كتاب Marine Structural Design
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Marine Structural Design

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
محمد محمد أحمد
مهندس فعال جدا جدا
مهندس فعال جدا جدا


عدد المساهمات : 656
التقييم : 700
تاريخ التسجيل : 14/11/2012
العمر : 24
الدولة : EGYPT
العمل : Student
الجامعة : Menoufia

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Marine Structural Design   السبت 20 يوليو 2013, 3:31 am

قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ
اقدم لكم كتاب
 Marine Structural Design
     المحتويات
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface   v
Part I: Structural Design Principles
CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION   3
Structural Design Principles   3
111  Introduction   3
112  Limit-State Design   4
12  Strength and Fatigue Analysis   5
121  Ultimate Strength Criteria   6
122  Design for Accidental Loads   7
123  Design for Fatigue   8
13  Structural Reliability Applications   10
131  Structural Reliability Concepts   10
132  Reliability-Based Calibration of Design Factor   12
133  Requalification of Existing Structures   12
14  Risk Assessment   13
141  Application of Risk Assessment   13
142  Risk-Based Inspection (RBI)   13
143  Human and Organization Factors   14
15  Layout of This Book   14
16  How to Use This Book   16
17  References   16
CHAPTER 2  WAVE LOADS FOR SHIP DESIGN AND CLASSIFICATION   19
21  Introduction   19
22  Ocean Waves and Wave Statistics   19
221  Basic Elements of Probability and Random Process   19
222  Statistical Representation of the Sea Surface   21
223  Ocean Wave Spectra   22
224  Moments of Spectral Density Function   24
225  Statistical Determination of Wave Heights and Periods   26
23  Ship Response to a Random Sea   26
231  Introduction   26
232  Wave-Induced Forces   28
233  Structural Response   29
234  Slamming and Green Water on Deck   30
Ship Design for Classification   32
241  Design Value of Ship Response   32
242  Design Loads per Classification Rules   33
25  References   35
CHAPTER 3  LOADS AND DYNAMIC RESPONSE FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES  39
31  General   39
11
24
viii  Contents
32  Environmental Conditions   39
321  Environmental Criteria   39
322  Regular Waves   41
323  Irregular Waves   41
324  Wave Scatter Diagram   42
33  Environmental Loads and Floating Structure Dynamics   45
331  Environmental Loads   45
332  Sea loads on Slender Structures   45
333  Sea loads on Large-Volume Structures   45
334  Floating Structure Dynamics   46
34  Structural Response Analysis   47
341  Structural Analysis   47
342  Response Amplitude Operator (RAO)   49
35  Extreme Values   53
351  General   53
352  Short-Term Extreme Approach   54
353  Long-Term Extreme Approach   58
354  Prediction of Most Probable Maximum Extreme for Non-Gaussian Process   61
36  Concluding Remarks   65
37  References   66
38  Appendix A  Elastic Vibrations of Beams   68
381  Vibration of A Springhiass System   68
382  Elastic Vibration of Beams   69
CHAPTER 4  SCANTLING OF SHIP'S HULLS BY RULES   71
41  General   71
42  Basic Concepts of Stability and Strength of Ships   71
421  Stability   71
422  Strength   73
423  Corrosion Allowance   75
43  Initial Scantling Criteria for Longitudinal Strength   76
431  Introduction   76
432  Hull Girder Strength   77
44  Initial Scantling Criteria for Transverse Strength   79
441  Introduction   79
442  Transverse Strength   79
45  Initial Scantling Criteria for Local Strength   79
451  Local Bending of Beams   79
452  Local Bending Strength of Plates   82
453  Structure Design of Bulkheads, Decks, and Bottom   83
454  Buckling of Platings   83
455  Buckling of Profiles   85
46  References   87
CHAPTER 5  SHIP HULL SCANTLING DESIGN BY ANALYSIS   89
