كتاب A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning    كتاب A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning  Emptyالجمعة 14 نوفمبر 2014, 4:33 pm

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A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
R.S. KHURMI, J.K. GUPTA  

كتاب A Textbook of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning  A_t_b_10
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Contents
Chapter No. Pages
1. Introduction 1-37
Definition
Fundamental Units
Derived Units
System of Units
S.l. Units (International System of Units)
Metre
Kilogram
Second
Kelvin
Presentation of Units and their Values
Rules for S.l. Units
Mass and Weight
Force
Absolute and Gravitational Units of Force
Thermodynamic Systems
Properties of a System
State of a System
Temperature
Absolute Temperature
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Equality of Temperature
Pressure
Gauge Pressure and Absolute Pressure
Normal Temperature and Pressure (N.T.P.)
Standard Temperature and Pressure (S.T.P.)
Energy
Types of Stored Energy
Heat
Sensible Heat
Latent Heat
Specific Heat
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
Work
(v)Heat and Work - A Path Function
Comparison of Heat and Work
Power
Laws of Thermodynamics
Perfect Gas
Laws of Perfect Gases
General Gas Equation
Joule's Law
Characteristic Equation of a Gas
Specific Heats of a Gas
Enthalpy of a Gas
Ratio of Specific Heats
Entropy
Thermodynamic Processes
Work done During a Non-flow Process
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to a Non-flow Process
Classification of Non-flow Processes
Thermodynamic Cycle
Reversibility and Irreversibility of Thermodynamic Processes
Flow Processes
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to a Steady Flow Process
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Units of Refrigeration
2.3 Coefficient of Performance of a Refrigerator
2.4 Difference Between a Heat Engine, Refrigerator and Heat Pump
2.5 Open Air Refrigeration Cycle
2.6 Closed or Dense Air Refrigeration Cycle
2.7 Air Refrigerator Working on Reversed Carnot Cycle
2.8 Temperature Limitations for Reversed Carnot Cycle
2.9 Air Refrigerator Working on a Bell-Coleman Cycle (or Reversed Brayton or Joule Cycle) 51
3. Air Refrigeration Systems
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Merits and Demerits of Air Refrigeration System
3.3 Methods of Air Refrigeration Systems
3.4 Simple Air Cooling System
3.5 Simple Air Evaporative Cooling system
3.6 Boot-strap Air Cooling System
3.7 Boot-strap Air Evaporative Cooling System
3.8 Reduced Ambient Air Cooling System
3.9 Regenerative Air Cooling System
3.10 Comparison of Various Air Cooling Systems used for Aircraft
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Vapour Compression Refrigeration
System over Air Refrigeration System
4.3 Mechanism of a Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
4.4 Pressure - Enthalpy (p-h) Chart
4.5 Types of Vapour Compression Cycles
4.6 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Dry Saturated Vapour after Compression128
4.7 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Wet Vapour after Compression
4.8 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Superheated Vapour after Compression 137
4.9 ‘ Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Superheated Vapour before Compression 146
4.10 Theoretical Vapour Compression Cycle with Under-cooling or Subcooling of
Refrigerant
4.11 Actual Vapour Compression Cycle
4.12 Effect of Suction Pressure
4.13 Effect of Discharge Pressure
4.14 Improvements in Simple Saturation Cycle
4.15 Simple Saturation Cycle with Flash Chamber
4.16 Simple Saturation Cycle with Accumulator or Pre-cooler
4.17 Simple Saturation Cycle with Sub-cooling of Liquid Refrigerant by Vapour Refrigerant 181
4.18 Simple Saturation Cycle with Sub-cooling of Liquid Refrigerant by Liquid Refrigerant  
Introduction
Advantages of Compound (or Multi-stage) Vapour Compression with Intercooler
Types of Compound Vapour Compression with Intercooler
Two Stage Compression with Liquid Intercooler
Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler and Liquid Sub-cooler
Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler, Liquid Sub-cooler and Liquid
