كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Sixth Edition - صفحة 2
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 كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Sixth Edition

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
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مدير المنتدى


عدد المساهمات : 14261
التقييم : 22948
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 28
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Sixth Edition   الأحد 30 يونيو 2013, 1:15 am

تذكير بمساهمة فاتح الموضوع :

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering 6th ed
- Science, process, applications
Sixth Edition
R. E. Smallman, CBE, DSc, FRS, FREng, FIM
R. J. Bishop, PhD, CEng, MIM




ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

1 The structure and bonding of atoms 1
1.1 The realm of materials science 1
1.2 The free atom 2
1.2.1 The four electron quantum
numbers 2
1.2.2 Nomenclature for electronic
states 3
1.3 The Periodic Table 4
1.4 Interatomic bonding in materials 7
1.5 Bonding and energy levels 9
2 Atomic arrangements in materials 11
2.1 The concept of ordering 11
2.2 Crystal lattices and structures 12
2.3 Crystal directions and planes 13
2.4 Stereographic projection 16
2.5 Selected crystal structures 18
2.5.1 Pure metals 18
2.5.2 Diamond and graphite 21
2.5.3 Coordination in ionic crystals 22
2.5.4 AB-type compounds 24
2.5.5 Silica 24
2.5.6 Alumina 26
2.5.7 Complex oxides 26
2.5.8 Silicates 27
2.6 Inorganic glasses 30
2.6.1 Network structures in glasses 30
2.6.2 Classification of constituent
oxides 31
2.7 Polymeric structures 32
2.7.1 Thermoplastics 32
2.7.2 Elastomers 35
2.7.3 Thermosets 36
2.7.4 Crystallinity in polymers 38
3 Structural phases; their formation and
transitions 42
3.1 Crystallization from the melt 42
3.1.1 Freezing of a pure metal 42
3.1.2 Plane-front and dendritic
solidification at a cooled
surface 43
3.1.3 Forms of cast structure 44
3.1.4 Gas porosity and segregation 45
3.1.5 Directional solidification 46
3.1.6 Production of metallic single crystals
for research 47
3.2 Principles and applications of phase
diagrams 48
3.2.1 The concept of a phase 48
3.2.2 The Phase Rule 48
3.2.3 Stability of phases 49
3.2.4 Two-phase equilibria 52
3.2.5 Three-phase equilibria and
reactions 56
3.2.6 Intermediate phases 58
3.2.7 Limitations of phase diagrams 59
3.2.8 Some key phase diagrams 60
3.2.9 Ternary phase diagrams 64
3.3 Principles of alloy theory 73
3.3.1 Primary substitutional solid
solutions 73
3.3.2 Interstitial solid solutions 76
3.3.3 Types of intermediate phases 76
3.3.4 Order-disorder phenomena 79
3.4 The mechanism of phase changes 80
3.4.1 Kinetic considerations 80
3.4.2 Homogeneous nucleation 81
3.4.3 Heterogeneous nucleation 82
3.4.4 Nucleation in solids 82
4 Defects in solids 84
4.1 Types of imperfection 84
vi Contents
4.2 Point defects 84
4.2.1 Point defects in metals 84
4.2.2 Point defects in non-metallic
crystals 86
4.2.3 Irradiation of solids 87
4.2.4 Point defect concentration and