51  General   89
52  Design Loads   89
53  Strength Analysis using Finite Element Methods   91
531  Modeling   91
532  Boundary Conditions   93
533  Type of Elements   94
54  Fatigue Damage Evaluation   95
534  Post-Processing   94
Contents  ir
55  References   97
CHAPTER 6  OFFSHORE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS   99
6 I  Introduction   99
61  1  General   99
612  Design Codes   99
613  Government Requirements   100
614  CertificatiodClassification Authorities   100
615  Codes and Standards   101
616  Other Technical Documents   102
62  Project Planning   102
621  General   102
622  Design Basis   103
623  Design Brief   105
63  Use of Finite Element Analysis   105
631  Introduction   105
632  Stiffness Matrix for 2D Beam Elements   107
633  Stifmess Matrix for 3D Beam Elements   109
64  Design Loads and Load Application   112
65  Structural Modeling   114
651  General   114
652  Jacket Structures   114
653  Floating Production and Offloading Systems (FPSO)   116
654  TLP, Spar and Semi-submersible   123
66  References   125
CHAPTER 7  LIMIT-STATE DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES   127
71  Limit State Design   127
72  Ultimate Limit State Design   128
721  Ductility and Brittle Fracture Avoidance   128
722  Plated Structures   129
723  Shell Structures   130
731  Introduction   134
733  Fatigue Design   137
74  References   138
73  Fatigue Limit State Design   134
732  Fatigue Analysis   135
Part 11: Ultimate Strength
CHAPTER 8  BUCKLINGKOLLAPSE OF COLUMNS AND BEAM-COLUMNS  141
Buckling Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Columns   141
811  Buckling Behavior   141
812  Peny-Robertson Formula   143
813  Johnson-Ostenfeld Formula   144
82  Buckling Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Beam-Columns   145
821  Beam-Column with Eccentric Load   145
822  Beam-Column with Initial Deflection and Eccentric Load   146
823  Ultimate Strength of Beam-Columns   147
824
831
81
Alternative Ultimate Strength Equation - Initial Yielding   148
Plastic Design of Beam-Columns   148
Plastic Bending of Beam Cross-section   148
83
X  Contents
832
833
841
842
Plastic Hinge Load   150
Plastic Interaction Under Combined Axial Force and Bending   150
84  Examples   151
Example 81:  Elastic Buckling of Columns with Alternative Boundaty Conditions  151
Example 82 Two Types of Ultimate Strength Buckling vs  Fracture   153
85  References   154
CHAPTER9  BUCKLING ANDLOCALBUCKLINGOFTUBULARMEMBERS  155
91  Introduction   155
911  General   155
912  Safety Factors for Offshore Strength Assessment   156
921  Test Specimens   156
922  Material Tests   158
923  Buckling Test Procedures   163
924  Test Results   163
Theory of Analysis   169
931  Simplified Elasto-Plastic Large Deflection Analysis   169
932  Idealized Structural Unit Analysis   180
94  Calculation Results   186
941  Simplified Elasto-Plastic Large Deflection Analysis   186
942  Idealized Structural Unit Method Analysis   190
92  Experiments   156
93
95  Conclusions   194
96  Example   195
97  References   196
CHAPTER 10 ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF PLATES AND STIFFENED PLATES  199
101  Introduction   199
1011  General   199
1012  Solution of Differential Equation   200
1013  Boundary Conditions   202
1015  Correction for Plasticity   204
102  Combined Loads   205
1021  Buckling - Serviceability Limit State   205
1022  Ultimate Strength - Ultimate Limit State   206
103  Buckling Strength of Plates   207
104  Ultimate Strength of Un-Stiffened Plates   208
1041  Long Plates and Wide Plates   208
1042  Plates Under Lateral Pressure   209
1043  Shear Strength   209
1044  Combined Loads   209
105  Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Panels   209
1051  Beam-Column Buckling   209
