كتاب Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications   الأحد 25 سبتمبر 2016, 11:01 pm

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Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications
Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 1
1–1 Introduction 2
What Is a Fluid? 2
Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics 4
1–2 The No-Slip Condition 6
1–3 A Brief History of Fluid Mechanics 7
1–4 Classification of Fluid Flows 9
Viscous versus Inviscid Regions of Flow 9
Internal versus External Flow 10
Compressible versus Incompressible Flow 10
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 11
Natural (or Unforced) versus Forced Flow 11
Steady versus Unsteady Flow 11
One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows 12
1–5 System and Control Volume 14
1–6 Importance of Dimensions and Units 15
Some SI and English Units 16
Dimensional Homogeneity 18
Unity Conversion Ratios 20
1–7 Mathematical Modeling of Engineering
Problems 21
Modeling in Engineering 21
1–8 Problem-Solving Technique 22
Step 1: Problem Statement 22
Step 2: Schematic 23
Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations 23
Step 4: Physical Laws 23
Step 5: Properties 23
Step 6: Calculations 23
Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion 23
1–9 Engineering Software Packages 24
Engineering Equation Solver (EES) 25
FLUENT 26
1–10 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Digits 26
Application Spotlight: What Nuclear Blasts and
Raindrops Have in Common 31
Summary 30
References and Suggested Reading 30
Problems 32
C H A P T E R T W O
PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS 35
2–1 Introduction 36
Continuum 36
2–2 Density and Specific Gravity 37
Density of Ideal Gases 38
2–3 Vapor Pressure and Cavitation 39
2–4 Energy and Specific Heats 41
2–5 Coefficient of Compressibility 42
Coefficient of Volume Expansion 44
2–6 Viscosity 46
2–7 Surface Tension and Capillary Effect 51
Capillary Effect 53
Summary 55
References and Suggested Reading 56
Application Spotlight: Cavitation 57
Problems 58
C H A P T E R T H R E E
PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS 65
3–1 Pressure 66
Pressure at a Point 67
Variation of Pressure with Depth 68
3–2 The Manometer 71
Other Pressure Measurement Devices 74
3–3 The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure 75
3–4 Introduction to Fluid Statics 78
C O N T E N T SCONTENTS
xi
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3–5 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
Surfaces 79
Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate 82
3–6 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved
Surfaces 85
3–7 Buoyancy and Stability 89
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies 92
3–8 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion 95
Special Case 1: Fluids at Rest 96
Special Case 2: Free Fall of a Fluid Body 97
Acceleration on a Straight Path 97
Rotation in a Cylindrical Container 99
Summary 102
References and Suggested Reading 103
Problems 103
C H A P T E R F O U R
FLUID KINEMATICS 121
4–1 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions 122
Acceleration Field 124
Material Derivative 127
4–2 Fundamentals of Flow Visualization 129
Streamlines and Streamtubes 129
Pathlines 130
Streaklines 132
Timelines 134
Refractive Flow Visualization Techniques 135
Surface Flow Visualization Techniques 136
4–3 Plots of Fluid Flow Data 136
Profile Plots 137
Vector Plots 137
Contour Plots 138
4–4 Other Kinematic Descriptions 139
Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements 139
Vorticity and Rotationality 144
Comparison of Two Circular Flows 147
4–5 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 148
Alternate Derivation of the Reynolds Transport
Theorem 153
Relationship between Material Derivative and RTT 155
Application Spotlight: Fluidic Actuators 157
Summary 156
References and Suggested Reading 158
Problems 158
C H A P T E R F I V E
MASS, BERNOULLI, AND ENERGY
EQUATIONS 171
5–1 Introduction 172
Conservation of Mass 172
Conservation of Momentum 172
Conservation of Energy 172
5–2 Conservation of Mass 173