FlashChamber
Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler, Liquid Sub-cooler and Flash
Intercooler
Three Stage Compression with Water Intercoolers
Three Stage Compression with Flash Chambers
Three Stage Compression with Flash Intercoolers
Three Stage Compression with Multiple Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers
Introduction 234
Types of Multiple Evaporator and Compressor Systems
Multiple Evaporators at the Same Temperature with Single Compressor and
Expansion Valve
Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Single Compressor,
Individual Expansion Valves and Back Pressure Valves
(vii)6.5 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Single Compressor,
MultipleExpansion Valves and Back Pressure Valves
6.6 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Individual
Compressors and Individual Expansion Valves
6.7 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Individual
Compressors andMultiple Expansion Valves
6.8 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with
Compound Compression and Individual Expansion Valves
6.9 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Compound
Compression, Individual Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers
6.10 Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures with Compound
Compression,Multiple Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers
.7
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Simple Vapour Absorption System
7.3 Practical Vapour Absorption System
7.4 Thermodynamic Requirements of Refrigerant-Absorbent Mixture
7.5 Properties of Ideal Refrigerant - Absorbent Combination
7.6 Comparision of Refrigerant-Liquid Absorbent Combination (say NH3- water)
with Refrigerant - Solid Absorbent- Combination(say NH3 - CaCl2)
7.7 Advantages of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System over Vapour
Compression Refrigeration System
7.8 Coefficient of Performance of an Ideal Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System
7.9 Domestic Electrolux (Ammonia Hydrogen) Refrigerator
7.10 Lithium Bromide Absorption Refrigeration System
8. Refrigerants 294- 315
Introduction
Desirable Properties of an Ideal Refrigerant
Classification of Refrigerants
Halo-carbon Refrigerants
Azeotrope Refrigerants
Inorganic Refrigerants
Hydro-carbon Refrigerants
Designation System for Refrigerants
Substitutes for Chloro-Fluro-Carbon (CFO Refrigerants
Comparison of Refrigerants
Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerants
Chemical Properties of Refrigerants
Physical Properties of Refrigerants
Secondary Refrigerants - Brines
(viii)9. Refrigerant Compressors
Introduction
Classification of Compressors
Important Terms
Reciprocating Compressors
Work Done by a Single Stage Reciprocating Compressor
Work Done by a Single Stage, Single Acting Reciprocating
Compressor without Clearance Volume
Power Required to Drive a Single Stage Reciprocating Compressor
Work Done by a Reciprocating Compressor with Clearance Volume
Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating Compressor
9.10 Factors Effecting Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating Compressor
Overall or Total Volumetric Efficiency of a Reciprocating Compressor
9.12 Multi-stage Compression
9.13 Advantages of Multi-stage Compression
9.14 Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor with Intercooler
9.15 Assumptions in Two Stage Compression with Intercooler
9.16 Intercooling of Refrigerant in a Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor
9.17 Work Done by a Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor with Intercooler
9.18 Minimum Work Required for a Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor
9.19 Performance Characteristics of Refrigerant Reciprocating Compressor
9.20 Hermetic Sealed Compressors
Rotary Compressors
Centrifugal Compressors
9.23 Advantages and Disadvantages of Centrifugal Compressors over
Reciprocating Compressors
9.24 Capacity Control of Compressors
9.25 Capacity Control for Reciprocating Compressors
9.26 Capacity Control of Centrifugal Compressors
9.27 Comparison of Performance of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors
Condensers 358-375
Introduction