1052  Tripping of Stiffeners   210
106  Gross Buckling of Stiffened Panels (Overall Grillage Buckling)   210
107  References   210
CHAPTER 11 ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS   213
1 11  Introduction   213
1111  General   213
1112  Buckling Failure Modes   214
112  Elastic Buckling of Unstiffened Cylindrical Shells   215
1014  Fabrication Related Imperfections and In-Service Structural Degradation   202
Contents  xi
1121  Equilibrium Equations for Cylindrical Shells   215
1122  Axial Compression   216
1123  Bending   217
1124  External Lateral Pressure   218
113  Buckling of Ring Stiffened Shells   219
1 131  Axial Compression   219
1132  Hydrostatic Pressure   220
1133  Combined Axial Compression and Pressure   221
114 Buckling of Stringer and Ring Stiffened Shells   221
1 141  Axial Compression   221
1 142  Radial Pressure   223
1143  Axial Compression and Radial Pressure   223
1 15  References   224
CHAPTER 12 A THEORY OF NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS   227
121  General   227
122  Elastic Beam-Column With Large Displacements   228
123 The Plastic Node Method   229
1231  History of the Plastic Node Method   229
1232  Consistency Condition and Hardening Rates for Beam Cross-Sections   230
1233  Plastic Displacement and Strain at Nodes   233
124  Transformation Matrix   236
125  Appendix A:  Stress-Based Plasticity Constitutive Equations   237
1251  General   237
1252  Relationship Between Stress and Strain in Elastic Region   239
1253  Yield Criterion   240
1254  Plastic Strain Increment   242
1255  Stress Increment - Strain Increment Relation in Plastic Region   246
126 Appendix B:  Deformation Matrix   247
127 References   248
CHAPTER 13 COLLAPSE ANALYSIS OF SHIP HULLS   251
131 Introduction   251
132  Hull Structural Analysis Based on the Plastic Node Method   252
1321  Beam-Column Element   252
1323  Shear Panel Element   257
1324  Non-Linear  Spring Element   257
1325  Tension Tearing Rupture   257
133  Analytical Equations for Hull Girder Ultimate Strength   260
1331  Ultimate Moment Capacity Based on Elastic Section Modulus   260
1332  Ultimate Moment Capacity Based on Fully Plastic Moment   261
1234  Elastic-Plastic Stiffness Equation for Elements   235
1322  Attached Plating Element   254
1326  Computational Procedures   259
1333  Proposed Ultimate Strength Equations   263
134  Modified  Smith Method Accounting for Corrosion and Fatigue Defects   264
1341  Tensile and Comer Elements   265
1342  Compressive Stiffened Panels   265
1343  Crack Propagation Prediction   266
1344  Corrosion Rate Model   267
135  Comparisons of Hull Girder Strength Equations and Smith Method   269
136  Numerical  Examples Using the Proposed Plastic Node Method   271
1361  Collapse of a Stiffened Plate   271
xii  Contents
1362  Collapse of an Upper Deck Structure   273
1363  Collapse of Stiffened Box Girders   274
1364  Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Hull Girders   276
1365  Quasi-Static Analysis of a Side Collision   278
137  Conclusions   279
138  References   280
CHAPTER 14 OFFSHORE STRUCTURES UNDER IMPACT LOADS   285
141  General   285
142  Finite Element Formulation   286
1421  Equations of Motion   286
1423  Beam-Column Element for Modeling of the Struck Structure   287
1424  Computational Procedure   287
143  Collision Mechanics   289
1431  Fundamental Principles   289
1432  Conservation of Momentum   289
1433  Conservation of Energy   290
144  Examples   291
1441  Mathematical Equations for Impact Forces and Energies in ShiplPlafform Collisions  29 1
1442  Basic Numerical Examples   292
1443  Application to Practical Collision Problems   298
145  Conclusions   303
146  References   303
CHAPTER 15 OFFSHORE STRUCTURES UNDER EARTHQUAKE LOADS   305
151  General   305