annealing 89
4.3 Line defects 90
4.3.1 Concept of a dislocation 90
4.3.2 Edge and screw dislocations 91
4.3.3 The Burgers vector 91
4.3.4 Mechanisms of slip and climb 92
4.3.5 Strain energy associated with
dislocations 95
4.3.6 Dislocations in ionic structures 97
4.4 Planar defects 97
4.4.1 Grain boundaries 97
4.4.2 Twin boundaries 98
4.4.3 Extended dislocations and stacking
faults in close-packed crystals 99
4.5 Volume defects 104
4.5.1 Void formation and annealing 104
4.5.2 Irradiation and voiding 104
4.5.3 Voiding and fracture 104
4.6 Defect behaviour in some real
materials 105
4.6.1 Dislocation vector diagrams and the
Thompson tetrahedron 105
4.6.2 Dislocations and stacking faults in
fcc structures 106
4.6.3 Dislocations and stacking faults in
cph structures 108
4.6.4 Dislocations and stacking faults in
bcc structures 112
4.6.5 Dislocations and stacking faults in
ordered structures 113
4.6.6 Dislocations and stacking faults in
ceramics 115
4.6.7 Defects in crystalline
polymers 116
4.6.8 Defects in glasses 117
4.7 Stability of defects 117
4.7.1 Dislocation loops 117
4.7.2 Voids 119
4.7.3 Nuclear irradiation effects 119
5 The characterization of materials 125
5.1 Tools of characterization 125
5.2 Light microscopy 126
5.2.1 Basic principles 126
5.2.2 Selected microscopical
techniques 127
5.3 X-ray diffraction analysis 133
5.3.1 Production and absorption of
X-rays 133
5.3.2 Diffraction of X-rays by
crystals 134
5.3.3 X-ray diffraction methods 135
5.3.4 Typical interpretative procedures for
diffraction patterns 138
5.4 Analytical electron microscopy 142
5.4.1 Interaction of an electron beam with
a solid 142
5.4.2 The transmission electron
microscope (TEM) 143
5.4.3 The scanning electron
microscope 144
5.4.4 Theoretical aspects of TEM 146
5.4.5 Chemical microanalysis 150
5.4.6 Electron energy loss spectroscopy
(EELS) 152
5.4.7 Auger electron spectroscopy
(AES) 154
5.5 Observation of defects 154
5.5.1 Etch pitting 154
5.5.2 Dislocation decoration 155
5.5.3 Dislocation strain contrast in
TEM 155
5.5.4 Contrast from crystals 157
5.5.5 Imaging of dislocations 157
5.5.6 Imaging of stacking faults 158
5.5.7 Application of dynamical
theory 158
5.5.8 Weak-beam microscopy 160
5.6 Specialized bombardment techniques 161
5.6.1 Neutron diffraction 161
5.6.2 Synchrotron radiation studies 162
5.6.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry
(SIMS) 163
5.7 Thermal analysis 164
5.7.1 General capabilities of thermal
analysis 164
5.7.2 Thermogravimetric analysis 164
5.7.3 Differential thermal analysis 165
5.7.4 Differential scanning
calorimetry 165
6 The physical properties of materials 168
6.1 Introduction 168
6.2 Density 168
6.3 Thermal properties 168
6.3.1 Thermal expansion 168
6.3.2 Specific heat capacity 170
6.3.3 The specific heat curve and
transformations 171
6.3.4 Free energy of transformation 171
6.4 Diffusion 172
6.4.1 Diffusion laws 172
6.4.2 Mechanisms of diffusion 174
6.4.3 Factors affecting diffusion 175
6.5 Anelasticity and internal friction 176
