كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach 8th Edition
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 كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach 8th Edition

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach 8th Edition   السبت 15 أكتوبر 2016, 2:17 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach 8th Edition
YUNUS A. ÇENGEL
University of Nevada, Reno
MICHAEL A. BOLES
North Carolina State University


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :


Preface xvii
c h a p t e r o n e
INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 1
1–1 Thermodynamics and Energy 2
Application Areas of Thermodynamics 3
1–2 Importance of Dimensions and Units 3
Some SI and English Units 6
Dimensional Homogeneity 8
Unity Conversion Ratios 9
1–3 Systems and Control Volumes 10
1–4 Properties of a System 12
Continuum 12
1–5 Density and Specific Gravity 13
1–6 State and Equilibrium 14
The State Postulate 15
1–7 Processes and Cycles 15
The Steady-Flow Process 16
1–8 Temperature and the Zeroth Law
of Thermodynamics 17
Temperature Scales 18
The International Temperature Scale of 1990
(ITS-90) 20
1–9 Pressure 22
Variation of Pressure with Depth 24
1–10 Pressure Measurement Devices 27
The Barometer 27
The Manometer 30
Other Pressure Measurement Devices 33
1–11 Problem-Solving Technique 34
Step 1: Problem Statement 34
Step 2: Schematic 35
Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations 35
Step 4: Physical Laws 35
Step 5: Properties 35
Step 6: Calculations 35
Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion 35
Engineering Software Packages 36
Engineering Equation Solver (EES) 37
A Remark on Significant Digits 39
Summary 40
References and Suggested Readings 41
Problems 41
c h a p t e r t w o
ENERGY, ENERGY TRANSFER, AND GENERAL
ENERGY ANALYSIS 51
2–1 Introduction 52
2–2 Forms of Energy 53
Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy 55
More on Nuclear Energy 56
Mechanical Energy 58
2–3 Energy Transfer by Heat 60
Historical Background on Heat 61
2–4 Energy Transfer by Work 62
Electrical Work 65
2–5 Mechanical Forms of Work 66
Shaft Work 66
Spring Work 67
Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars 67
Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film 68
Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body 68
Nonmechanical Forms of Work 70
2–6 The First Law of Thermodynamics 70
Energy Balance 72
Energy Change of a System, DEsystem 72
Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 73
2–7 Energy Conversion Efficiencies 78
Efficiencies of Mechanical and Electrical Devices 82
2–8 Energy and Environment 85
Ozone and Smog 86
Acid Rain 87
The Greenhouse Effect:
Global Warming and Climate Change 88
Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat
Transfer 91
Summary 96
References and Suggested Readings 97
Problems 97
c h a p t e r t h r e e
PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES 111
3–1 Pure Substance 112
3–2 Phases of a Pure Substance 112
3–3 Phase-Change Processes
of Pure Substances 113
Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid 114
Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor 114
Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure 115
Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 116
3–4 Property Diagrams for Phase-Change
Processes 118
1 The T-v Diagram 118
2 The P-v Diagram 120
Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase 120
3 The P-T Diagram 122
The P-v-T Surface 123
3–5 Property Tables 124
Enthalpy—A Combination Property 124
1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated
Vapor States 125
1b Saturated Liquid–Vapor Mixture 127
2 Superheated Vapor 130
3 Compressed Liquid 131
Reference State and Reference Values 132
3–6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State 134
Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 137
3–7 Compressibility Factor—A Measure of
Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior 138
3–8 Other Equations of State 141
van der Waals Equation of State 142
Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State 142
Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State 143
Virial Equation of State 144
Topic of Special Interest: Vapor Pressure and Phase
Equilibrium 146
Summary 150
References and Suggested Readings 151
Problems 151
c h a p t e r f o u r
ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CLOSED SYSTEMS 163
4–1 Moving Boundary Work 164
Polytropic Process 168
4–2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems 169
4–3 Specific Heats 174
4–4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats
of Ideal Gases 176
Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 178
4–5 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of
Solids and Liquids 183
Internal Energy Changes 184
Enthalpy Changes 184
Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of
Biological Systems 187
Summary 195
References and Suggested Readings 195
Problems 196
c h a p t e r f i v e
MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROL
VOLUMES 213
5–1 Conservation of Mass 214
Mass and Volume Flow Rates 214
Conservation of Mass Principle 216
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow
Processes 218
Special Case: Incompressible Flow 219
5–2 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing
Fluid 221
Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid 222
Energy Transport by Mass 223
5–3 Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow
Systems 225