152  Earthquake Design as per API RP2A   305
153  Equations and Motion   307
1531  Equation of Motion   307
1532  Nonlinear Finite Element Model   308
1533  Analysis Procedure   308
154  Numerical Examples   308
155  Conclusions   313
156  References   314
1422  Load-Displacement Relationship ofthe Hit Member   286
Part 111: Fatigue and Fracture
CHAPTER 16 MECHANISM OF FATIGUE AND FRACTURE   317
161  Introduction   317
162  Fatigue Overview   317
163  Stress-Controlled Fatigue   318
164  Cumulative Damage for Variable Amplitude Loading   320
165  Strain-Controlled Fatigue   321
166  Fracture Mechanics in Fatigue Analysis   323
167  Examples   325
168  References   326
CHAPTER 17 FATIGUE CAPACITY    329
171  S-N Curves   329
1711  General   329
1712  Effect of Plate Thickness   33 1
Contents  xiii
1713  Effect of Seawater and Corrosion Protection   331
1714  Effect of Mean Stress   331
1715  Comparisons of S-N Curves in Design Standards   332
1716  Fatigue Strength Improvement   335
1717  Experimental S-N Curves   335
172 Estimation of the Stress Range   336
1721  Nominal Stress Approach   336
1722  Hotspot Stress Approach   337
1723  Notch Stress Approach   339
173  Stress Concentration Factors   339
1731  Definition of Stress Concentration Factors   339
1732  Determination of SCF by Experimental Measurement   340
1733  Parametric Equations for Stress Concentration Factors   340
1734  Hot-Spot Stress Calculation Based on Finite Element Analysis   341
174  Examples   343
1741  Example 171: Fatigue Damage Calculation   343
175  References   344
CHAPTER 18 FATIGUE LOADING AND STRESSES   347
181  Introduction   347
182  Fatigue Loading for Ocean-Going Ships   348
183 Fatigue Stresses   350
1832  Long Term Fatigue Stress Based on Weibull Distribution   350
1831  General   350
1833  Long Term Stress Distribution Based on Deterministic Approach   351
1834  Long Term Stress Distribution - Spectral Approach   352
184 Fatigue Loading Defined Using Scatter Diagrams   354
1842  Mooring and Riser Induced Damping in Fatigue Seastates   354
185  Fatigue Load Combinations   355
1853  Fatigue Load Combinations for Offshore Structures   356
187  Concluding Remarks   361
188  References   361
CHAPTER 19 SIMPLIFIED FATIGUE ASSESSMENT   363
191 introduction   363
193 Simplified Fatigue Assessment   365
1931  Calculation of Accumulated Damage   365
1932  Weibull Stress Distribution Parameters   366
194  Simplified Fatigue Assessment for Bilinear S-N Curves   366
195 Allowable Stress Range   367
196  Design Criteria for Connections Around Cutout Openings   367
1961  General   367
1962  Stress Criteria for Collar Plate Design   368
197  Examples   370
198 References   371
201  Introduction   373
1841  General   354
1851  General   355
1852  Fatigue Load Combinations for Ship Structures   355
186  Examples   357
192 Deterministic Fatigue Analysis   364
CHAPTER 20 SPECTRAL FATIGUE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN   373
xiv  Contents
2011  General   373
2012  Terminology   374
202  Spectral Fatigue Analysis   374
2021  Fatigue Damage Acceptance Criteria   374
2022  Fatigue Damage Calculated Using Frequency Domain Solution   374
2032  Analysis Methodology for TimeDomain Fatigue of Pipelines   377
2033  Analysis Methodology for Time-Domain Fatigue of Risers   378
2034  Analysis Methodology for Time-Domain Fatigue of Nonlinear Ship Response  378
2041  Overall Structural Analysis   379
2042  Local Structural Analysis   381
203  Time-Domain Fatigue Assessment   377
2031  Application   377
204  Structural Analysis   379
205  Fatigue Analysis and Design   381
2051  Overall Design   381
2052  Stress Range Analysis   382
2053  Spectral Fatigue Parameters   382
2054  Fatigue Damage Assessment   387
2055  Fatigue Analysis and Design Checklist   388