10.2 Working of a Condenser
10.3 Factors Affecting the Condenser Capacity
10.4 Heat Rejection Factor
10.5 Classification of Condensers
10.6 Air Cooled Condensers
10.7 Types of Air Cooled Condensers
10.8 Water Cooled Condensers
10.9 Types of Water Cooled Condensers
10.10 Comparison of Air Cooled and Water Cooled Condensers
10.11 Fouling Factor
10.12 Heat Transfer in Condensers
10.13 Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficient
10.14 Air-side Coefficient
(ix)10.15 Water-side Coefficient
10.16 Finned Tubes
10.17 Evaporative Condensers
10.18 Cooling Towers and Spray Ponds
10.19 Capacity of Cooling Towers and Spray Ponds
10.20 Types of Cooling Towers
10.21 Natural Draft Cooling Towers
10.22 Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers
10.23 Forced Draft Cooling Towers
10.24 Induced Draft Cooling Towers
11.1 Introduction 376
11.2 Working of an Evaporator
11.3 Capacity of an Evaporator
11.4 Factors Affecting the Heat Transfer Capacity of an Evaporator
11.5 Heat Transfer in Evaporators
Heat Transfer During Boiling
Heat Transfer Coefficient for Nucleate Pool Boiling
11.8 Fluid Side Heat Transfer Coefficient
11.9 Types of Evaporators
11.10 Bare Tube CoiI Evaporators
11.11 Finned Evaporators
11.12 Plate Evaporators
11.13 ShelI and Tube Evaporators
11.14 ShelI and CoiI Evaporators
11.15 Tube-in-Tubeor Double Tube Evaporators
11.16 Flooded Evaporators
11.17 Dry Expansion Evaporators
11.18 Natural Convection Evaporators
11.19 Forced Convection Evaporators
11.20 Frosting Evaporators
11.21 Non-frosting Evaporators
11.22 Defrosting Evaporators
11.23 Methods of Defrosting an Evaporator
11.24 Manual Defrosting Method
11.25 Pressure Control Defrosting Method
11.26 Temperature Control Defrosting Method
11.27 Water Defrosting Method
11.28 Reverse Cycle Defrosting Method
11.29 Simple Hot Gas Defrosting Method
11.30 Automatic Hot Gas Defrosting Method
11.31 Thermobank Defrosting Method
11.32 Electric Defrosting Method
(x)12. Expansion Devices
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Types of Expansion Devices
12.3 Capillary Tube
12.4 Hand-operated Expansion Valve
12.5 Automatic (or Constant Pressure) Expansion Valve
12.6 Thermostatic Expansion Valve
12.7 Low-side Float Valve
12.8 High-side Float Valve
13.1 Introduction 408
13.2 Advantages of Food Preservation
13.3 Causes of Food Spoilage
13.4 Methods of Food Preservation
13.5 Food Preservation by Refrigeration
13.6 Domestic Refrigerators for Food Preservation
13.7 Commercial Refrigerators for Food Preservation
13.8 Cold Storages for Food Preservation
13.9 Frozen Storages for Food Preservation
13.10 Methods of Food Freezing
14. Low Temperature Refrigeration (Cryogenics)
Introduction
14.2 Limitations of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems for
Production of Low Temperature
14.3 Cascade Refrigeration System
14.4 Coefficient of Performance of a Two Stage Cascade System
14.5 Solid Carbon Dioxide or Dry Ice
14.6 Manufacture of Solid Carbon Dioxide or Dry Ice
14.7 Liquefaction of Gases
14.8 Linde System for Liquefaction of Air
14.9 Claude System for Liquefaction of Air
14.10 Advantages of Claude System over Linde System
14.11 Liquefaction of Hydrogen
14.12 Liquefaction of Helium
14.13 Production of Low Temperature by Adiabatic Demagnetisation of a Paramagnetic Salt  
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Principle of Steam Jet Refrigeration System
15.3 Water as a Refrigerant
15.4 Working of Steam Jet Refrigeration System
15.5 Steam Ejector
(xi)15.6 Analysis of Steam Jet Refrigeration System
15.7 Efficiencies used in Steam Jet Refrigeration System
15.8 Mass of Motive Steam Required
15.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Steam Jet Refrigeration System
16. Psychrometry 467-533
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Psychrometric Terms
16.3 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
16.4 Psychrometric Relations
16.5 Enthalpy (Total heat) of Moist Air
16.6 Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature or Adiabatic Saturation Temperature
16.7 Psychrometric Chart
16.8 Psychrometric Processes
16.9 Sensible Heating
16.10 Sensible Cooling
16.11 By-pass Factor of Heating and Cooling Coil
16.12 Efficiency of Heating and Cooling Coils