5–4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering
Devices 228
1 Nozzles and Diffusers 229
2 Turbines and Compressors 232
3 Throttling Valves 234
4a Mixing Chambers 236
4b Heat Exchangers 238
5 Pipe and Duct Flow 240
5–5 Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow
Processes 242
Topic of Special Interest: General Energy
Equation 247
Summary 251
References and Suggested Readings 252
Problems 252
c h a p t e r s i x
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 275
6–1 Introduction to the Second Law 276
6–2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs 277
6–3 Heat Engines 278
Thermal Efficiency 279
Can We Save Qout? 281
The Second Law of Thermodynamics:
Kelvin–Planck Statement 283
6–4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 283
Coefficient of Performance 284
Heat Pumps 285
Performance of Refrigerators, Air-Conditioners,
and Heat Pumps 286
The Second Law of Thermodynamics:
Clausius Statement 288
Equivalence of the Two Statements 289
6–5 Perpetual-Motion Machines 290
6–6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 292
Irreversibilities 293
Internally and Externally Reversible Processes 294
6–7 The Carnot Cycle 295
The Reversed Carnot Cycle 297
6–8 The Carnot Principles 297
6–9 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 299
6–10 The Carnot Heat Engine 301
The Quality of Energy 302
Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life 303
6–11 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 304
Topic of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators 307
Summary 311
References and Suggested Readings 312
Problems 312
c h a p t e r s e v e n
ENTROPY 329
7–1 Entropy 330
A Special Case: Internally Reversible
Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes 333
7–2 The Increase of Entropy Principle 334
Some Remarks about Entropy 336
7–3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances 337
7–4 Isentropic Processes 340
7–5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy 342
7–6 What Is Entropy? 343
Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life 346
7–7 The T ds Relations 347
7–8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids 349
7–9 The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases 352
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 353
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 353
Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases 355
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 355
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 356
Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume 356
7–10 Reversible Steady-Flow Work 359
Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver
the Most and Consume the Least Work
When the Process is Reversible 362
7–11 Minimizing the Compressor Work 363
Multistage Compression with Intercooling 364
7–12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow
Devices 367
Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines 367
Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps 369
Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles 371
7–13 Entropy Balance 373
Entropy Change of a System, DSsystem 374
Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout 374
1 Heat Transfer 374
2 Mass Flow 375
Entropy Generation, Sgen 376
Closed Systems 377
Control Volumes 378
Entropy Generation Associated
with a Heat Transfer Process 385
Topic of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of
Compressed Air 386
Summary 395
References and Suggested Readings 396
Problems 397
c h a p t e r e i g h t
EXERGY 421
8–1 Exergy: Work Potential of Energy 422
Exergy (Work Potential) Associated
with Kinetic and Potential Energy 423
8–2 Reversible Work and Irreversibility 425
8–3 Second-Law Efficiency 430
8–4 Exergy Change of a System 433
Exergy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System)
Exergy 433
Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream)
Exergy 436
8–5 Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work,
And Mass 438
Exergy by Heat Transfer, Q 439
Exergy Transfer by Work, W 440
Exergy Transfer by Mass, m 440
8–6 The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy
Destruction 441
Exergy Destruction 442
8–7 Exergy Balance: Closed Systems 443
8–8 Exergy Balance: Control Volumes 454
Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 455
Reversible Work 456
Second-Law Efficiency of Steady-Flow
Devices 456
Topic of Special Interest: Second-Law
Aspects of Daily Life 463
Summary 467
References and Suggested Readings 468
Problems 468
c h a p t e r n i n e
GAS POWER CYCLES 485
9–1 Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power
Cycles 486
9–2 The Carnot Cycle and its Value in
Engineering 488
9–3 Air-Standard Assumptions 490
9–4 An Overview of Reciprocating Engines 490
9–5 Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition
Engines 492
9–6 Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for
Compression-Ignition Engines 499
9–7 Stirling and Ericsson Cycles 502
9–8 Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for
Gas-Turbine Engines 506
Development of Gas Turbines 509
Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles
from Idealized Ones 512
9–9 The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration 513
9–10 The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating,
and Regeneration 516
9–11 Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles 520
Modifications to Turbojet Engines 524
9–12 Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power