2056  Drawing Verification   389
206  Classification Society Interface   389
2061  Submittal and Approval of Design Brief   389
2062  Submittal and Approval of Task Report   389
2063  Incorporation of Comments from Classification Society   389
207  References   389
CHAPTER 21 APPLICATION OF FRACTURE MECHANICS   391
211  Introduction   391
2111  General   391
2112  Fracture Mechanics Design Check   391
212  Level 1: The CTOD Design Curve   392
2121  The Empirical Equations   392
2122  The British Welding Institute (CTOD Design Curve)   393
213  Level 2: The CEGB R6 Diagram   394
214  Level 3: The Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD)   395
215  Fatigue Damage Estimation Based on Fracture Mechanics   396
2151  Crack Growth Due to Constant Amplitude Loading   396
2152  Crack Growth due to Variable Amplitude Loading   397
216  Comparison of Fracture Mechanics & S-N Curve Approaches for Fatigue Assessment  397
217  Fracture Mechanics Applied in Aerospace, Power Generation Industries   398
2 18  Examples   399
219  References   399
CHAPTER 22 MATERIAL SELECTIONS AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE CRITERIA  401
221  Introduction   401
222  Material Selections and Fracture Prevention   401
2221  Material Selection   401
2222  Higher Strength Steel   402
2223  Prevention of Fracture   402
223  Weld Improvement and Repair   403
2231  General   403
2232  Fatigue-Resistant Details   403
2233  Weld Improvement   404
Contents  xv
2234  Modification of Residual Stress Distribution   405
2235  Discussions   405
224  Damage Tolerance Criteria   406
2241  General   406
2242  Residual Strength Assessment Using Failure Assessment Diagram   406
2243  Residual Life Prediction Using Paris Law   407
2244  Discussions   407
225  Non-Destructive Inspection   407
226  References   408
Part IV: Structural Reliability
CHAPTER 23 BASICS OF STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY   413
231  Introduction   413
232  Uncertainty and Uncertainty Modeling   413
2321  General   413
2322  Natural vs  Modeling Uncertainties   414
233  Basic Concepts   415
2331  General   415
2332  Limit State and Failure Mode   415
2333  Calculation of Structural Reliability   415
2334  Calculation by FORM   419
2335  Calculation by SOW   420
235  System Reliability Analysis   421
2351  General   421
2352  Series System Reliability   421
2353  Parallel System Reliability   421
236  Combination of Statistical Loads   422
2361  General   422
2362  Turkstra’s Rule   423
237  Time-Variant Reliability   424
238  Reliability Updating   425
239  Target Probability   426
2391  General   426
2392  Target Probability   426
2393  Recommended Target Safety Indices for Ship Structures   427
Software for Reliability Calculations   427
234  Component Reliability   421
2363  Feny Borges-Castanheta Model   423
2310
231 1  Numerical Examples   427
Example 231 : Safety Index Calculation of a Ship Hull   427
Example 232:  p Safety Index Method   428
Example 233: Reliability Calculation of Series System   429
Example 234: Reliability Calculation of Parallel System   430
2312  References   431
CHAPTER 24 RANDOM VARIABLES AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS   433
231 11
231 12
231 13
231 I  4
241  Introduction   433
242  Random Variables   433
2421  General   433
2423  Probabilistic Distributions   434
2422  Statistical Descriptions   433
mi  Contents
243  Uncertainty Analysis   436
2431  Uncertainty Classification   436
2432  Uncertainty Modeling   437
245  Uncertainty in Ship Structural Design   438
244  Selection of Distribution Functions   438
2451  General   438
2452  Uncertainties in Loads Acting on Ships   439
2453  Uncertainties in Ship Structural Capacity   440
246  References   441
