كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook

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عدد المساهمات : 14270
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook   الثلاثاء 06 سبتمبر 2016, 12:28 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook
Paul J Drake, Jr


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

Contents
Chapter 3:Tolerancing Optimization Strategies Gregory A Hetland, Ph D
3 1 Tolerancing Methodologies 3-1
3 2 Tolerancing Progression (Example # 1) 3-1
3 2 1 Strategy # 1 (Linear) 3-2
3 2 2 Strategy # 2 (Combination of Linear and Geometric) 3-5
3 2 3 Strategy # 3 (Fully Geometric) 3-6
3 3 Tolerancing Progression (Example # 2) 3-6
3 3 1 Strategy # 1 (Linear) 3-8
3 3 2 Strategy # 2 Geometric Tolerancing ( ) Regardless of Feature Size 3-11
3 3 3 Strategy # 3 (Geometric Tolerancing Progression At Maximum
Material Condition) 3-12
3 3 4 Strategy # 4 (Tolerancing Progression “Optimized”) 3-13
3 4 Summary 3-15
3 5 References 3-15
Part 2 Standards
Chapter 4: Drawing Interpretation Patrick J McCuistion, Ph D
4 1 Introduction 4-1
4 2 Drawing History 4-2
4 3 Standards 4-2
4 3 1 ANSI 4-2
4 3 2 ISO 4-3
4 4 Drawing Types 4-3
4 4 1 Note 4-3
4 4 2 Detail 4-3
4 4 2 1 Cast or Forged Part 4-4
4 4 2 2 Machined Part 4-4
4 4 2 3 Sheet Stock Part 4-4
4 4 3 Assembly 4-4
4 5 Border 4-4
4 5 1 Zones and Center Marks 4-4
4 5 2 Size Conventions 4-13
4 6 Title Blocks 4-13
4 6 1 Company Name and Address 4-13
4 6 2 Drawing Title 4-13
4 6 3 Size 4-13
4 6 4 FSCM/CAGE 4-13
4 6 5 Drawing Number 4-14
4 6 6 Scale 4-14
4 6 7 Release Date 4-14
4 6 8 Sheet Number 4-14
4 6 9 Contract Number 4-14
4 6 10 Drawn and Date 4-14
4 6 11 Check, Design, and Dates 4-14
4 6 12 Design Activity and Date 4-15
4 6 13 Customer and Date 4-15
4 6 14 Tolerances 4-15
4 6 15 Treatment 4-15
4 6 16 Finish 4-15
4 6 17 Similar To 4-15
4 6 18 Act Wt and Calc Wt 4-15
4 6 19 Other Title Block Items 4-15
4 7 Revision Blocks 4-16
4 8 Parts Lists 4-16
4 9 View Projection 4-16Contents vii
4 9 1 First-Angle Projection 4-16
4 9 2 Third-Angle Projection 4-16
4 9 3 Auxiliary Views 4-16
4 10 Section Views 4-16
4 10 1 Full Sections 4-19
4 10 2 Half Sections 4-19
4 10 3 Offset Sections 4-19
4 10 4 Broken-Out Section 4-19
4 10 5 Revolved and Removed Sections 4-22
4 10 6 Conventional Breaks 4-22
4 11 Partial Views 4-23
4 12 Conventional Practices 4-23
4 12 1 Feature Rotation 4-23
4 12 2 Line Precedence 4-23
4 13 Isometric Views 4-24
4 14 Dimensions 4-25
4 14 1 Feature Types 4-25
4 14 2 Taylor Principle / Envelope Principle 4-25
4 14 3 General Dimensions 4-26
4 14 4 Technique 4-27
4 14 5 Placement 4-27
4 14 6 Choice 4-28
4 14 7 Tolerance Representation 4-28
4 15 Surface Texture 4-28
4 15 1 Roughness 4-29
4 15 2 Waviness 4-29
4 15 3 Lay 4-29
4 15 4 Flaws 4-29
4 16 Notes 4-29
4 17 Drawing Status 4-30
4 17 1 Sketch 4-30
4 17 2 Configuration Layout 4-30
4 17 3 Experimental 4-30
4 17 4 Active 4-30
4 17 5 Obsolete 4-30
4 18 Conclusion 4-30
4 19 References 4-31
Chapter 5: Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Walter M Stites
 Paul Drake, P E
5 1 Introducing Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) 5-1
5 1 1 What is GD&T? 5-2
5 1 2 Where Does GD&T Come From?—References 5-2
5 1 3 Why Do We Use GD&T? 5-4
5 1 4 When Do We Use GD&T? 5-8
5 1 5 How Does GD&T Work?—Overview 5-9
5 2 Part Features 5-9
5 2 1 Nonsize Features 5-10
5 2 2 Features of Size 5-10
5 2 2 1 Screw Threads 5-11
5 2 2 2 Gears and Splines 5-11
5 2 3 Bounded Features 5-11
5 3 Symbols 5-11
5 3 1 Form and Proportions of Symbols 5-12
5 3 2 Feature Control Frame 5-14
5 3 2 1 Feature Control Frame Placement 5-14
5 3 2 2 Reading a Feature Control Frame 5-16
5 3 3 Basic Dimensions 5-17viii Contents
5 3 4 Reference Dimensions and Data 5-18
5 3 5 “Square” Symbol 5-18
5 3 6 Tabulated Tolerances 5-18