6.6 Ordering in alloys 177
6.6.1 Long-range and short-range
order 177
Contents vii
6.6.2 Detection of ordering 178
6.6.3 Influence of ordering upon
properties 179
6.7 Electrical properties 181
6.7.1 Electrical conductivity 181
6.7.2 Semiconductors 183
6.7.3 Superconductivity 185
6.7.4 Oxide superconductors 187
6.8 Magnetic properties 188
6.8.1 Magnetic susceptibility 188
6.8.2 Diamagnetism and
paramagnetism 189
6.8.3 Ferromagnetism 189
6.8.4 Magnetic alloys 191
6.8.5 Anti-ferromagnetism and
ferrimagnetism 192
6.9 Dielectric materials 193
6.9.1 Polarization 193
6.9.2 Capacitors and insulators 193
6.9.3 Piezoelectric materials 194
6.9.4 Pyroelectric and ferroelectric
materials 194
6.10 Optical properties 195
6.10.1 Reflection, absorption and
transmission effects 195
6.10.2 Optical fibres 195
6.10.3 Lasers 195
6.10.4 Ceramic ‘windows’ 196
6.10.5 Electro-optic ceramics 196
7 Mechanical behaviour of materials 197
7.1 Mechanical testing procedures 197
7.1.1 Introduction 197
7.1.2 The tensile test 197
7.1.3 Indentation hardness testing 199
7.1.4 Impact testing 199
7.1.5 Creep testing 199
7.1.6 Fatigue testing 200
7.1.7 Testing of ceramics 200
7.2 Elastic deformation 201
7.2.1 Elastic deformation of metals 201
7.2.2 Elastic deformation of
ceramics 203
7.3 Plastic deformation 203
7.3.1 Slip and twinning 203
7.3.2 Resolved shear stress 203
7.3.3 Relation of slip to crystal
structure 204
7.3.4 Law of critical resolved shear
stress 205
7.3.5 Multiple slip 205
7.3.6 Relation between work-hardening
and slip 206
7.4 Dislocation behaviour during plastic
deformation 207
7.4.1 Dislocation mobility 207
7.4.2 Variation of yield stress with
temperature and strain rate 208
7.4.3 Dislocation source operation 209
7.4.4 Discontinuous yielding 211
7.4.5 Yield points and crystal
structure 212
7.4.6 Discontinuous yielding in ordered
alloys 214
7.4.7 Solute–dislocation interaction 214
7.4.8 Dislocation locking and
temperature 216
7.4.9 Inhomogeneity interaction 217
7.4.10 Kinetics of strain-ageing 217
7.4.11 Influence of grain boundaries on
plasticity 218
7.4.12 Superplasticity 220
7.5 Mechanical twinning 221
7.5.1 Crystallography of twinning 221
7.5.2 Nucleation and growth of
twins 222
7.5.3 Effect of impurities on
twinning 223
7.5.4 Effect of prestrain on twinning 223
7.5.5 Dislocation mechanism of
twinning 223
7.5.6 Twinning and fracture 224
7.6 Strengthening and hardening
mechanisms 224
7.6.1 Point defect hardening 224
7.6.2 Work-hardening 226
7.6.3 Development of preferred
orientation 232
7.7 Macroscopic plasticity 235
7.7.1 Tresca and von Mises criteria 235
7.7.2 Effective stress and strain 236
7.8 Annealing 237
7.8.1 General effects of annealing 237
7.8.2 Recovery 237
7.8.3 Recrystallization 239
7.8.4 Grain growth 242
7.8.5 Annealing twins 243
7.8.6 Recrystallization textures 245
7.9 Metallic creep 245
7.9.1 Transient and steady-state
creep 245
7.9.2 Grain boundary contribution to
creep 247
7.9.3 Tertiary creep and fracture 249
7.9.4 Creep-resistant alloy design 249