CHAPTER 25 RELIABILITY OF SHIP STRUCTURES   443
251  General   443
252  Closed Form Method for Hull Girder Reliability   444
253  Load Effects and Load Combination   445
254  Procedure for Reliability Analysis of Ship Structures   448
2541  General   448
2542  Response Surface Method   448
255  Time-Variant Reliability Assessment of FPSO Hull Girders   450
2551  Load Combination Factors   452
2552  Time-Variant Reliability Assessment   454
2553  Conclusions   459
256  References   459
CHAPTER 26 RELIABILITY-BASED DESIGN AND CODE CALIBRATION   463
261  General   463
262  General Design Principles   463
2621  Concept of Safety Factors   463
2622  Allowable Stress Design   463
2623  Load and Resistance Factored Design   464
2624  Plastic Design   465
2625  Limit State Design (LSD)   465
2626  Life Cycle Cost Design   465
263  Reliability-Based Design   466
2631  General   466
2632  Application of Reliability Methods to ASD Format   467
264  Reliability-Based Code Calibrations   468
2641  General   468
2642  Code Calibration Principles   468
2643  Code Calibration Procedure   469
2644  Simple Example of Code Calibration   469
265  Numerical Example for Tubular Structure   471
2651  Case Description   471
2652  Design Equations   471
2653  Limit State Function (LSF)   472
2654  Uncertainty Modeling   473
2655  Target Safely Levels   474
2656  Calibration of Safety Factors   475
266  Numerical Example for Hull Girder Collapse of FPSOs   476
267  References   479
CHAPTER 27 FATIGUE RELIABILITY   481
271  Introduction   481
272  Uncertainty in Fatigue Stress Model   481
Contents  xvii
272 I  Stress Modeling   481
2722  Stress Modeling Error   482
273  Fatigue Reliability Models   483
2731  Introduction   483
2732  Fatigue Reliability - S-N Approach   484
2733  Fatigue Reliability - Fracture Mechanics (FM) Approach   484
2734  Simplified Fatigue Reliability Model - Lognormal Format   487
274  Calibration of FM Model by S-N Approach   488
275  Fatigue Reliability Application  Fatigue Safety Check   489
2751  Target Safety Index for Fatigue   489
2752  Partial Safety Factors   489
276  Numerical Examples   490
2761  Example 271 : Fatigue Reliability Based on Simple S-N Approach   490
2762  Example 272:  Fatigue Reliability of Large Aluminum Catamaran   491
277  References   496
CHAPTER 28 PROBABILITY AND RISK BASED INSPECTION PLANNING   497
281  Introduction   497
282  Concepts for Risk Based Inspection Planning   497
283  Reliability Updating Theory for Probability-Based Inspection Planning   500
284  Risk Based Inspection Examples   502
285  Risk Based 'Optimum'  Inspection   506
286  References   512
2831  General   500
2832  Inspection Planning for Fatigue Damage   500
Part V: Risk Assessment
CHAPTER 29 RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY   515
291  Introduction   515
2911  Health, Safety and Environment Protection   515
2912  Overview of Risk Assessment   515
2913  Planning of Risk Analysis   516
2914  System Description   517
2915  Hazard Identification   517
2916  Analysis of Causes and Frequency of Initiating Events   518
2917  Consequence and Escalation Analysis   518
2918  Risk Estimation   519
2919  Risk Reducing Measures   519
29110  Emergency Preparedness   520
2911 1  Time-Variant Risk   520
292  Risk Estimation   520
2921  Risk to Personnel   520
2922  Risk to Environment   522
2923  Risk to Assets (Material Damage and Production LossDelay)   522
293  Risk Acceptance Criteria   522
2931  General   522
2932  Risk Matrices   523
2933  ALARP-Principle   524
2934  Comparison Criteria   525
294  Using Risk Assessment to Determine Performance Standard   525
2941  General   525
xviii  Contents
2942 Risk-Based Fatigue Criteria for Critical Weld Details   526
2943 Risk-Based Compliance Process for Engineering Systems   526