5 3 7 “Statistical Tolerance” Symbol 5-18
5 4 Fundamental Rules 5-18
5 5 Nonrigid Parts 5-19
5 5 1 Specifying Restraint 5-20
5 5 2 Singling Out a Free State Tolerance 5-20
5 6 Features of Size—The Four Fundamental Levels of Control 5-20
5 6 1 Level 1—Size Limit Boundaries 5-20
5 6 2 Material Condition 5-23
5 6 2 1 Modifier Symbols 5-24
5 6 3 Method for MMC or LMC 5-25
5 6 3 1 Level 2—Overall Feature Form 5-26
5 6 3 2 Level 3—Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation 5-33
5 6 3 3 Level 4—Virtual Condition Boundary for Location 5-34
5 6 3 4 Level 3 or 4 Virtual Condition Equal to Size Limit (Zero Tolerance) 5-35
5 6 3 5 Resultant Condition Boundary 5-37
5 6 4 Method for RFS 5-38
5 6 4 1 Tolerance Zone Shape 5-38
5 6 4 2 Derived Elements 5-38
5 6 5 Alternative “Center Method” for MMC or LMC 5-43
5 6 5 1 Level 3 and 4 Adjustment—Actual Mating/Minimum Material Sizes 5-43
5 6 5 2 Level 2 Adjustment—Actual Local Sizes 5-45
5 6 5 3 Disadvantages of Alternative “Center Method” 5-46
5 6 6 Inner and Outer Boundaries 5-46
5 6 7 When do we use a Material Condition Modifier? 5-47
5 7 Size Limits (Level 1 Control) 5-48
5 7 1 Symbols for Limits and Fits 5-48
5 7 2 Limit Dimensioning 5-49
5 7 3 Plus and Minus Tolerancing 5-49
5 7 4 Inch Values 5-49
5 7 5 Millimeter Values 5-49
5 8 Form (Only) Tolerances (Level 2 Control) 5-50
5 8 1 Straightness Tolerance for Line Elements 5-51
5 8 2 Straightness Tolerance for a Cylindrical Feature 5-52
5 8 3 Flatness Tolerance for a Single Planar Feature 5-52
5 8 4 Flatness Tolerance for a Width-Type Feature 5-52
5 8 5 Circularity Tolerance 5-53
5 8 5 1 Circularity Tolerance Applied to a Spherical Feature 5-55
5 8 6 Cylindricity Tolerance 5-55
5 8 7 Circularity or Cylindricity Tolerance with Average Diameter 5-56
5 8 8 Application Over a Limited Length or Area 5-57
5 8 9 Application on a Unit Basis 5-57
5 8 10 Radius Tolerance 5-58
5 8 10 1 Controlled Radius Tolerance 5-59
5 8 11 Spherical Radius Tolerance 5-59
5 8 12 When Do We Use a Form Tolerance? 5-60
5 9 Datuming 5-61
5 9 1 What is a Datum? 5-61
5 9 2 Datum Feature 5-61
5 9 2 1 Datum Feature Selection 5-61
5 9 2 2 Functional Hierarchy 5-63
5 9 2 3 Surrogate and Temporary Datum Features 5-64
5 9 2 4 Identifying Datum Features 5-65
5 9 3 True Geometric Counterpart (TGC)—Introduction 5-67
5 9 4 Datum 5-69
5 9 5 Datum Reference Frame (DRF) and Three Mutually Perpendicular
Planes 5-69Contents ix
5 9 6 Datum Precedence 5-69
5 9 7 Degrees of Freedom 5-72
5 9 8 TGC Types 5-74
5 9 8 1 Restrained versus Unrestrained TGC 5-75
5 9 8 2 Nonsize TGC 5-75
5 9 8 3 Adjustable-size TGC 5-75
5 9 8 4 Fixed-size TGC 5-77
5 9 9 Datum Reference Frame (DRF) Displacement 5-80
5 9 9 1 Relative to a Boundary of Perfect Form TGC 5-81
5 9 9 2 Relative to a Virtual Condition Boundary TGC 5-83
5 9 9 3 Benefits of DRF Displacement 5-83
5 9 9 4 Effects of All Datums of the DRF 5-83
5 9 9 5 Effects of Form, Location, and Orientation 5-83
5 9 9 6 Accommodating DRF Displacement 5-83
5 9 10 Simultaneous Requirements 5-86
5 9 11 Datum Simulation 5-89
5 9 12 Unstable Datums, Rocking Datums, Candidate Datums 5-89
5 9 13 Datum Targets 5-91
5 9 13 1 Datum Target Selection 5-91
5 9 13 2 Identifying Datum Targets 5-92
5 9 13 3 Datum Target Dimensions 5-94
5 9 13 4 Interdependency of Datum Target Locations 5-95
5 9 13 5 Applied to Features of Size 5-95
5 9 13 6 Applied to Any Type of Feature 5-97
5 9 13 7 Target Set with Switchable Precedence 5-99
5 9 14 Multiple Features Referenced as a Single Datum Feature 5-100
5 9 14 1 Feature Patterns 5-100
5 9 14 2 Coaxial and Coplanar Features 5-103
5 9 15 Multiple DRFs 5-103
5 10 Orientation Tolerance (Level 3 Control) 5-103
5 10 1 How to Apply It 5-103
5 10 2 Datums for Orientation Control 5-104
5 10 3 Applied to a Planar Feature (Including Tangent Plane Application) 5-104