Mass and Volume Flow Rates 173
Conservation of Mass Principle 175
Moving or Deforming Control Volumes 177
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes 177
Special Case: Incompressible Flow 178
5–3 Mechanical Energy and Efficiency 180
5–4 The Bernoulli Equation 185
Acceleration of a Fluid Particle 186
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation 186
Force Balance across Streamlines 188
Unsteady, Compressible Flow 189
Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures 189
Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation 190
Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) and Energy Grade
Line (EGL) 192
5–5 Applications of the Bernoulli Equation 194
5–6 General Energy Equation 201
Energy Transfer by Heat, Q 202
Energy Transfer by Work, W 202
5–7 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows 206
Special Case: Incompressible Flow with No Mechanical Work
Devices and Negligible Friction 208
Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, a 208
Summary 215
References and Suggested Reading 216
Problems 216
C H A P T E R S I X
MOMENTUM ANALYSIS OF FLOW
SYSTEMS 227
6–1 Newton’s Laws and Conservation
of Momentum 228
6–2 Choosing a Control Volume 229
6–3 Forces Acting on a Control Volume 230cen72367_fm.qxd 11/23/04 12:13 PM Page x
6–4 The Linear Momentum Equation 233
Special Cases 235
Momentum-Flux Correction Factor, b 235
Steady Flow 238
Steady Flow with One Inlet and One Outlet 238
Flow with No External Forces 238
6–5 Review of Rotational Motion and Angular
Momentum 248
6–6 The Angular Momentum Equation 250
Special Cases 252
Flow with No External Moments 253
Radial-Flow Devices 254
Summary 259
References and Suggested Reading 259
Problems 260
C H A P T E R S E V E N
DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND MODELING 269
7–1 Dimensions and Units 270
7–2 Dimensional Homogeneity 271
Nondimensionalization of Equations 272
7–3 Dimensional Analysis and Similarity 277
7–4 The Method of Repeating Variables and the
Buckingham Pi Theorem 281
Historical Spotlight: Persons Honored by
Nondimensional Parameters 289
7–5 Experimental Testing and Incomplete
Similarity 297
Setup of an Experiment and Correlation of Experimental
Data 297
Incomplete Similarity 298
Wind Tunnel Testing 298
Flows with Free Surfaces 301
Application Spotlight: How a Fly Flies 304
Summary 305
References and Suggested Reading 305
Problems 305
C H A P T E R E I G H T
FLOW IN PIPES 321
8–1 Introduction 322
8–2 Laminar and Turbulent Flows 323
Reynolds Number 324
8–3 The Entrance Region 325
Entry Lengths 326
8–4 Laminar Flow in Pipes 327
Pressure Drop and Head Loss 329
Inclined Pipes 331
Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes 332
8–5 Turbulent Flow in Pipes 335
Turbulent Shear Stress 336
Turbulent Velocity Profile 338
The Moody Chart 340
Types of Fluid Flow Problems 343
8–6 Minor Losses 347
8–7 Piping Networks and Pump Selection 354
Piping Systems with Pumps and Turbines 356
8–8 Flow Rate and Velocity Measurement 364
Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes 365
Obstruction Flowmeters: Orifice, Venturi, and Nozzle
Meters 366
Positive Displacement Flowmeters 369
Turbine Flowmeters 370
Variable-Area Flowmeters (Rotameters) 372
Ultrasonic Flowmeters 373
Electromagnetic Flowmeters 375
Vortex Flowmeters 376
Thermal (Hot-Wire and Hot-Film) Anemometers 377
Laser Doppler Velocimetry 378
Particle Image Velocimetry 380
Application Spotlight: How Orifice Plate
Flowmeters Work, or Do Not Work 383
Summary 384
References and Suggested Reading 385
Problems 386
C H A P T E R N I N E
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW 399
9–1 Introduction 400
9–2 Conservation of Mass—The Continuity
Equation 400
Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem 401
Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume 402
Alternative Form of the Continuity Equation 405
Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates 406
Special Cases of the Continuity Equation 406
9–3 The Stream Function 412
The Stream Function in Cartesian Coordinates 412
The Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates 419