Cycles 526
Topic of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving
Sensibly 530
Summary 536
References and Suggested Readings 538
Problems 538
c h a p t e r t e n
VAPOR AND COMBINED POWER CYCLES 553
10–1 The Carnot Vapor Cycle 554
10–2 Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power
Cycles 555
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle 555
10–3 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from
Idealized Ones 558
10–4 How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the
Rankine Cycle? 561
Lowering the Condenser Pressure
(Lowers Tlow,avg) 561
Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures
(Increases Thigh,avg) 562
Increasing the Boiler Pressure
(Increases Thigh,avg) 562
10–5 The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle 565
10–6 The Ideal Regenerative Rankine
Cycle 569
Open Feedwater Heaters 569
Closed Feedwater Heaters 571
10–7 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power
Cycles 577
10–8 Cogeneration 579
10–9 Combined Gas–Vapor Power
Cycles 584
Topic of Special Interest: Binary Vapor
Cycles 587
Summary 589
References and Suggested Readings 590
Problems 590
c h a p t e r e l e v e n
REFRIGERATION CYCLES 607
11–1 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 608
11–2 The Reversed Carnot Cycle 609
11–3 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Cycle 610
11–4 Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Cycle 613
11–5 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor- Compression
Refrigeration Cycle 615
11–6 Selecting the Right Refrigerant 620
11–7 Heat Pump Systems 622
11–8 Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Systems 623
Cascade Refrigeration Systems 624
Multistage Compression Refrigeration
Systems 626
Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems
with a Single Compressor 628
Liquefaction of Gases 629
11–9 Gas Refrigeration Cycles 630
11–10 Absorption Refrigeration Systems 633
Topic of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation
and Refrigeration Systems 636
Summary 638
References and Suggested Readings 639
Problems 639
c h a p t e r t w e l v e
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY RELATIONS 655
12–1 A Little Math—Partial Derivatives and
Associated Relations 656
Partial Differentials 657
Partial Differential Relations 659
12–2 The Maxwell Relations 661
12–3 The Clapeyron Equation 662
12–4 General Relations For du, dh, ds, cv,
and c
p 665
Internal Energy Changes 666
Enthalpy Changes 666
Entropy Changes 667
Specific Heats cv and cp 668
12–5 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient 672
12–6 The Dh, Du, and Ds of Real Gases 674
Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases 674
Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases 675
Entropy Changes of Real Gases 676
Summary 679
References and Suggested Readings 680
Problems 680
c h a p t e r t h i r t e e n
GAS MIXTURES 687
13–1 Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole
Fractions 688
13–2 P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real
Gases 690
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 691
Real-Gas Mixtures 692
13–3 Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real
Gases 695
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 696
Real-Gas Mixtures 700
Topic of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the
Separation Work of Mixtures 704
Summary 714
References and Suggested Readings 715
Problems 716
c h a p t e r f o u r t e e n
GAS–VAPOR MIXTURES AND
AIR-CONDITIONING 725
14–1 Dry and Atmospheric Air 726
14–2 Specific and Relative Humidity of Air 727
14–3 Dew-Point Temperature 729
14–4 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb
Temperatures 731
14– 5 The Psychrometric Chart 734
14–6 Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning 735
14–7 Air-Conditioning Processes 737
Simple Heating and Cooling (v 5 constant) 738
Heating with Humidification 739
Cooling with Dehumidification 740
Evaporative Cooling 742
THERMODYNAMICS
Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams 743
Wet Cooling Towers 745
Summary 747
References and Suggested Readings 748
Problems 749
c h a p t e r f i f t e e n
CHEMICAL REACTIONS 759
15–1 Fuels and Combustion 760
15–2 Theoretical and Actual Combustion
Processes 764
15–3 Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of
Combustion 771
15–4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting
Systems 774
Steady-Flow Systems 775
Closed Systems 776
15–5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature 780
15–6 Entropy Change of Reacting
Systems 782
15–7 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 784
Topic of Special Interest: Fuel Cells 790
Summary 792
References and Suggested Readings 793
Problems 793
c h a p t e r s i x t e e n
CHEMICAL AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 805
16–1 Criterion for Chemical
Equilibrium 806
16–2 The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas
Mixtures 808
16–3 Some Remarks about the K
p of Ideal-Gas
Mixtures 812
16–4 Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous
Reactions 816
16–5 Variation of K
p with Temperature 818
16–6 Phase Equilibrium 820
Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System 820
The Phase Rule 822
Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System 822
Summary 828
References and Suggested Readings 829
Problems 829
c h a p t e r s e v e n t e e n
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 839