5 10 4 Applied to a Cylindrical or Width-Type Feature 5-106
5 10 4 1 Zero Orientation Tolerance at MMC or LMC 5-107
5 10 5 Applied to Line Elements 5-107
5 10 6 The 24 Cases 5-109
5 10 7 Profile Tolerance for Orientation 5-109
5 10 8 When Do We Use an Orientation Tolerance? 5-109
5 11 Positional Tolerance (Level 4 Control) 5-113
5 11 1 How Does It Work? 5-113
5 11 2 How to Apply It 5-114
5 11 3 Datums for Positional Control 5-116
5 11 4 Angled Features 5-117
5 11 5 Projected Tolerance Zone 5-117
5 11 6 Special-Shaped Zones/Boundaries 5-121
5 11 6 1 Tapered Zone/Boundary 5-121
5 11 6 2 Bidirectional Tolerancing 5-122
5 11 6 3 Bounded Features 5-126
5 11 7 Patterns of Features 5-127
5 11 7 1 Single-Segment Feature Control Frame 5-127
5 11 7 2 Composite Feature Control Frame 5-129
5 11 7 3 Rules for Composite Control 5-131
5 11 7 4 Stacked Single-Segment Feature Control Frames 5-134
5 11 7 5 Rules for Stacked Single-Segment Feature Control Frames 5-136
5 11 7 6 Coaxial and Coplanar Features 5-136
5 11 8 Coaxiality and Coplanarity Control 5-137x Contents
5 12 Runout Tolerance 5-138
5 12 1 Why Do We Use It? 5-138
5 12 2 How Does It Work? 5-138
5 12 3 How to Apply It 5-139
5 12 4 Datums for Runout Control 5-140
5 12 5 Circular Runout Tolerance 5-141
5 12 6 Total Runout Tolerance 5-143
5 12 7 Application Over a Limited Length 5-143
5 12 8 When Do We Use a Runout Tolerance? 5-144
5 12 9 Worst Case Boundaries 5-145
5 13 Profile Tolerance 5-145
5 13 1 How Does It Work? 5-145
5 13 2 How to Apply It 5-145
5 13 3 The Basic Profile 5-147
5 13 4 The Profile Tolerance Zone 5-147
5 13 5 The Profile Feature Control Frame 5-149
5 13 6 Datums for Profile Control 5-149
5 13 7 Profile of a Surface Tolerance 5-149
5 13 8 Profile of a Line Tolerance 5-149
5 13 9 Controlling the Extent of a Profile Tolerance 5-150
5 13 10 Abutting Zones 5-153
5 13 11 Profile Tolerance for Combinations of Characteristics 5-153
5 13 11 1 With Positional Tolerancing for Bounded Features 5-153
5 13 12 Patterns of Profiled Features 5-154
5 13 12 1 Single-Segment Feature Control Frame 5-154
5 13 12 2 Composite Feature Control Frame 5-154
5 13 12 3 Stacked Single-Segment Feature Control Frames 5-155
5 13 12 4 Optional Level 2 Control 5-155
5 13 13 Composite Profile Tolerance for a Single Feature 5-156
5 14 Symmetry Tolerance 5-156
5 14 1 How Does It Work? 5-157
5 14 2 How to Apply It 5-159
5 14 3 Datums for Symmetry Control 5-159
5 14 4 Concentricity Tolerance 5-160
5 14 4 1 Concentricity Tolerance for Multifold Symmetry about a Datum Axis 5-160
5 14 4 2 Concentricity Tolerance about a Datum Point 5-161
5 14 5 Symmetry Tolerance about a Datum Plane 5-161
5 14 6 Symmetry Tolerancing of Yore (Past Practice) 5-161
5 14 7 When Do We Use a Symmetry Tolerance? 5-162
5 15 Combining Feature Control Frames 5-162
5 16 “Instant” GD&T 5-163
5 16 1 The “Dimension Origin” Symbol 5-163
5 16 2 General Note to Establish Basic Dimensions 5-163
5 16 3 General Note in Lieu of Feature Control Frames 5-164
5 17 The Future of GD&T 5-164
5 18 References 5-166
Chapter 6: Differences Between US Standards and Other Standards
 Alex Krulikowski
 Scott DeRaad
6 1 Dimensioning Standards 6-1
6 1 1 US Standards 6-2
6 1 2 International Standards 6-2
6 1 2 1 ISO Geometrical Product Specification Masterplan 6-4
6 2 Comparison of ASME and ISO Standards 6-5
6 2 1 Organization and Logistics 6-5
6 2 2 Number of Standards 6-5
6 2 3 Interpretation and Application 6-5Contents xi
6 2 3 1 ASME 6-6
6 2 3 2 ISO 6-6
6 3 Other Standards 6-27
6 3 1 National Standards Based on ISO or ASME Standards 6-27
6 3 2 US Government Standards 6-28
6 3 3 Corporate Standards 6-28
6 3 4 Multiple Dimensioning Standards 6-29
6 4 Future of Dimensioning Standards 6-30
6 5 Effects of Technology 6-30
6 6 New Dimensioning Standards 6-30
6 7 References 6-30
