كتاب Industrial Pigging Technology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Industrial Pigging Technology

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عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Industrial Pigging Technology   السبت 05 أكتوبر 2013, 12:23 am

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Industrial Pigging Technology
Fundamentals, Components, Applications
G. Hiltscher, W. MUhlthaler, J. Smits


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

I Fundamental Principles of Pigging Technology 1
1 Introduction to Pigging Technology 3
1.1 Historical Development and Definition 3
1.2 Fields of Application of Pigging Technology 6
2 Pigging Units and Pigging Systems 9
2.1 Definitions 9
2.2 Selection and Design Criteria 12
2.3 Pigging Units 13
2.3.1 Pigging Units without Branches 13
2.3.2 Pigging Units with Branches 14
2.3.3 Pigging Units with Switches 14
2.4 Pigging Systems 15
2.4.1 Sequence Tables 15
2.4.2 One-Pig Systems 17
2.4.3 Two-Pig Systems 18
II Components 21
3 Pigs 23
3.1 Pigs for Industrial Pigging Units 23
3.1.1 Function 23
3.1.2 Fields of Application 23
3.2 Materials Selection 24
3.2.1 Pig Materials 25
3.2.2 Tests for the Selection of Pig Materials 25
3.2.3 Shear Strength of the Pig Material 32
3.2.4 Deformation of a Solid Cast Pig under Pressure 34
3.3 Pig Designs 36
3.3.1 One-Piece Pigs 37
3.3.2 Multicomponent Pigs 41
3.3.3 Special Pigs 43
3.4 Fabrication of Pigs 44
3.5 Quality Assurance 45
4 Valves 49
4.1 Function of Piggable Valves 49
4.2 Classification of Piggable Valves 50
4.3 Examples of Standard Valves 50
4.3.1 Stations 50
4.3.2 Branches 54
4.3.3 Pig Traps 58
4.3.4 Switches 59
4.4 Examples of Commercially Available Special Valves 62
4.4.1 Crossing of Two Piggable Pipes 63
4.4.2 Manifolds 64
4.4.3 Piggable Loading Facilities 67
4.4.4 Drum-loading Valves 68
4.5 Pressure Drop in Piggable Valves 70
4.6 Stress on Pig Traps 71
5 Pipework 75
5.1 Requirements for Piggable Pipes 75
5.2 Materials for Piggable Pipes 76
5.3 Piping Elements 78
5.3.1 Pipes 78
5.3.2 Pipe Bends 83
5.3.3 Tees 85
5.4 Pipe Joints 86
5.4.1 Flange Connections 86
5.4.2 Welded Pipe Joints 89
5.5 Example of a Pipe Specification 94
5.6 Construction of Piggable Pipes 95
5.7 Piggable Hoses 96
6 Additional Equipment 99
6.1 Pressure-Relief Vessel 99
6.2 Propellant Tank 100
6.3 Filters 102
6.4 Pumps 102
7 Propellants 105
7.1 Gaseous Propellants 105
7.1.1 Speed Behavior of Gas-Driven Pigs 107
7.1.2 Remedial Actions 109
7.2 Liquid Propellants 110
7.2.1 Properties of Liquid Propellants 110
7.2.2 Dimensioning of Liquid-Propelled Pigging Units 111
8 Control System 113
8.1 Components of the Control System 113
8.1.1 Sensors 114
8.1.2 Permanent Magnets and Magnet Sensors 116
8.1.3 Actuators 119
8.2 Operating Modes of the Sequence Control 120
8.2.1 Manual Operation 120
8.2.2 Enhanced Manual Operation 120
8.2.3 Touch-Controlled Operation 120
8.2.4 Automatic Operation 121
8.3 Examples of Sequence Control 121
8.3.1 Sequence Control of a One-Pig System 121
8.3.2 Sequence Control of a Two-Pig-System 128
8.3.3 Sequence Control of a Cleaning Procedure 134
III Applications 139
9 Decision Criteria for Pigging 141
9.1 General Criteria 141
9.1.1 Product – Infrastructure – Technology 141
9.1.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of the Products 142
9.2 Economic Criteria 143
9.2.1 Long Pipeline without Cleaning Procedures 144
9.2.2 Omission of Tracing 146
9.2.3 Multiproduct Pipe 148
9.2.4 Evaluation of the Examples 150
9.3 Quality Criteria 151
9.4 Environmental Criteria 151
10 Cleaning Degree after Pigging 153
10.1 Qualitative Classification 153
10.2 Precalculation for the Cleaning Degree 153
10.3 Concept 155
10.3.1 Inner Surface Roughness of Pipes and Valves 155
10.3.2 Welding Seams 157
10.3.3 Flange Connections 158
10.3.4 Dead Spaces 159
10.3.5 Residual Film of the Pigged Pipe 161
10.4 Exemplary Calculation for Residual Concentration in a Plant 166
10.5 Errors 169
11 Pig Wear 173
11.1 Fundamentals 173
11.2 Wear Characteristics and Service Life of Pigs 176
11.3 Minimum Permissible Pig Diameter 177
11.4 Wear Inspection 179
11.5 Operating Mode 180
12 Medium-Specific Characteristics 181
12.1 Introduction to Fluid Dynamics 181
12.2 Classification of Fluids with Examples 182