7.10 Deformation mechanism maps 251
7.11 Metallic fatigue 252
7.11.1 Nature of fatigue failure 252
7.11.2 Engineering aspects of fatigue 252
7.11.3 Structural changes accompanying
fatigue 254
7.11.4 Crack formation and fatigue
failure 256
viii Contents
7.11.5 Fatigue at elevated
temperatures 258
8 Strengthening and toughening 259
8.1 Introduction 259
8.2 Strengthening of non-ferrous alloys by
heat-treatment 259
8.2.1 Precipitation-hardening of Al–Cu
alloys 259
8.2.2 Precipitation-hardening of Al–Ag
alloys 263
8.2.3 Mechanisms of
precipitation-hardening 265
8.2.4 Vacancies and precipitation 268
8.2.5 Duplex ageing 271
8.2.6 Particle-coarsening 272
8.2.7 Spinodal decomposition 273
8.3 Strengthening of steels by
heat-treatment 274
8.3.1 Time–temperature–transformation
diagrams 274
8.3.2 Austenite–pearlite
transformation 276
8.3.3 Austenite–martensite
transformation 278
8.3.4 Austenite–bainite
transformation 282
8.3.5 Tempering of martensite 282
8.3.6 Thermo-mechanical
treatments 283
8.4 Fracture and toughness 284
8.4.1 Griffith micro-crack criterion 284
8.4.2 Fracture toughness 285
8.4.3 Cleavage and the ductile–brittle
transition 288
8.4.4 Factors affecting brittleness of
steels 289
8.4.5 Hydrogen embrittlement of
steels 291
8.4.6 Intergranular fracture 291
8.4.7 Ductile failure 292
8.4.8 Rupture 293
8.4.9 Voiding and fracture at elevated
temperatures 293
8.4.10 Fracture mechanism maps 294
8.4.11 Crack growth under fatigue
conditions 295
9 Modern alloy developments 297
9.1 Introduction 297
9.2 Commercial steels 297
9.2.1 Plain carbon steels 297
9.2.2 Alloy steels 298
9.2.3 Maraging steels 299
9.2.4 High-strength low-alloy (HSLA)
steels 299
9.2.5 Dual-phase (DP) steels 300
9.2.6 Mechanically alloyed (MA)
steels 301
9.2.7 Designation of steels 302
9.3 Cast irons 303
9.4 Superalloys 305
9.4.1 Basic alloying features 305
9.4.2 Nickel-based superalloy
development 306
9.4.3 Dispersion-hardened
superalloys 307
9.5 Titanium alloys 308
9.5.1 Basic alloying and heat-treatment
features 308
9.5.2 Commercial titanium alloys 310
9.5.3 Processing of titanium alloys 312
9.6 Structural intermetallic compounds 312
9.6.1 General properties of intermetallic
compounds 312
9.6.2 Nickel aluminides 312
9.6.3 Titanium aluminides 314
9.6.4 Other intermetallic compounds 315
9.7 Aluminium alloys 316
9.7.1 Designation of aluminium
alloys 316
9.7.2 Applications of aluminium
alloys 316
9.7.3 Aluminium-lithium alloys 317
9.7.4 Processing developments 317
10 Ceramics and glasses 320
10.1 Classification of ceramics 320
10.2 General properties of ceramics 321
10.3 Production of ceramic powders 322
10.4 Selected engineering ceramics 323
10.4.1 Alumina 323
10.4.2 From silicon nitride to sialons 325
10.4.3 Zirconia 330
10.4.4 Glass-ceramics 331
10.4.5 Silicon carbide 334
10.4.6 Carbon 337
10.5 Aspects of glass technology 345
10.5.1 Viscous deformation of glass 345
10.5.2 Some special glasses 346
10.5.3 Toughened and laminated
glasses 346
10.6 The time-dependency of strength in
ceramics and glasses 348