Chapter 7: Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles
 Mark A Nasson
7 1 Introduction 7-1
7 2 Why Mathematical Tolerance Definitions? 7-1
7 2 1 Metrology Crisis (The GIDEP Alert) 7-2
7 2 2 Specification Crisis 7-3
7 2 3 National Science Foundation Tolerancing Workshop 7-3
7 2 4 A New National Standard 7-4
7 3 What are Mathematical Tolerance Definitions? 7-4
7 3 1 Parallel, Equivalent, Unambiguous Expression 7-4
7 3 2 Metrology Independent 7-4
7 4 Detailed Descriptions of Mathematical Tolerance Definitions 7-4
7 4 1 Introduction 7-4
7 4 2 Vectors 7-5
7 4 2 1 Vector Addition and Subtraction 7-5
7 4 2 2 Vector Dot Products 7-6
7 4 2 3 Vector Cross Products 7-6
7 4 3 Actual Value / Measured Value 7-7
7 4 4 Datums 7-8
7 4 4 1 Candidate Datums / Datum Reference Frames 7-8
7 4 4 2 Degrees of Freedom 7-8
7 4 5 Form tolerances 7-9
7 4 5 1 Circularity 7-9
7 4 5 2 Cylindricity 7-12
7 4 5 3 Flatness 7-13
7 5 Where Do We Go from Here? 7-14
7 5 1 ASME Standards Committees 7-14
7 5 2 International Standards Efforts 7-14
7 5 3 CAE Software Developers 7-14
7 6 Acknowledgments 7-15
7 7 References 7-15
Chapter 8: Statistical Tolerancing Vijay Srinivasan, Ph D
8 1 Introduction 8-1
8 2 Specification of Statistical Tolerancing 8-2
8 2 1 Using Process Capability Indices 8-2
8 2 2 Using RMS Deviation Index 8-4
8 2 3 Using Percent Containment 8-5
8 3 Statistical Tolerance Zones 8-5
8 3 1 Population Parameter Zones 8-6
8 3 2 Distribution Function Zones 8-7
8 4 Additional Illustrations 8-7
8 5 Summary and Concluding Remarks 8-9
8 6 References 8-10xii Contents
Part 3 Design
Chapter 9: Traditional Approaches to Analyzing Mechanical Tolerance Stacks
 Paul Drake
9 1 Introduction 9-1
9 2 Analyzing Tolerance Stacks 9-1
9 2 1 Establishing Performance/Assembly Requirements 9-1
9 2 2 Loop Diagram 9-3
9 2 3 Converting Dimensions to Equal Bilateral Tolerances 9-5
9 2 4 Calculating the Mean Value (Gap) for the Requirement 9-7
9 2 5 Determine the Method of Analysis 9-8
9 2 6 Calculating the Variation for the Requirement 9-9
9 2 6 1 Worst Case Tolerancing Model 9-9
9 2 6 2 RSS Model 9-12
9 2 6 3 Modified Root Sum of the Squares Tolerancing Model 9-18
9 2 6 4 Comparison of Variation Models 9-22
9 2 6 5 Estimated Mean Shift Model 9-23
9 3 Analyzing Geometric Tolerances 9-24
9 3 1 Form Controls 9-25
9 3 2 Orientation Controls 9-26
9 3 3 Position 9-27
9 3 3 1 Position at RFS 9-27
9 3 3 2 Position at MMC or LMC 9-27
9 3 3 3 Virtual and Resultant Conditions 9-28
9 3 3 4 Equations 9-28
9 3 3 5 Composite Position 9-32
9 3 4 Runout 9-33
9 3 5 Concentricity/Symmetry 9-33
9 3 6 Profile 9-34
9 3 6 1 Profile Tolerancing with an Equal Bilateral Tolerance Zone 9-34
9 3 6 2 Profile Tolerancing with a Unilateral Tolerance Zone 9-35
9 3 6 3 Profile Tolerancing with an Unequal Bilateral Tolerance Zone 9-35
9 3 6 4 Composite Profile 9-36
9 3 7 Size Datums 9-36
9 4 Abbreviations 9-37
9 5 Terminology 9-39
9 6 References 9-39
Chapter 10: Statistical Background and Concepts Ron Randall
10 1 Introduction 10-1
10 2 Shape, Locations, and Spread 10-2
10 3 Some Important Distributions 10-2
10 3 1 The Normal Distribution 10-2
10 3 2 Lognormal Distribution 10-6
10 3 3 Poisson Distribution 10-8
10 4 Measures of Quality and Capability 10-10
10 4 1 Process Capability Index 10-10
10 4 2 Process Capability Index Relative to Process Centering (Cpk) 10-12
10 5 Summary 10-14
10 6 References 10-14
10 7 Appendix 10-15Contents xiii
Chapter 11: Predicting Assembly Quality (Six Sigma Methodologies to Optimize
Tolerances) Dale Van Wyk
11 1 Introduction 11-1
11 2 What is Tolerance Allocation? 11-1
11 3 Process Standard Deviations 11-2
11 4 Worst Case Allocation 11-5
11 4 1 Assign Component Dimensions 11-6
11 4 2 Determine Assembly Performance, P 11-7
11 4 3 Assign the process with the largest si to each component 11-8