12.2.1 Viscosity Curves 183
12.2.2 Principles of Calculation 185
12.3 Examples and Applications 186
12.3.1 Newtonian Behavior 186
12.3.2 Non-Newtonian Behavior 187
13 Checks before Start-up 189
13.1 Checking Equipment 189
13.1.1 Piggable Pipes 189
13.1.2 Pigs 190
13.1.3 Additional Equipment 190
13.2 Function Checks 190
13.2.1 Test Pigging 190
13.2.2 Concentration Measurement 192
13.2.3 Test Pigging: a Practical Example 192
14 Experiences with Pigging Units 197
14.1 Experiences before Start-up 197
14.1.1 Decision-Making 197
14.1.2 Planning 198
14.1.3 Procurement 198
14.1.4 Installation 199
14.2 Experiences after Start-up 200
14.2.1 Equipment Defects 200
14.2.2 Malfunctions during Operation 201
14.2.3 Documentation of Rare Events 203
15 Applications in the Chemical Industry 205
15.1 Polymer Dispersions 205
15.1.1 Production Plant 205
15.1.2 Product Properties 205
15.1.3 Purpose of the Pigging Unit 206
15.1.4 Technical Data of the Pigging Lines 206
15.1.5 Description of the Function 208
15.2 Urea–Formaldehyde Resins 209
15.2.1 Production Plant 209
15.2.2 Product Properties 209
15.2.3 Purpose of Pigging 210
15.2.4 Technical Data of the Pigging Lines 210
15.2.5 Description of the Function 211
15.3 Dispersion Adhesives 213
15.3.1 Production Plant 213
15.3.2 Product Properties 214
15.3.3 Purpose of Pigging 214
15.3.4 Technical Data of the Pigging Lines 214
15.3.5 Description of the Function 215
15.4 Fragrances 216
15.4.1 Production Plant 216
15.4.2 Product Properties 217
15.4.3 Purpose of Pigging 217
15.4.4 Technical Data of the Pigging Line 217
15.4.5 Description of the Function 219
15.5 Raw Materials 220
15.5.1 Production Plant 220
15.5.2 Product Properties 220
15.5.3 Purpose of Pigging 221
15.5.4 Technical Data of the Pigging Line 221
15.5.5 Description of the Function 222
16 Pigging Units for Sterile Technology 225
16.1 Characteristics of Sterile Technology 225
16.2 Terms in Hygienic Design 227
16.3 Materials for Sterile Technology 229
16.4 Elements of Sterile Pigging Technology 230
16.4.1 Pigs 230
16.4.2 Pig Cleaning Stations 231
16.4.3 Pipelines 232
16.4.4 Pipe Joints 232
16.5 Example 234
17 Pipeline Pigging 237
17.1 Distinction from Industrial Pigging Units 237
17.2 Pipes and Fittings 240
17.2.1 Pipes 240
17.2.2 Tolerances 241
17.2.3 Fittings 243
17.3 Function of Pigs in Pipelines 244
17.4 Pigs for Pipelines 247
17.4.1 Mechanical Pigs 247
17.4.2 Smart Pigs 249
17.4.3 Gel Pigs 255
17.5 Pig Launchers and Receivers 255
18 Pigging of Pneumatic Conveying Lines for Bulk Materials 259
18.1 Pneumatic Conveying of Bulk Materials 259
18.2 Structure of Pneumatic Conveying Systems 260
18.2.1 Basic Structure of Pneumatic Conveying Systems 260
18.2.2 Structure of a Pigging System for Bulk Conveying Lines 265
18.3 Cleaning of Pneumatic Conveying Lines 267
18.3.1 Purging 267
18.3.2 Cleaning Pellets 267
18.3.3 Wet Cleaning 267
18.4 Pigs for Pneumatic Conveying Lines 268
18.4.1 Soft Pigs 268
18.4.2 Turbo Pig 269
18.4.3 Notch Pigs 270
18.4.4 Jet Pigs 271
IV Law and Regulation 273
19 Legal Requirements 275
19.1 Laws, Regulations, and Guidelines 275
19.2 Required Permissions and Examinations 276
19.2.1 Pressure Hazard 276
19.2.2 Ground Water Contamination 277
19.2.3 Explosion-Hazard Areas 278
20 Safety and Occupation Health 279
20.1 Kinetic Energy of the Pig 279
20.2 Energy of the Propellant 280
20.3 Definition of Explosion Hazard Terms 283
20.3.1 Ignitibility and Ignition Temperature 283
20.3.2 Explosion Protection of Environment and Off-Gas 284
20.3.3 Protection against Electrostatic Charging 285
20.3.4 Accident Prevention in Explosion-Hazard Plants 285
20.4 Ignition Hazard with Compressed Air as Propellant 286
20.4.1 Explosive Mixture Properties 286
20.4.2 Calculation of the Explosive Composition and Volumetric Concentration in
a Pipeline 287
20.4.3 Electrostatic Charge 291
20.4.4 Accident Prevention for Equipment 292
20.4.5 Remedial Measures for Hazardous Operating Conditions 293
20.5 Evaluation of Operation Safety and Explosion Hazard Classification 293
List of Chemical Resistances 301
Description of Material Codes 302
Properties of Solvents 324
Buyer’s Guide 325
Suppliers Names and Adresses 327
Index


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