11 Plastics and composites 351
11.1 Utilization of polymeric materials 351
11.1.1 Introduction 351
11.1.2 Mechanical aspects of Tg 351
11.1.3 The role of additives 352
11.1.4 Some applications of important
plastics 353
11.1.5 Management of waste plastics 354
Contents ix
11.2 Behaviour of plastics during
processing 355
11.2.1 Cold-drawing and crazing 355
11.2.2 Processing methods for
thermoplastics 356
11.2.3 Production of thermosets 357
11.2.4 Viscous aspects of melt
behaviour 358
11.2.5 Elastic aspects of melt
behaviour 359
11.2.6 Flow defects 360
11.3 Fibre-reinforced composite materials 361
11.3.1 Introduction to basic structural
principles 361
11.3.2 Types of fibre-reinforced
composite 366
12 Corrosion and surface
engineering 376
12.1 The engineering importance of
surfaces 376
12.2 Metallic corrosion 376
12.2.1 Oxidation at high temperatures 376
12.2.2 Aqueous corrosion 382
12.3 Surface engineering 387
12.3.1 The coating and modification of
surfaces 387
12.3.2 Surface coating by vapour
deposition 388
12.3.3 Surface coating by particle
bombardment 391
12.3.4 Surface modification with
high-energy beams 391
13 Biomaterials 394
13.1 Introduction 394
13.2 Requirements for biomaterials 394
13.3 Dental materials 395
13.3.1 Cavity fillers 395
13.3.2 Bridges, crowns and dentures 396
13.3.3 Dental implants 397
13.4 The structure of bone and bone
fractures 397
13.5 Replacement joints 398
13.5.1 Hip joints 398
13.5.2 Shoulder joints 399
13.5.3 Knee joints 399
13.5.4 Finger joints and hand surgery 399
13.6 Reconstructive surgery 400
13.6.1 Plastic surgery 400
13.6.2 Maxillofacial surgery 401
13.6.3 Ear implants 402
13.7 Biomaterials for heart repair 402
13.7.1 Heart valves 402
13.7.2 Pacemakers 403
13.7.3 Artificial arteries 403
13.8 Tissue repair and growth 403
13.9 Other surgical applications 404
13.10 Ophthalmics 404
13.11 Drug delivery systems 405
14 Materials for sports 406
14.1 The revolution in sports products 406
14.2 The tradition of using wood 406
14.3 Tennis rackets 407
14.3.1 Frames for tennis rackets 407
14.3.2 Strings for tennis rackets 408
14.4 Golf clubs 409
14.4.1 Kinetic aspects of a golf
stroke 409
14.4.2 Golf club shafts 410
14.4.3 Wood-type club heads 410
14.4.4 Iron-type club heads 411
14.4.5 Putting heads 411
14.5 Archery bows and arrows 411
14.5.1 The longbow 411
14.5.2 Bow design 411
14.5.3 Arrow design 412
14.6 Bicycles for sport 413
14.6.1 Frame design 413
14.6.2 Joining techniques for metallic
frames 414
14.6.3 Frame assembly using epoxy
adhesives 414
14.6.4 Composite frames 415
14.6.5 Bicycle wheels 415
14.7 Fencing foils 415
14.8 Materials for snow sports 416
14.8.1 General requirements 416
14.8.2 Snowboarding equipment 416
14.8.3 Skiing equipment 417
14.9 Safety helmets 417
14.9.1 Function and form of safety
helmets 417
14.9.2 Mechanical behaviour of
foams 418
14.9.3 Mechanical testing of safety
helmets 418
Appendices 420
1 SI units 420
2 Conversion factors, constants and physical
data 422
Figure references 424
Index 427