11 4 4 Calculate the Worst Case Assembly, twc6 11-8
11 4 5 Is P³t
wc6? 11-9
11 4 6 Estimating Defect Rates 11-10
11 4 7 Verification 11-12
11 4 8 Adjustments to Meet Quality Goals 11-13
11 4 9 Worst Case Allocation Summary 11-13
11 5 Statistical Allocation 11-13
11 5 1 Calculating Assembly Variation and Defect Rate 11-15
11 5 2 First Steps in Statistical Allocation 11-15
11 5 3 Calculate Expected Assembly Performance, P6 11-15
11 5 4 Is P³P
6? 11-16
11 5 5 Allocating Tolerances 11-17
11 5 6 Statistical Allocation Summary 11-20
11 6 Dynamic RSS Allocation 11-20
11 7 Static RSS analysis 11-23
11 8 Comparison of the Techniques 11-24
11 9 Communication of Requirements 11-25
11 10 Summary 11-26
11 11 Abbreviations 11-26
11 12 References 11-27
Chapter 12: Multi-Dimensional Tolerance Analysis (Manual Method) Dale Van Wyk
12 1 Introduction 12-1
12 2 Determining Sensitivity 12-2
12 3 A Technique for Developing Gap Equations 12-4
12 4 Utilizing Sensitivity Information to Optimize Tolerances 12-12
12 5 Summary 12-13
Chapter 13: Multi-Dimensional Tolerance Analysis (Automated Method)
 Kenneth W Chase, Ph D
13 1 Introduction 13-1
13 2 Three Sources of Variation in Assemblies 13-2
13 3 Example 2D Assembly – Stacked Blocks 13-3
13 4 Steps in Creating an Assembly Tolerance Model 13-4
13 5 Steps in Analyzing an Assembly Tolerance Model 13-12
13 5 5 1 Percent rejects 13-21
13 5 5 2 Percent Contribution Charts 13-22
13 5 5 3 Sensitivity Analysis 13-24
13 5 5 4 Modifying Geometry 13-24
13 6 Summary 13-26
13 7 References 13-27xiv Contents
Chapter 14: Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation Kenneth W Chase, Ph D
14 1 Tolerance Allocation Using Least Cost Optimization 14-1
14 2 1-D Tolerance Allocation 14-1
14 3 1-D Example: Shaft and Housing Assembly 14-3
14 4 Advantages / Disadvantages of the Lagrange Multiplier Method 14-7
14 6 2-D and 3-D Tolerance Allocation 14-8
14 5 True Cost and Optimum Acceptance Fraction 14-8
14 7 2-D Example: One-way Clutch Assembly 14-9
14 7 1 Vector Loop Model and Assembly Function for the Clutch 14-10
14 8 Allocation by Scaling, Weight Factors 14-10
14 8 1 Proportional Scaling by Worst Case 14-11
14 8 2 Proportional Scaling by Root-Sum-Squares 14-11
14 8 3 Allocation by Weight Factors 14-11
14 9 Allocation by Cost Minimization 14-12
14 9 1 Minimum Cost Tolerances by Worst Case 14-13
14 9 2 Minimum Cost Tolerances by RSS 14-14
14 10 Tolerance Allocation with Process Selection 14-15
14 11 Summary 14-16
14 12 References 14-17
14 13 Appendix: Cost-Tolerance Functions for Metal Removal Processes 14-18
Chapter 15: Automating the Tolerancing Process Charles Glancy
 James Stoddard
 Marvin Law
15 1 Background Information 15-2
15 1 1 Benefits of Automation 15-2
15 1 2 Overview of the Tolerancing Process 15-2
15 2 Automating the Creation of the Tolerance Model 15-3
15 2 1 Characterizing Critical Design Measurements 15-3
15 2 2 Characterizing the Model Function 15-4
15 2 2 1 Model Definition 15-4
15 2 2 2 Model Form 15-5
15 2 2 3 Model Scope 15-5
15 2 3 Characterizing Input Variables 15-6
15 3 Automating Tolerance Analysis 15-6
15 3 1 Method of System Moments 15-6
15 3 3 Distribution Fitting 15-8
15 3 2 Monte Carlo Simulation 15-8
15 4 Automating Tolerance Optimization 15-9
15 5 Automating Communication Between Design and Manufacturing 15-9
15 5 1 Manufacturing Process Capabilities 15-10
15 5 1 1 Manufacturing Process Capability Database 15-10
15 5 1 2 Database Administration 15-11
15 5 2 Design Requirements and Assumptions 15-11
15 6 CAT Automation Tools 15-12
15 6 1 Tool Capability 15-12
15 6 2 Ease of Use 15-12
15 6 3 Training 15-13
15 6 4 Technical Support 15-13
15 6 5 Data Management and CAD Integration 15-13
15 6 6 Reports and Records 15-13
15 6 7 Tool Enhancement and Development 15-14
15 6 8 Deployment 15-14
15 7 Summary 15-14