17–1 Stagnation Properties 840
17–2 Speed of Sound and Mach Number 843
17–3 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow 845
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area 847
Property Relations for Isentropic Flow
of Ideal Gases 849
17–4 Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles 851
Converging Nozzles 852
Converging–Diverging Nozzles 856
17–5 Shock Waves and Expansion Waves 860
Normal Shocks 860
Oblique Shocks 866
Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves 870
17–6 Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible
Friction (Rayleigh Flow) 875
Property Relations for Rayleigh
Flow 881
Choked Rayleigh Flow 882
17–7 Steam Nozzles 884
Summary 887
References and Suggested Readings 888
Problems 889
c h a p t e r e i g h t e e n
( w e b c h a p t e r )
RENEWABLE ENERGY
18–1 Introduction
18-2 Solar Energy
Solar Radiation
Flat-Plate Solar Collector
Concentrating Solar Collector
Linear Concentrating Solar Power Collector
Solar-Power Tower Plant
Solar Pond
Photovoltaic Cell
Passive Solar
Applications
Solar Heat Gain through Windows
Figure A–14 P-h diagram for
refrigerant-134a 921
Figure A–15 Nelson–Obert generalized
compressibility chart 922
Table A–16 Properties of the atmosphere at high
altitude 923
Table A–17 Ideal-gas properties
of air 924
Table A–18 Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen,
N
2 926
Table A–19 Ideal-gas properties of oxygen,
O
2 928
Table A–20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide,
CO
2 930
Table A–21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon
monoxide, CO 932
Table A–22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen,
H
2 934
Table A–23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor,
H
2O 935
Table A–24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic
oxygen, O 937
Table A–25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl,
OH 937
Table A–26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function
of formation, and absolute entropy at
258C, 1 atm 938
Table A–27 Properties of some common fuels and
hydrocarbons 939
Table A–28 Natural logarithms of the equilibrium
constant K
p 940
Figure A–29 Generalized enthalpy departure
chart 941
Figure A–30 Generalized entropy departure
chart 942
Figure A–31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total
pressure 943
Table A–32 One-dimensional isentropic
compressible-flow functions for an
ideal gas with k 5 1.4 944
Table A–33 One-dimensional normal-shock
functions for an ideal gas
with k 5 1.4 945
Table A–34 Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal
gas with k 5 1.4 946
18-3 Wind Energy
Wind Turbine Types and Power
Performance Curve
Wind Power Potential
Wind Power Density
Wind Turbine Efficiency
Betz Limit for Wind Turbine Efficiency
18-4 Hydropower
Analysis of Hydroelectric Power Plant
Turbine Types
18–5 Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Power Production
18–6 Biomass Energy
Biomass Resources
Conversion of Biomass to Biofuel
Biomass Products
Electricity and Heat Production by Biomass
Solid Municipality Waste
Summary
References and Suggested Readings
Problems
a p p e n d i x o n e
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(SI UNITS) 897
Table A–1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical
point properties 898
Table A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various
common gases 899
Table A–3 Properties of common liquids, solids,
and foods 902
Table A–4 Saturated water—Temperature
Table A–5 Saturated water—Pressure table 906
Table A–6 Superheated water 908
Table A–7 Compressed liquid water 912
Table A–8 Saturated ice–water vapor 913
Figure A–9 T-s diagram for water 914
Figure A–10 Mollier diagram for water 915
Table A–11 Saturated refrigerant-134a—
Temperature table 916
Table A–12 Saturated refrigerant-134a—
Pressure table 918
Table A–13 Superheated refrigerant-134a 919
a p p e n d i x t w o
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(ENGLISH UNITS) 947
Table A–1E Molar mass, gas constant, and critical
point properties
Table A–2E Ideal-gas specific heats of various
common gases
Table A–3E Properties of common liquids, solids,
Table A–4E Saturated water—Temperature
Table A–5E Saturated water—Pressure table 956
Table A–6E Superheated water 958
Table A–7E Compressed liquid water 962
Table A–8E Saturated ice–water vapor 963
Figure A–9E T-s diagram for water 964
Figure A–10E Mollier diagram for water 965
Table A–11E Saturated refrigerant-134a—
Temperature table 966
Table A–12E Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure
Table A–13E Superheated refrigerant-134a 968
Figure A–14E P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a 970
Table A–16E Properties of the atmosphere at high
altitude 971
Table A–17E Ideal-gas properties of air 972
Table A–18E Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen,
Table A–19E Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 976
Table A–20E Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide,
Table A–21E Ideal-gas properties of carbon
monoxide, CO 980
Table A–22E Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen,
Table A–23E Ideal-gas properties of water vapor,
Table A–26E Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function
of formation, and absolute entropy at
778C, 1 atm 985
Table A–27E Properties of some common fuels and
hydrocarbons 986
Figure A–31E Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total
pressure 987
INDEX 989


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