The Compressible Stream Function 420
xii
FLUID MECHANICScen72367_fm.qxd 11/23/04 12:13 PM Page xi
9–4 Conservation of Linear Momentum—Cauchy’s
Equation 421
Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem 421
Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume 422
Alternative Form of Cauchy’s Equation 425
Derivation Using Newton’s Second Law 425
9–5 The Navier–Stokes Equation 426
Introduction 426
Newtonian versus Non-Newtonian Fluids 427
Derivation of the Navier–Stokes Equation for Incompressible,
Isothermal Flow 428
Continuity and Navier–Stokes Equations in Cartesian
Coordinates 430
Continuity and Navier–Stokes Equations in Cylindrical
Coordinates 431
9–6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
Problems 432
Calculation of the Pressure Field for a Known Velocity
Field 432
Exact Solutions of the Continuity and Navier–Stokes
Equations 437
Summary 455
References and Suggested Reading 456
Problems 456
C H A P T E R T E N
APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS OF THE
NAVIER–STOKES EQUATION 471
10–1 Introduction 472
10–2 Nondimensionalized Equations
of Motion 473
10–3 The Creeping Flow Approximation 476
Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow 479
10–4 Approximation for Inviscid Regions
of Flow 481
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid
Regions of Flow 482
10–5 The Irrotational Flow Approximation 485
Continuity Equation 485
Momentum Equation 487
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational
Regions of Flow 487
Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow 490
Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow 494
Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows 494
Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition 501
CONTENTS
xiii
10–6 The Boundary Layer Approximation 510
The Boundary Layer Equations 515
The Boundary Layer Procedure 520
Displacement Thickness 524
Momentum Thickness 527
Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer 528
Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients 534
The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary
Layers 539
Application Spotlight: Droplet Formation 549
Summary 547
References and Suggested Reading 548
Problems 550
C H A P T E R E L E V E N
FLOW OVER BODIES: DRAG AND LIFT 561
11–1 Introduction 562
11–2 Drag and Lift 563
11–3 Friction and Pressure Drag 567
Reducing Drag by Streamlining 568
Flow Separation 569
11–4 Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries 571
Biological Systems and Drag 572
Drag Coefficients of Vehicles 574
Superposition 577
11–5 Parallel Flow over Flat Plates 579
Friction Coefficient 580
11–6 Flow over Cylinders and Spheres 583
Effect of Surface Roughness 586
11–7 Lift 587
End Effects of Wing Tips 591
Lift Generated by Spinning 594
Application Spotlight: Drag Reduction 600
Summary 598
References and Suggested Reading 599
Problems 601
C H A P T E R T W E L V E
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 611
12–1 Stagnation Properties 612
12–2 Speed of Sound and Mach Number 615
12–3 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow 617
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area 620
Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases 62212–4 Isentropic Flow through Nozzles 624
Converging Nozzles 625
Converging–Diverging Nozzles 629
12–5 Shock Waves and Expansion Waves 633
Normal Shocks 633
Oblique Shocks 640
Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves 644
12–6 Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible
Friction (Rayleigh Flow) 648
Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow 654
Choked Rayleigh Flow 655
12–7 Adiabatic Duct Flow with Friction
(Fanno Flow) 657
Property Relations for Fanno Flow 660
Choked Fanno Flow 663
Application Spotlight: Shock-Wave/
Boundary-Layer Interactions 667
Summary 668
References and Suggested Reading 669
Problems 669
C H A P T E R T H I R T E E N
OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW 679
13–1 Classification of Open-Channel Flows 680
Uniform and Varied Flows 680
Laminar and Turbulent Flows in Channels 681
13–2 Froude Number and Wave Speed 683
