
25 1 Introduction 691
25 2 Gas Streams 691
25 2 1 Gas Streams from Crude Oil 698
25 2 2 Gas Streams from Natural Gas 702
25 3 Water Removal 702
25 3 1 Absorption 703
25 3 2 Solid Adsorbents 704
25 3 3 Use of Membranes 705
25 4 Liquid Removal 705
25 4 1 Extraction 705
25 4 2 Absorption 706
25 4 3 Fractionation of Natural Gas Liquids 707
25 5 Nitrogen Removal 707
25 6 Acid Gas Removal 708
25 7 Enrichment 711
25 8 Fractionation 711
25 9 Claus Process 712
References 714Contents xix
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Chapter 26 Petroleum Products 717
26 1 Introduction 717
26 2 Gaseous Fuels 721
26 2 1 Composition 722
26 2 2 Manufacture 722
26 2 3 Properties and Uses 722
26 3 Naphtha 725
26 3 1 Composition 725
26 3 2 Manufacture 726
26 3 3 Properties and Uses 728
26 4 Gasoline 729
26 4 1 Composition 729
26 4 2 Manufacture 731
26 4 3 Properties and Uses 733
26 4 4 Octane Number 733
26 4 5 Additives 735
26 5 Kerosene 737
26 5 1 Composition 737
26 5 2 Manufacture 738
26 5 3 Properties and Uses 738
26 6 Fuel Oil 739
26 6 1 Composition 739
26 6 2 Manufacture 740
26 6 3 Uses 741
26 7 Lubricating Oil 742
26 7 1 Composition 742
26 7 2 Manufacture 743
26 7 2 1 Chemical Refning Processes 743
26 7 2 2 Hydroprocessing 744
26 7 2 3 Solvent Refning Processes 744
26 7 2 4 Catalytic Dewaxing 744
26 7 2 5 Solvent Dewaxing 744
26 7 2 6 Finishing Processes 745
26 7 2 7 Older Processes 745
26 7 3 Properties and Uses 747
26 8 Other Oil Products 748
26 8 1 White Oil 748
26 8 2 Insulating Oil 749
26 8 3 Insecticides 749
26 9 Grease 750
26 9 1 Composition 750
26 9 2 Manufacture 751
26 9 3 Properties and Uses 752
26 9 3 1 Lime Soap Grease 753
26 9 3 2 Sodium Soap Grease 753
26 9 3 3 Lithium and Barium Soap Grease 753
26 9 3 4 Aluminum Soap Grease 753
26 9 3 5 Calcium Soap Grease 754
26 9 3 6 Cold Sett Grease 754xx Contents
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26 10 Wax 754
26 10 1 Composition 755
26 10 2 Manufacture 755
26 10 3 Properties and Uses 756
26 11 Asphalt 757
26 11 1 Composition 757
26 11 2 Manufacture 759
26 11 3 Properties and Uses 761
26 11 3 1 Road Asphalt 762
26 11 3 2 Cutback Asphalt 762
26 11 3 3 Asphalt Emulsion 763
26 11 3 4 Cold Mix Asphalt 763
26 11 3 5 Asphalt Aging 766
26 12 Coke 766
26 13 Sulfonic Acids 767
26 14 Acid Sludge 768
26 15 Product Blending 768
References 769
Chapter 27 Petrochemicals 773
27 1 Introduction 773
27 2 Chemicals from Paraffns 781
27 2 1 Halogenation 781
27 2 2 Nitration 782
27 2 3 Oxidation 783
27 2 4 Alkylation 784
27 2 5 Thermolysis 784
27 3 Chemicals from Olefns 785
27 3 1 Hydroxylation 786
27 3 2 Halogenation 787
27 3 3 Polymerization 788
27 3 4 Oxidation 788
27 3 5 Miscellaneous 789
27 4 Chemicals from Aromatics 789
27 5 Chemicals from Acetylene 791
27 6 Chemicals from Natural Gas 791
27 7 Inorganic Petrochemicals 792
27 8 Synthesis Gas 793
References 795
Section iV environmental issues
Chapter 28 Refnery Wastes 799
28 1 Introduction 799
28 2 Process Wastes 802
28 2 1 Desalting 803
28 2 2 Distillation 804
28 2 3 Thermal Cracking 807Contents xxi
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
28 2 4 Coking Processes 808
28 2 5 Fluid Catalytic Cracking 810
28 2 6 Hydrocracking and Hydrotreating 811
28 2 7 Catalytic Reforming 813
28 2 8 Alkylation 814
28 2 9 Isomerization 817
28 2 10 Polymerization 818
28 2 11 Deasphalting 818
28 2 12 Dewaxing 819
28 2 13 Gas Processing 820
28 3 Types of Waste 820
28 3 1 Gases and Lower Boiling Constituents 822
28 3 2 Higher Boiling Constituents 824
28 3 3 Wastewater 825
28 3 4 Spent Caustic 826
28 3 5 Solid Waste 827
28 4 Waste Toxicity 827
28 5 Refnery Outlook 828
28 5 1 Hazardous Waste Regulations 828
28 5 2 Regulatory Background 828
28 5 3 Requirements 828
28 6 Management of Refnery Waste 829
References 830
Chapter 29 Environmental Aspects of Refning 831
29 1 Introduction 831
29 2 Defnitions 833
29 3 Environmental Regulations 835
29 3 1 Clean Air Act Amendments 835
29 3 2 Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act) 835
29 3 3 Safe Drinking Water Act 836
29 3 4 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 836
29 3 5 Toxic Substances Control Act 837
29 3 6 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,
and Liability Act 837
29 3 7 Occupational Safety and Health Act 838
29 3 8 Oil Pollution Act 838
29 3 9 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act 839
29 4 Process Analysis 839
29 4 1 Gaseous Emissions 841
29 4 2 Liquid Effluents 845
29 4 3 Solid Effluents 846
29 5 Epilogue 847
References 847
Chapter 30 Environmental Analysis 849
30 1 Introduction 849
30 2 Petroleum and Petroleum Products 850
30 3 Leachability and Toxicity 852xxii Contents
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
30 4 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons 853
30 4 1 Gas Chromatographic Methods 855
30 4 2 Infrared Spectroscopy Methods 857
30 4 3 Gravimetric Methods 858
30 4 4 Immunoassay Methods 859
30 5 Petroleum Group Analysis 860
30 5 1 Thin Layer Chromatography 861
30 5 2 Immunoassay 861
30 5 3 Gas Chromatography 862
30 5 4 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 863
30 5 5 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry 864
30 6 Petroleum Fractions 865
30 7 Assessment of the Methods 865
References 868
Conversion Factors 869
Glossary 


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