كتاب Power System Engineering
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Power System Engineering

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عدد المساهمات : 14288
التقييم : 22977
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Power System Engineering   الأحد 06 نوفمبر 2016, 9:02 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Power System Engineering
Planning, Design, and Operation of Power Systems and Equipment
Juergen Schlabbach and Karl-Heinz Rofalski


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Contents
Foreword XI
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Reliability, Security, Economy 1
1.2 Legal, Political and Social Restrictions 2
1.3 Needs for Power System Planning 4
1.4 Basic, Development and Project Planning 5
1.4.1 Basic Planning 5
1.4.2 System Development Planning 5
1.4.3 Project Planning 7
1.5 Instruments for Power System Planning 7
1.6 Further Tasks of Power System Engineering 10
2 Power System Load 11
2.1 General 11
2.2 Load Forecast with Load Increase Factors 12
2.3 Load Forecast with Economic Characteristic Data 13
2.4 Load Forecast with Estimated Values 14
2.5 Load Forecast with Specifi c Loads and Degrees of Electrification 14
2.6 Load Forecast with Standardized Load Curves 17
2.7 Typical Time Course of Power System Load 20
3 Planning Principles and Planning Criteria 23
3.1 Planning Principles 23
3.2 Basics of Planning 26
3.3 Planning Criteria 30
3.3.1 Voltage Band According to IEC 60038 30
3.3.2 Voltage Criteria 31
3.3.3 Loading Criteria 33
3.3.4 Stability Criteria 34
4 Economic Consideration and Loss Evaluation 37
4.1 Present Value and Annuity Method 37
4.2 Evaluation of Losses 38VI Contents
4.2.1 Energy Losses 39
4.2.2 Power Losses 40
5 Topologies of Electrical Power Systems 45
5.1 Development of Power Systems 45
5.2 Recommended Voltage Levels 47
5.3 Topology of Power Systems 48
5.3.1 Radial Systems 48
5.3.2 Ring-Main Systems 50
5.3.3 Meshed Systems at HV and MV Levels 62
5.3.4 Meshed Systems at the LV Level 65
5.4 Special Operating Considerations 67
6 Arrangement in Gridstations and Substations 69
6.1 Busbar Arrangements 69
6.1.1 General 69
6.1.2 Single Busbar without Separation 69
6.1.3 Single Busbar with Sectionalizer 71
6.1.4 Special H-Arrangement 71
6.1.5 Double Busbar Arrangement 72
6.1.6 Double Busbar with Reserve Busbar 73
6.2 Arrangement in Switchyards 74
6.2.1 Breakers and Switches 74
6.2.2 Incoming and Outgoing Feeders 75
6.2.3 Current Transformers 75
6.2.4 Voltage Transformers 78
7 Transformers 81
7.1 General 81
7.2 Utilization and Construction of Transformers 81
7.2.1 Utilization of Transformers 81
7.2.2 Oil-Immersed Transformers and Dry-Type Transformers 83
7.2.3 Characteristic Data of Transformers 86
7.3 Operation of Transformers 86
7.3.1 Voltage Drop 86
7.3.2 Permissible Loading of Transformer Neutral 88
7.4 Thermal Permissible Loading 88
7.4.1 Temperature Models 88
7.4.2 Maximum Permissible Loading of Oil-Immersed
Transformers 95
7.4.3 Maximal Permissible Loading of Dry-Type Transformers 102
7.5 Economical Operation of Transformers 105
7.6 Short-Circuit Strength 106
8 Cable Systems 111
8.1 General 111
8.2 Construction Details 112Contents VII
8.3 Electrical Parameters of Cables 114
8.4 Losses and Permissible Current 115
8.4.1 General 115
8.4.2 Calculation of Losses 118
8.4.3 Soil Characteristics 120
8.4.4 Thermal Resistances of Cables 123
8.4.5 Calculation according to VDE 0276-1000 124
8.4.6 Determination of Maximal Permissible Loading by Computer
Programs 126
8.5 Planning and Design of Cable Routes and Trenches 127
8.5.1 Coordination with Other Cables and Pipes 127
8.5.2 Effect of Thermally Unfavorable Areas 129
8.5.3 Influence of Other Parameters 130
8.6 Short-Circuit Withstand Capability 132
8.6.1 General 132
8.6.2 Rating of Cable Screens 134
9 Overhead Lines 137
9.1 General 137
9.2 Permissible Loading (Thermal) Current 137
9.2.1 Design Limits 137
9.2.2 Losses 138
9.2.3 Heating by Solar Radiation 140
9.2.4 Heat Dissipation by Radiation and Convection 142
9.2.5 Examples for Permissible Thermal Loading 145
9.3 Electric Field Strength 145
9.4 Sag, Tensions and Minimum Distances 148
9.4.1 Minimal Length of Insulation 148
9.4.2 Conductor Sag and Span Length 150