15 8 References 15-14Contents xv
Chapter 16: Working in an Electronic Environment Paul Matthews
16 1 Introduction 16-1
16 2 Paperless/Electronic Environment 16-2
16 2 1 Definition 16-2
16 3 Development Information Tools 16-3
16 3 1 Product Development Automation Strategy 16-3
16 3 2 Master Model Theory 16-4
16 3 3 Template Design 16-7
16 3 3 1 Template Part and Assembly Databases 16-7
16 3 3 2 Template Features 16-8
16 3 3 3 Templates for Analyses 16-9
16 3 3 4 Templates for Documentation 16-9
16 3 4 Component Libraries 16-9
16 3 5 Information Verification 16-10
16 4 Product Information Management 16-11
16 4 1 Configuration Management Techniques 16-11
16 4 2 Data Management Components 16-12
16 4 2 1 Workspace 16-12
16 4 2 2 Product Vault 16-12
16 4 2 3 Company Vault 16-12
16 4 3 Document Administrator 16-13
16 4 4 File Cabinet Control 16-13
16 4 5 Software Automation 16-13
16 5 Information Storage and Transfer 16-13
16 5 1 Internet 16-13
16 5 2 Electronic Mail 16-14
16 5 3 File Transfer Protocol 16-14
16 5 4 Media Transfer 16-15
16 6 Manufacturing Guidelines 16-15
16 6 1 Manufacturing Trust 16-15
16 6 2 Dimensionless Prints 16-15
16 6 2 1 Sheetmetal 16-16
16 6 2 2 Injection Molded Plastic 16-17
16 6 2 3 Hog Out Parts 16-17
16 6 2 4 Castings 16-18
16 6 2 5 Rapid Prototypes 16-18
16 7 Database Format Standards 16-19
16 7 1 Native Database 16-19
16 7 2 2-D Formats 16-19
16 7 2 1 Data eXchange Format (DXF) 16-19
16 7 2 2 Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language (HPGL) 16-20
16 8 3-D Formats 16-20
16 8 1 Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) 16-20
16 8 2 STandard for the Exchange of Product (STEP) 16-20
16 8 3 Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) 16-20
16 8 4 STereoLithography (STL) 16-21
16 9 General Information Formats 16-21
16 9 1 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) 16-21
16 9 2 Portable Document Format (PDF) 16-22
16 10 Graphics Formats 16-22
16 10 1 Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) 16-22
16 10 2 Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 16-22
16 10 3 Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) 16-22
16 11 Conclusion 16-23
16 12 Appendix A IGES Entities 16-23xvi Contents
Part 4 Manufacturing
Chapter 17: Collecting and Developing Manufacturing Process Capability Models
 Michael D King
17 1 Why Collect and Develop Process Capability Models? 17-1
17 2 Developing Process Capability Models 17-2
17 3 Quality Prediction Models - Variable versus Attribute Information 17-3
17 3 1 Collecting and Modeling Variable Process Capability Models 17-3
17 3 2 Collecting and Modeling Attribute Process Capability Models 17-7
17 3 3 Feature Factoring Method 17-7
17 3 4 Defect Weighting Methodology 17-7
17 4 Cost and Cycle Time Prediction Modeling Variations 17-8
17 5 Validating and Checking the Results of Your Predictive Models 17-9
17 6 Summary 17-11
17 7 References 17-11
Part 5 Gaging
Chapter 18: Paper Gage Techniques Martin P Wright
18 1 What is Paper Gaging? 18-1
18 2 Advantages and Disadvantages to Paper Gaging 18-2
18 3 Discrimination Provided By a Paper Gage 18-3
18 4 Paper Gage Accuracy 18-3
18 5 Plotting Paper Gage Data Points 18-4
18 6 Paper Gage Applications 18-4
18 6 1 Locational Verification 18-5
18 6 1 1 Simple Hole Pattern Verification 18-5
18 6 1 2 Three-Dimensional Hole Pattern Verification 18-8
18 6 1 3 Composite Positional Tolerance Verification 18-10
18 6 2 Capturing Tolerance From Datum Features Subject to Size Variation 18-12
18 6 2 1 Datum Feature Applied on an RFS Basis 18-12
18 6 2 2 Datum Feature Applied on an MMC Basis 18-12
18 6 2 3 Capturing Rotational Shift Tolerance from a Datum Feature
Applied on an MMC Basis 18-16
18 6 2 4 Determining the Datum from a Pattern of Features 18-19
18 6 3 Paper Gage Used as a Process Analysis Tool 18-21