Speed of Surface Waves 685
13–3 Specific Energy 687
13–4 Continuity and Energy Equations 690
13–5 Uniform Flow in Channels 691
Critical Uniform Flow 693
Superposition Method for Nonuniform Perimeters 693
13–6 Best Hydraulic Cross Sections 697
Rectangular Channels 699
Trapezoidal Channels 699
13–7 Gradually Varied Flow 701
Liquid Surface Profiles in Open Channels, y(x) 703
Some Representative Surface Profiles 706
Numerical Solution of Surface Profile 708
13–8 Rapidly Varied Flow and Hydraulic Jump 709
13–9 Flow Control and Measurement 714
Underflow Gates 714
Overflow Gates 716
Summary 723
References and Suggested Reading 724
Problems 725
C H A P T E R F O U R T E E N
TURBOMACHINERY 735
14–1 Classifications and Terminology 736
14–2 Pumps 738
Pump Performance Curves and Matching a Pump
to a Piping System 739
Pump Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head 745
Pumps in Series and Parallel 748
Positive-Displacement Pumps 751
Dynamic Pumps 754
Centrifugal Pumps 754
Axial Pumps 764
14–3 Pump Scaling Laws 773
Dimensional Analysis 773
Pump Specific Speed 775
Affinity Laws 777
14–4 Turbines 781
Positive-Displacement Turbines 782
Dynamic Turbines 782
Impulse Turbines 783
Reaction Turbines 785
14–5 Turbine Scaling Laws 795
Dimensionless Turbine Parameters 795
Turbine Specific Speed 797
Gas and Steam Turbines 800
Application Spotlight: Rotary Fuel
Atomizers 802
Summary 803
References and Suggested Reading 803
Problems 804
xiv
FLUID MECHANICS
cen72367_fm.qxd 11/23/04 12:13 PM Page xii
A P P E N D I X 1
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(SI UNITS) 817
TABLE A–1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and
Ideal-Gas Specfic Heats of Some
Substances 818
TABLE A–2 Boiling and Freezing Point
Properties 819
TABLE A–3 Properties of Saturated Water 820TABLE A–4 Properties of Saturated
Refrigerant-134a 821
TABLE A–5 Properties of Saturated Ammonia 822
TABLE A–6 Properties of Saturated Propane 823
TABLE A–7 Properties of Liquids 824
TABLE A–8 Properties of Liquid Metals 825
TABLE A–9 Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure 826
TABLE A–10 Properties of Gases at 1 atm
Pressure 827
CONTENTS
xv
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TABLE A–11 Properties of the Atmosphere at High
Altitude 829
FIGURE A–12 The Moody Chart for the Friction Factor
for Fully Developed Flow in Circular
Pipes 830
TABLE A–13 One-dimensional isentropic
compressible flow functions for an ideal
gas with k  1.4 831
TABLE A–14 One-dimensional normal shock
functions for an ideal gas with
k  1.4 832
TABLE A–15 Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal gas
with k  1.4 833
TABLE A–16 Fanno flow functions for an ideal gas
with k  1.4 834
A P P E N D I X 2
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH
UNITS) 835
TABLE A–1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and
Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Some
Substances 836
TABLE A–2E Boiling and Freezing Point
Properties 837
TABLE A–3E Properties of Saturated Water 838
TABLE A–4E Properties of Saturated
Refrigerant-134a 839
TABLE A–5E Properties of Saturated Ammonia 840
TABLE A–6E Properties of Saturated Propane 841
TABLE A–7E Properties of Liquids 842
TABLE A–8E Properties of Liquid Metals 843
TABLE A–9E Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure 844
TABLE A–10E Properties of Gases at 1 atm
Pressure 845
TABLE A–11E Properties of the Atmosphere at High
Altitude 847
Glossary 949
Index 863


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رابط تنزيل كتاب Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications - Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala

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عدد المساهمات : 2
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تاريخ التسجيل : 26/09/2016
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications   الإثنين 26 سبتمبر 2016, 8:44 am

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عدد المساهمات : 14270
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and Applications   الجمعة 30 سبتمبر 2016, 4:15 pm

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