كتاب Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy - WAYNE R.MOORE
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 كتاب Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy - WAYNE R.MOORE

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عدد المساهمات : 14273
التقييم : 22960
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy - WAYNE R.MOORE   السبت 15 أكتوبر 2016, 9:20 pm

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Foundations of Mechanical Accuracy
WAYNE R.MOORE


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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTORY 8
THE POUR MECHANICAL ARTS 10
Geometry 13
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON CAST IRON . . 16
Foundry Techniques 17
Machining of Cast Iron 17
Elastic Deflection 17
Temperature & Instability 18
1. THE FLAT PLANE 21
Creating a Master Flat Plane 24
15 Minute Check for Flatness 28
Granite Surface Plate 28
Granite & Moisture 29
Comparison between Cast Iron & Granite 30
2. STRAIGHTEDGES 31
Case History No. 1 31
Case History No. 2 33
Creating a Master Straightedge 33
3. THE FEMALE DOUBLE V MASTER 35
Form 37
Lean 38
Center Distance 40
Vertical & Horizontal Straightness 40
Horizontal Parallelism 42
Vertical Parallelism 44
4. MACHINE DESIGN 46
Coordinate Location 46
Geometry as a Function of Machine Accuracy 47
Straightline Travel 47
Squareness of Travel 48
Temperature Effects 50
Machine Configuration 50
The Planer-Type Jig Borer 51
The Horizontal Spindle Jig Borer 52
The Compound-Type Jig Borer 53
Machine Way Design 54
The V and Flat 54
TheGibbedWay 55
The Central V 55
The Double V 55
The 90° Form V-Way 56
5. THE MOORE NO. 3 DESIGN 56
Base 59
Cross-Slide 60
Table 62
Column 62
Quill Housing 62
Final Geometry 65
The Master Laps 65
The Electronic Indicator and the Autocollimator . . . . 68
Final Inspection (after table fitted ) 80
Standards of Length 91
Functions of the world s foremost Standards Bureaus,
contributed by an official of each:
BIPM Bureau International Des Poids et Mesures,
Sevres, Prance. By P. Carre, for the
Director, J. Terrien 95
NPL National Physical Laboratory,
Teddington, England.
By L. W. Nickols, Head, Metrology Centre 95
PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt,
Braunschweig, West Germany. By Prof.
Dr. E. Engelhard, Leitender Direktor 96
NBS U. S. National Bureau of Standards,
Washington, D.C. By A. G. Strang, Chief
Engineering Metrology Section, Metrology
Division, NBS 97
1. HISTORY OP OFFICIAL LENGTH
STANDARDS 98
In The Beginning 98
The Egyptian Heritage 100
Babylonian Contribution 101
The Ancients and Proportion 102
Roman Empire Unified Standards 102
Early Standards in France 103
Early Standards in England 104
The Metric System 104
Later English Standards 104
Early Standards in America 106
International Standard 107
Light Waves An Absolute Standard 108
42. PHYSICAL STANDARDS AS MEASURED
IN THE BUREAUS 114
The Precision Scale 114
The End Standard 115
Relative Merit of the Precision Scale and
the End Standard 115
Relation to the International Standard,
LightWaves 116
Conditions of Comparison 117
Environment 117
Material of the Standard 121
Micro-Geometry: Its Relationship to the
Measurement of Length 124
Elastic Deformation in the Gaging of Standards 129
3. MEASUREMENT IN SCIENCE
AND INDUSTRY 136
Significance of Machine Tools 137
What Delayed the Development of Machine Tools? . . 137
Evolution of Cannon Boring Machines 139
James Watt 141
Wilkinson s Cannon-Boring Machine 141
Machine Tool Development in England 142
Henry Maudslay 142
Joseph Whitworth 143
Measurement in American IndustryInterchangeability 144
Eli Whitney 146
Arms-Making, Interchangeability, Machine Tools . . . . 147
The Development of Standard Machine Tools 149
The Development of Accurate Measuring
Instruments and Machine Tools in
American Industry 150
Brown & Sharpe 151
Pratt & Whitney 152
Carl Edvard Johansson 154
Eskilstuna Rifle Factory 154
Evolution of Coordinate-Locating Machine Tools
Jig Borer 159
Switzerland Machines a Pointer
(SIP company & Dixi company) 160
Pratt & Whitney Jig Borer, 1917 161
Naugatuck Valley 162
Moore Jig Borer 1932 162
Moore Jig Grinder 1940 162
Introduction of the Universal Measuring Machine. . . . 162
Taper Probe Measuring Machine (CMM) 164
Establishment of Moore Linear Standards 165
4. TEMPERATURE CONTROL 168
Measuring Machine Laboratory 168
Problem of Stratification 171
Design Features 173
Temperature-Controlled Floor 173
Standards Room 175
Importance of 68°F [20°C] Temperature 176
5. TRANSFERAL OF ACCURACY 180
Temperature Precautions 180
Method of Transferal 182
Subdividing the Step Gage 183
Step Gages Inspected by the Bureaus 183
Second Generation Step Gages 184
Moore Step Gage 184
6. CHOICE OF LENGTH-MEASURING ELEMENT
FOR MOORE MEASURING MACHINE 185
End Measure 185
Precision Scale 185
Lead Screw 185
Laser Interferometer 186
7. MOORE MASTER LEAD SCREW 187
Material of the Lead Screw 187
Thread-Grinding of the Lead Screw 189