18 7 Summary 18-23
18 8 References 18-23
Chapter 19: Receiver Gages — Go Gages and Functional Gages James D Meadows
19 1 Introduction 19-1
19 2 Gaging Fundamentals 19-2
19 3 Gage Tolerancing Policies 19-3
19 4 Examples of Gages 19-4
19 4 1 Position Using Partial and Planar Datum Features 19-4
19 4 2 Position Using Datum Features of Size at MMC 19-6
19 4 3 Position and Profile Using a Simultaneous Gaging Requirement 19-9
19 4 4 Position Using Centerplane Datums 19-12
19 4 5 Multiple Datum Structures 19-14
19 4 6 Secondary and Tertiary Datum Features of Size 19-17Contents xvii
19 5 Push Pin vs Fixed Pin Gaging 19-20
19 6 Conclusion 19-20
19 7 References 19-20
Part 6 Precision Metrology
Chapter 20: Measurement Systems Analysis Gregory A Hetland, Ph D
20 1 Introduction 20-1
20 2 Measurement Methods Analysis 20-2
20 2 1 Measurement System Definition (Phase 1) 20-2
20 2 1 1 Identification of Variables 20-2
20 2 1 2 Specifications of Conformance 20-3
20 2 1 3 Measurement System Capability Requirements 20-3
20 2 2 Identification of Sources of Uncertainty (Phase 2) 20-3
20 2 2 1 Machine Sources of Uncertainty 20-4
20 2 2 2 Software Sources of Uncertainty 20-4
20 2 2 3 Environmental Sources of Uncertainty 20-5
20 2 2 4 Part Sources of Uncertainty 20-5
20 2 2 5 Fixturing Sources of Uncertainty 20-5
20 2 2 6 Operator Sources of Uncertainty 20-6
20 2 3 Measurement System Qualification (Phase 3) 20-6
20 2 3 1 Plan the Capabilities Studies 20-6
20 2 3 2 Production Systems 20-7
20 2 3 3 Calibrate the System 20-7
20 2 3 4 Conduct Studies and Define Capabilities 20-8
20 2 4 Quantify the Error Budget (Phase 4) 20-8
20 2 4 1 Plan Testing (Isolate Error Sources) 20-8
20 2 4 2 Analyze Uncertainty 20-9
20 2 5 Optimize Measurement System (Phase 5) 20-9
20 2 5 1 Identify Opportunities 20-9
20 2 5 2 Attempt Improvements and Revisit Testing 20-9
20 2 5 3 Revisit Qualification 20-10
20 2 6 Implement and Control Measurement System (Phase 6) 20-10
20 2 6 1 Plan Performance Criteria 20-10
20 2 6 2 Plan Calibration and Maintenance Requirements 20-11
20 2 6 3 Implement System and Initiate Control 20-11
20 2 6 4 CMM Operator Competencies 20-11
20 2 6 5 Business Issue 20-12
20 3 CMM Performance Test Overview 20-17
20 3 1 Environmental Tests (Section 1) 20-17
20 3 1 1 Temperature Parameters 20-17
20 3 1 2 Other Environmental Parameters 20-20
20 3 2 Machine Tests (Section 2) 20-21
20 3 2 1 Probe Settling Time 20-21
20 3 2 2 Probe Deflection 20-24
20 3 2 3 Other Machine Parameters 20-27
20 3 2 4 Multiple Probes 20-27
20 3 3 Feature Based Measurement Tests (Section 3) 20-28
20 3 3 1 Number of Points Per Feature 20-30
20 3 3 2 Other Geometric Features 20-34
20 3 3 3 Contact Scanning 20-34
20 3 3 4 Surface Roughness 20-35
20 4 CMM Capability Matrix 20-35
20 5 References 20-38xviii Contents
Part 7 Applications
Chapter 21: Predicting Piecepart Quality Dan A Watson, Ph D
21 1 Introduction 21-1
21 2 The Problem 21-2
21 3 Statistical Framework 21-3
21 3 1 Assumptions 21-3
21 3 2 Internal Feature at MMC 21-5
21 3 3 Internal Feature at LMC 21-7
21 3 4 External Features 21-8
21 3 5 Alternate Distribution Assumptions 21-8
21 4 Non-Size Feature Applications 21-9
21 5 Example 21-9
21 6 Summary 21-10
21 7 References 21-11
Chapter 22: Floating and Fixed Fasteners Paul Zimmermann
22 1 Introduction 22-1
22 2 Floating and Fixed Fasteners 22-1
22 2 1 What is a Floating Fastener? 22-4
22 2 2 What is a Fixed Fastener? 22-4
22 2 3 What is a Double-Fixed Fastener? 22-4
22 3 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (Cylindrical Tolerance Zone
Versus +/- Tolerancing) 22-5
22 4 Calculations for Fixed, Floating and Double-fixed Fasteners 22-8
22 5 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Rules/Formulas for Floating Fastener 22-8