16.13 Humidification and Dehumidification
16.14 Methods of Obtaining Humidification and Dehumidification
16.15 Sensible Heat Factor
16.16 Cooling and Dehumidification
16.17 Cooling with Adiabatic Humidification
16.18 Cooling and Humidification by Water Injection (Evaporative Cooling)
16.19 Heating and Humidification
16.20 Heating and Humidification by Steam Injection
16.21 Heating and Dehumidification -Adiabatic Chemical Dehumidification
16.22 Adiabatic Mixing of Two Air Streams
17. Comfort Conditions 534-548
Introduction
17.2 Thermal Exchanges of Body with Environment
17.3 Physiological Hazards Resulting from Heat
17.4 Factors Affecting Human Comfort
17.5 Effective Temperature
17.6 Modified Comfort Chart
17.7 Heat Production and Regulation in Human Body
17.8 Heat and Moisture Losses from the Human Body
17.9 Moisture Content of Air
17.10 Quality and Quantity of Air
17.11 Air Motion
17.12 Cold and Hot Surfaces
17.13 Air Stratification
17.14 Factors Affecting Optimum Effective Temperature
17.15 Inside Summer Design Conditions
17.16 Outside Summer Design Conditions
(xii)18. Air Conditioning Systems
Introduction
18.2 Factors Affecting Comfort Air Conditioning
18.3 Air Conditioning System
18.4 Equipments Used in an Air Conditioning System
18.5 Classification of Air Conditioning Systems
18.6 Comfort Air Conditioning System
18.7 Industrial Air Conditioning System
18.8 Winter Air Conditioning System
18.9 Summer Air Conditioning System
18.10 Year-Round Air Conditioning System
18.11 Unitary Air Conditioning System
18.12 Central Air Conditioning System
18.13 Room Sensible Heat Factor
18.14 Grand Sensible Heat Factor
18.15 Effective Room Sensible Heat Factor
19. Lo 597-649
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Components of a Cooling Load
19.3 Sensible Heat Gain through Building Structure by Conduction
19.4 Heat Gain from Solar Radiation
19.5 Solar Heat Gain (Sensible) through Outside Walls and Roofs
19.6 Sol Air Temperature
19.7 Solar Heat Gain through Glass Areas
19.8 Heat Gain due to Infiltration
19.9 Heat Gain due to Ventilation
19.10 Heat Gain from Occupants
19.11 Heat Gain from Appliances
19.12 Heat Gain from Products
19.13 Heat Gain from Lighting Equipments
19.14 Heat Gain from Power Equipments
19.15 Heat Gain through Ducts
20. ucts
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Classification of Ducts
20.3 Duct Material
20.4 Duct Construction
20.5 Duct Shape
20.10 Pressure Loss due to Friction in Ducts
20.11 Friction Factor for Ducts
20.12 Equivalent Diameter of a Circular Duct for a Rectangular Duct
Pressure in Ducts
Continuity Equation for Ducts
Bernoulli's Equation for Ducts
Pressure Losses in Ducts
(xiii)20.13 Friction Chart for Circular Ducts
20.14 Dynamic Losses in Ducts
20.15 Pressure Loss due to Enlargement in Area and Static Regain
20.16 Pressure Loss due to Contraction in Area
20.17 Pressure Loss at Suction and Discharge of a Duct
20.18 Pressure Loss due to an Obstruction in a Duct
20.19 Duct Design
20.20 Methods for Determination of Duct Size
20.21 System Resistance
20.22 Systems in Series
20.23 Systems in Parallel
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Types of Fans
21.3 Centrifugal Fans
21.4 Axial Flow Fans
21.5 Total Pressure Developed by a Fan
21.6 Fan Air Power
Fan Efficiencies
Fan Performance Curves
21.9 Velocity Triangles for Moving Blades of a Centrifugal Fan
21.10 Work Done and Theoretical Total Head Developed by a Centrifugal Fan for
Radial Entry of Air
21.11 Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Fan
21.12 Fan Similarly Laws
21.13 Fan and System Characteristic
21.14 Fans in Series
21.15 Fans in Parallel
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Domestic Refrigerator and Freezer
22.3 Defrosting in Refrigerators
22.4 Controls in Refrigerator
22.5 Room Air Conditioner
22.6 Water Coolers
22.7 Capacity of Water Coolers
22.8 Applications of Air Conditioning in Industry
22.9 Refrigerated Trucks
22.10 Marine Air-conditioning
22.11 Ice Manufacture
22.12 Cooling of Milk(Milk Processing)
22.13 Cold Storages
22.14 Quick Freezing
22.15 Cooling and Heating of Foods
22.16 Freeze Drying
22.17 Heat and Mass Transfer through the Dried Material
Index  


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