Lapping of the Thread 191
Lead Screw Nut 191
Lineup of the Lead Screw 193
Step Gage Calibration of Lead Screw 195
Periodic Error 198
Moore Lapping Specialists 199
Dividing the Circle 201
1. THE NATURE OF THE THIRD
MECHANICAL ART 204
Dividing the Circle Versus the Sine Principle 204
Derivation of Present System of
Relating Angular Magnitudes 205
Mathematical Inconvenience of the
Sexagesimal System 206
5TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTINUED
2. THE PRINCIPLE OF SELF-PROVING THE
DIVISION OF A CIRCLE 206
Establishing the Divisions of a
Circle Using Dividers 206
The Theory of Calibrating a Divided Circle 207
3. THE SINE PRINCIPLE 208
The Right Triangle 210
The Practical Application of The Sine Principle 211
The Sine Bar 211
Limitations of the Sine Principle 212
The Sine Table 213
4. CIRCLE-DIVIDING INSTRUMENTS 216
The Rotary Table 216
Optical Rotary Tables 216
Mechanical, Cam-Compensated Rotary Table 217
Accurate Worm-and-Gear Rotary Table 218
The Importance of Accuracy of Rotation
in a Rotary Table 224
5. PRINCIPAL ANGLE STANDARDS 228
Angle Gage Blocks 228
The Polygon 230
Calibration of the Polygon 231
Criteria Effecting Polygon Accuracy 231
Polygons Applied to the Calibration of
Rotary Tables 231
Interferometric Calibration of the Rotary Table 233
Serrated-Tooth Circle-Divider 233
Moore 1440 Precision Index 234
6. THE 1440 SMALL ANGLE DIVIDER 243
Design Principles 244
Setting an Angle with the 1440
Small Angle Divider 245
Method of Calibration of the
1440 Small Angle Divider 246
Use of the 1440 Small Angle Divider 248
Precision Index Center 250
Roundness 251
1. WHY CONSIDER ROUNDNESS? 254
Nature of Out-of-Roundness 255
2. MEASURING ROUNDNESS 256
Diametral 257
Circumferential Confining Gage 257
Rotating on Centers 257
V-block 257
Three-point Probe 258
Accurate Spindle 259
3. TWO TYPES OF MEASURING SPINDLES 260
Measuring Spindles Compared 260
Rotating Table 260
Overhead Spindle 261
4. MOORE UNIVERSAL MEASURING
MACHINE SPINDLE 263
Need for an Accurate Spindle 263
Measuring Machine Spindle Housing Design 264
Spindle and Quill 264
The Yoke 265
Rotation of the Spindle 267
Spindle Housing Travel 267
5. NOT JUST ROUNDNESS, BUT G E O M E T R Y . . . 268
Measuring Machine for the Inspection
of Hole Geometry 270
6. HOW TO D E F I N E R O U N D N E S S ? 272
Relation to Surface Finish 272
Definitions of Roundness Compared 273
Universal Measuring Machine
Techniques and Applications 277
1. THE PHILOSOPHY OP THE UNIVERSAL
MEASURING MACHINE USE 280
Benefit to the Manufacturing Process 282
Example No. 1 Workpiece Flatness 282
Example No. 2 Clamping Distortion 283
Example No. 3 Grinding Techniques 283
Example No. 4 Temperature Distortion 283
Example No. 5 Inspection and
Machining Techniques 284
Example No. 6 Roundness in Relation
to Location 285
Example No. 7 Close Measurement and
Mass Production 285
Example No. 8 Economies Achieved by
Close Measurement 285
2. UNIVERSAL M E A S U R I N G M A C H I N E
T E C H N I Q U E S 287
Mounting 287
Basics of Measuring Hole-Location Through
the Use of Coordinates 288
Example No. 1 Center of a Part as a Datum 288
Example No. 2 Two Line-up Holes as a Datum . . . . 291
Example No. 3 Rotary Table Techniques 293
Example No. 4 Measuring Coordinates
of Small Holes 295
The Standard Microscope 296
Other Optical Arrangements 298
Example No. 5 Measuring Radius Size
(Edge-Finder Method) 299
Example No. 6 Pick-up Block Method 303
Measure Diameter of Ring Gage 3 Methods 305
The Model No. 1J4 Universal Measuring Machine . . . 308
Readout on the Universal Measuring Machine 309
3. A P P L I C A T I O N S O F T H E U N I V E R S A L
M E A S U R I N G M A C H I N E 310
Use of Angular-Measuring Instruments on the
Universal Measuring Machine 310
The Rotary Table 310
The Precision Index Center 313
The Micro-Sine Table 314
Rotary Table Mounted on the Micro-Sine Table 314
1440 Small Angle Divider 315
Use of the Strip Recorder 316
Special Machines Employing the No. 3 or
No. 13 Base Construction 317
4. THE NO. 4 AND NO. 5 U N I V E R S A L
M E A S U R I N G M A C H I N E S 318
Applications of Large Universal
Measuring Machines 323
Special Designs 324
72-inch Measuring Machine 324
Numerical Control of Measuring Machines 325
5. R U L I N G E N G I N E S D I F F R A C T I O N
G R A T I N G S 325
Diffraction Gratings 325
Ruling Engines for Diffraction Gratings—
(Historical) 327
Henry A. Rowland Johns Hopkins University, 1882 . . 327
John A. Anderson Johns Hopkins University, 1901. . 327
John A. Anderson, Harold D. Babcock
Mount Wilson Observatory, 1916 327
Albert A. Michelson, early 1900 s 328
John Strong Johns Hopkins University, 1950 329
George R. Harrison M.I.T., 1948 330
The Ruling Engine and the Lead Screw 332
M.I.T. B Engine with the No. 3 Measuring
Machine Base 333
M.I.T. C Engine with the No. 4 Measuring
Machine Base 333
George W. Stroke 335
Expectations of the M.I.T. C Engine 338
Bibliography 341
Index 345


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