9.5 Short-Circuit Thermal Withstand Strength 151
9.6 Right-of-way (ROW) and Tower Arrangement 153
9.7 Cost Estimates 156
10 Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) 159
10.1 Basics of Transmission of Power through Lines 159
10.2 Parallel Compensation of Lines 163
10.3 Serial Compensation of Lines 165
10.4 Phase-Shifting Equipment 166
10.5 Improvement of Stability 168
11 Load-Flow and Short-Circuit Current Calculation 173
11.1 Load-Flow Calculation 173
11.2 Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents 175
11.2.1 General 175
11.2.2 Initial Short-Circuit Current (AC) 179
11.2.3 Peak Short-Circuit Current 179VIII Contents
11.2.4 Symmetrical Short-Circuit Breaking Current 182
11.2.5 Steady-State Short-Circuit Current 183
11.2.6 Influence of Synchronous and Asynchronous Motors 183
11.3 Short-Circuit Withstand Capability 185
11.4 Limitation of Short-Circuit Currents 187
11.4.1 General 187
11.4.2 Measures in Power Systems 188
11.4.3 Measures in Installations and Switchgear Arrangement 193
11.4.4 Measures Concerning Equipment 199
12 Connection of “Green-Energy” Generation to Power Systems 205
12.1 General 205
12.2 Conditions for System Connection 208
12.2.1 General 208
12.2.2 Short-Circuit Currents and Protective Devices 209
12.2.3 Reactive Power Compensation 209
12.2.4 Voltage Fluctuations and Voltage Increase 210
12.2.5 Harmonic and Interharmonic Currents and Voltages 211
12.2.6 Flicker 213
12.2.7 Voltage Unbalance 214
13 Protection of Equipment and Power System Installations 217
13.1 Faults and Disturbances 217
13.2 Criteria for Operation of Protection Devices 218
13.3 General Structure of Protective Systems; Transducers 220
13.4 Protection of Equipment 222
13.5 Protection of Lines (Overhead Lines and Cables) 223
13.5.1 General 223
13.5.2 Overcurrent Protection 224
13.5.3 Distance (Impedance) Protection 226
13.5.4 Differential Protection of Lines 231
13.5.5 Ground-Fault Protection 231
13.6 Protection of Transformers 233
13.6.1 General 233
13.6.2 Differential Protection 233
13.6.3 Overcurrent Protection, Distance Protection, Ground-Fault
Protection 234
13.6.4 Buchholz Protection 235
13.7 Protection of Busbars 236
13.7.1 Current Criteria for Busbar Protection 236
13.7.2 Impedance Criteria for Busbar Protection 237
13.8 Protection of Other Equipment 237
13.9 Reference List of IEC-Symbols and ANSI-CodeNumbers 237Contents IX
14 Overvoltages and Insulation Coordination 239
14.1 General; Definitions 239
14.2 Procedure of Insulation Coordination 241
14.3 Determination of the Representative Overvoltages 242
14.3.1 Continuous Power-Frequency Voltage and Temporary
Overvoltages 242
14.3.2 Slow-Front Overvoltages 243
14.3.3 Fast-Front Overvoltages 245
14.4 Determination of the Coordination Withstand Voltage and the Required
Withstand Voltage 252
14.5 Selection of the Rated Voltage 254
14.6 Application Example 257
15 Influence of Neutral Earthing on Single-Phase Short-Circuit
Currents 263
15.1 General 263
15.2 Power System with Low-Impedance Earthing 264
15.3 Power System Having Earthing with Current Limitation 268
15.4 Power System with Isolated Neutral 270
15.5 Power System with Resonance Earthing (Petersen Coil) 275
15.5.1 General 275
15.5.2 Calculation of Displacement Voltage 279
15.5.3 Tuning of the Petersen Coil 282
15.6 Earthing of Neutrals on HV Side and LV Side of Transformers 284
16 Tendering and Contracting 289
16.1 General (Project Definition) 289
16.2 Terms of Reference (TOR) 291
16.2.1 Background 291
16.2.2 Objective 291
16.2.3 Scope of Engineering Activities 292
16.3 Project Funding 293
16.4 Form of Tendering 293
16.4.1 International Tendering 294
16.4.2 Prequalification 294
16.4.3 Short Listing 295
16.5 Planning and Design 295
16.6 Tender Structure 297
16.6.1 General 297
16.6.2 Tender Set-up 298
16.6.3 General Technical Specifications 300
16.7 Scope of Work and Supply 308
16.7.1 General 308
16.7.2 380 kV Switchgear 308
16.7.3 123 kV Switchgear 309X Contents
16.7.4 Transformers and Reactors 309
16.7.5 Telecommunication System 310
16.8 Technical Data Sheets 310
16.9 Tendering Period and Evaluation of Tender 312
16.9.1 Tendering Period 312
16.9.2 Bid Evaluation 317
16.10 Contracting 317
Appendix 321
References 325
Index 331


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