22 5 1 How to Calculate Clearance Hole Diameter for a Floating Fastener Application 22-8
22 5 2 How to Calculate Counterbore Diameter for a Floating Fastener Application 22-9
22 5 3 Why Floating Fasteners are Not Recommended 22-10
22 6 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Rules/Formulas for Fixed Fasteners 22-10
22 6 1 How to Calculate Fixed Fastener Applications 22-10
22 6 2 How to Calculate Counterbore Diameter for a Fixed Fastener Application 22-10
22 6 3 Why Fixed Fasteners are Recommended 22-11
22 7 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Rules/Formulas for Double-fixed
Fastener 22-11
22 7 1 How to Calculate a Clearance Hole 22-11
22 7 2 How to Calculate the Countersink Diameter, Head Height Above and Head
Height Below the Surface 22-11
22 7 3 What Are the Problems Associated with Double-fixed Fasteners? 22-13
22 8 Nut Plates: Floating and Nonfloating (see Fig 22-14) 22-14
22 9 Projected Tolerance Zone 22-15
22 9 1 Comparison of Positional Tolerancing With and Without a Projected Tolerance
Zone 22-16
22 9 2 Percent of Actual Orientation Versus Lost Functional Tolerance 22-18
22 10 Hardware Pages 22-18
22 10 1 Floating Fastener Hardware Pages 22-20
22 10 2 Fixed Fastener Hardware Pages 22-21
22 10 3 Double-fixed Fastener Hardware Pages 22-23
22 10 4 Counterbore Depths - Pan Head and Socket Head Cap Screws 22-25
22 10 5 Flat Head Screw Head Height - Above and Below the Surface 22-26
22 11 References 22-26Contents xix
Chapter 23: Fixed and Floating Fastener Variation Chris Cuba
23 1 Introduction 23-1
23 2 Hole Variation 23-2
23 3 Assembly Variation 23-4
23 4 Fixed and Floating Fasteners 23-4
23 4 1 Fixed Fastener Assembly Shift 23-5
23 4 2 Fixed Fastener Assembly Shift Using One Equation and Dimension Loop 23-6
23 4 3 Fixed Fastener Equation 23-7
23 4 4 Fixed Fastener Gap Analysis Steps 23-7
23 4 5 Floating Fastener Gap Analysis Steps 23-8
23 5 Summary 23-9
23 6 References 23-10
Chapter 24: Pinned Interfaces Stephen Harry Werst
24 1 List of Symbols (Definitions and Terminology) 24-1
24 2 Introduction 24-2
24 3 Performance Considerations 24-2
24 4 Variation Components of Pinned Interfaces 24-3
24 4 1 Type I Error 24-3
24 4 2 Type II Error 24-3
24 5 Types of Alignment Pins 24-4
24 6 Tolerance Allocation Methods - Worst Case vs Statistical 24-6
24 7 Processes and Capabilities 24-6
24 8 Design Methodology 24-7
24 9 Proper Use of Material Modifiers 24-10
24 10 Temperature Considerations 24-11
24 11 Two Round Pins with Two Holes 24-11
24 11 1 Fit 24-12
24 11 2 Rotation Errors 24-12
24 11 3 Translation Errors 24-13
24 11 4 Performance Constants 24-13
24 11 5 Dimensioning Methodology 24-14
24 12 Round Pins with a Hole and a Slot 24-14
24 12 1 Fit 24-14
24 12 2 Rotation Errors 24-16
24 12 3 Translation Errors 24-17
24 12 4 Performance Constants 24-17
24 12 5 Dimensioning Methodology 24-17
24 13 Round Pins with One Hole and Edge Contact 24-18
24 13 1 Fit 24-19
24 13 2 Rotation Errors 24-20
24 13 3 Translation errors 24-20
24 13 4 Performance Constants 24-20
24 13 5 Dimensioning Methodology 24-20
24 14 One Diamond Pin and One Round Pin with Two Holes 24-23
24 14 1 Fit 24-23
24 14 2 Rotation and Translation Errors 24-24
24 14 3 Performance Constants 24-24
24 14 4 Dimensioning Methodology 24-24
24 15 One Parallel-Flats Pin and One Round Pin with Two Holes 24-26
24 15 1 Fit 24-26
24 15 2 Rotation and Translation Errors 24-27
24 15 3 Performance Constants 24-27
24 15 4 Dimensioning Methodology 24-28
24 16 References 24-29xx Contents
Chapter 25: Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R) Calculations
 Gregory A Hetland, Ph D
25 1 Introduction 25-1
25 2 Standard GR&R Procedure 25-1
25 3 Summary 25-7
25 4 References 25-7
Part 8 The Future
Chapter 26: The Future Several contributors
Figures F-1
Tables T-1
Index


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