295 References   527
CHAPTER 30 RISK ASSESSMENT APPLIED TO OFFSHORE STRUCTURES  529
301 Introduction   529
302 Collision Risk   530
3021 Colliding Vessel Categories   530
3022 Collision Frequency   530
3023 Collision Consequence   532
3024 Collision Risk Reduction   533
303 Explosion Risk   533
3032 Explosion Load Assessment   535
3033 Explosion Consequence   535
3034 Explosion Risk Reduction   536
304 Fire Risk   538
3041 Fire Frequency   538
3042 Fire Load and Consequence Assessment   539
3043 Fire Risk Reduction   540
3044 Guidance on Fire and Explosion Design   541
305 Dropped Objects   541
3051 Frequency of Dropped Object Impact   541
3052 Drop Object Impact Load Assessment   543
3053 Consequence of Dropped Object Impact   544
3061 General   545
3062 Hazard Identification   546
3063 Risk Acceptance Criteria   547
3064 Risk Estimation and Reducing Measures   548
3065 Comparative Risk Analysis   550
3066 Risk Based Inspection   551
307 Environmental Impact Assessment   552
308 References   553
CHAPTER 31 FORMAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT APPLIED TO SHIPPING INDUSTRY  555
3 11 Introduction   555
312 Overview of Formal Safety Assessment   556
3 13 Functional Components of Formal Safety Assessment   557
3 131 System Definition   557
3132 Hazard Identification   559
3 133 Frequency Analysis of Ship Accidents   562
3134 Consequence of Ship Accidents   563
3135 Risk Evaluation   564
3 136 Risk Control and Cost-Benefit Analysis   564
3 14 Human and Organizational Factors in FSA   565
315 An Example Application to Ship's Fuel Systems   565
316 Concerns Regarding the Use of FSA in Shipping   566
317  References   567
CHAPTER 32 ECONOMIC RISK ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD DEVELOPMENT  569
321 Introduction   569
3211 Field Development Phases   569
3031  Explosion Frequency   534
306  Case Study - Risk Assessment of Floating Production Systems   545
Contents  XiX
3212  Background of Economic Evaluation   570
3213  Quantitative Economic Risk Assessment   570
322  Decision Criteria and Limit State Functions   571
3221  Decision and Decision Criteria   571
3222  Limit State Functions 
323  Economic Risk Modeling   572
3231  Cost Variable Modeling   572
3232  Income Variable Modeling   573
3233  Failure Probability Calculation 
324  Results Evaluation 
3241 Importance and Omission Factors 
3243  Contingency Factors 
 575
 575
 576
325  References   576
CHAPTER 33 HUMAN RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT   579
331  Introduction   579
332  Human Error Identification   580
3321  Problem Definition   580
3322  Task Analysis   580
3323  Human Error Identification   581
3324 Representation   582
333  Human Error Analysis   582
3331  Human Error Quantification   582
3332  Impact Assessment   582
334  Human Error Reduction   583
3341  Error Reduction   583
3342  Documentation and Quality Assurance   583
335  Ergonomics Applied to Design of Marine Systems   583
336  Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QNQC)   584
337  Human & Organizational Factors in Offshore Structures   585
3371  General   585
3372  Reducing Human & Organizational Errors in Design   586
CHAPTER 34 RISK CENTERED MAINTENANCE   589
341  Introduction   589
341  1  General   589
3412  Application   590
3413  RCM History   591
342  Preliminary Risk Analysis (PRA)   592
3421  Purpose   592
3422  PRA Procedure   592
343  RCM Process   594
3431 Introduction     594
3432 RCM Analysis Procedures   594
3433  Risk-Centered Maintenance (Risk-CM)   601
3434  RCM Process - Continuous Improvement of Maintenance Strategy   602
344  References   602
SUBJECT INDEX   603
JOURNAL AND CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FREQUENTLY CITED

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