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رابط تنزيل كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering 6th ed - Science, process, applications Sixth Edition

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى


عدد المساهمات : 14261
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Sixth Edition   الأحد 30 يونيو 2013, 1:15 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering 6th ed
- Science, process, applications
Sixth Edition
R. E. Smallman, CBE, DSc, FRS, FREng, FIM
R. J. Bishop, PhD, CEng, MIM




ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

1 The structure and bonding of atoms 1
1.1 The realm of materials science 1
1.2 The free atom 2
1.2.1 The four electron quantum
numbers 2
1.2.2 Nomenclature for electronic
states 3
1.3 The Periodic Table 4
1.4 Interatomic bonding in materials 7
1.5 Bonding and energy levels 9
2 Atomic arrangements in materials 11
2.1 The concept of ordering 11
2.2 Crystal lattices and structures 12
2.3 Crystal directions and planes 13
2.4 Stereographic projection 16
2.5 Selected crystal structures 18
2.5.1 Pure metals 18
2.5.2 Diamond and graphite 21
2.5.3 Coordination in ionic crystals 22
2.5.4 AB-type compounds 24
2.5.5 Silica 24
2.5.6 Alumina 26
2.5.7 Complex oxides 26
2.5.8 Silicates 27
2.6 Inorganic glasses 30
2.6.1 Network structures in glasses 30
2.6.2 Classification of constituent
oxides 31
2.7 Polymeric structures 32
2.7.1 Thermoplastics 32
2.7.2 Elastomers 35
2.7.3 Thermosets 36
2.7.4 Crystallinity in polymers 38
3 Structural phases; their formation and
transitions 42
3.1 Crystallization from the melt 42
3.1.1 Freezing of a pure metal 42
3.1.2 Plane-front and dendritic
solidification at a cooled
surface 43
3.1.3 Forms of cast structure 44
3.1.4 Gas porosity and segregation 45
3.1.5 Directional solidification 46
3.1.6 Production of metallic single crystals
for research 47
3.2 Principles and applications of phase
diagrams 48
3.2.1 The concept of a phase 48
3.2.2 The Phase Rule 48
3.2.3 Stability of phases 49
3.2.4 Two-phase equilibria 52
3.2.5 Three-phase equilibria and
reactions 56
3.2.6 Intermediate phases 58
3.2.7 Limitations of phase diagrams 59
3.2.8 Some key phase diagrams 60
3.2.9 Ternary phase diagrams 64
3.3 Principles of alloy theory 73
3.3.1 Primary substitutional solid
solutions 73
3.3.2 Interstitial solid solutions 76
3.3.3 Types of intermediate phases 76
3.3.4 Order-disorder phenomena 79
3.4 The mechanism of phase changes 80
3.4.1 Kinetic considerations 80
3.4.2 Homogeneous nucleation 81
3.4.3 Heterogeneous nucleation 82
3.4.4 Nucleation in solids 82
4 Defects in solids 84
4.1 Types of imperfection 84
vi Contents
4.2 Point defects 84
4.2.1 Point defects in metals 84
4.2.2 Point defects in non-metallic
crystals 86
4.2.3 Irradiation of solids 87
4.2.4 Point defect concentration and
annealing 89
4.3 Line defects 90
4.3.1 Concept of a dislocation 90
4.3.2 Edge and screw dislocations 91
4.3.3 The Burgers vector 91
4.3.4 Mechanisms of slip and climb 92
4.3.5 Strain energy associated with
dislocations 95
4.3.6 Dislocations in ionic structures 97
4.4 Planar defects 97
4.4.1 Grain boundaries 97
4.4.2 Twin boundaries 98
4.4.3 Extended dislocations and stacking
faults in close-packed crystals 99
4.5 Volume defects 104
4.5.1 Void formation and annealing 104
4.5.2 Irradiation and voiding 104
4.5.3 Voiding and fracture 104
4.6 Defect behaviour in some real
materials 105
4.6.1 Dislocation vector diagrams and the
Thompson tetrahedron 105
4.6.2 Dislocations and stacking faults in
fcc structures 106
4.6.3 Dislocations and stacking faults in
cph structures 108
4.6.4 Dislocations and stacking faults in
bcc structures 112
4.6.5 Dislocations and stacking faults in
ordered structures 113
4.6.6 Dislocations and stacking faults in
ceramics 115
4.6.7 Defects in crystalline
polymers 116
4.6.8 Defects in glasses 117
4.7 Stability of defects 117
4.7.1 Dislocation loops 117
4.7.2 Voids 119
4.7.3 Nuclear irradiation effects 119
5 The characterization of materials 125
5.1 Tools of characterization 125
5.2 Light microscopy 126
5.2.1 Basic principles 126
5.2.2 Selected microscopical
techniques 127
5.3 X-ray diffraction analysis 133
5.3.1 Production and absorption of
X-rays 133
5.3.2 Diffraction of X-rays by
crystals 134
5.3.3 X-ray diffraction methods 135
5.3.4 Typical interpretative procedures for
diffraction patterns 138
5.4 Analytical electron microscopy 142
5.4.1 Interaction of an electron beam with
a solid 142
5.4.2 The transmission electron
microscope (TEM) 143
5.4.3 The scanning electron
microscope 144
5.4.4 Theoretical aspects of TEM 146
5.4.5 Chemical microanalysis 150
5.4.6 Electron energy loss spectroscopy
(EELS) 152
5.4.7 Auger electron spectroscopy
(AES) 154
5.5 Observation of defects 154
5.5.1 Etch pitting 154
5.5.2 Dislocation decoration 155
5.5.3 Dislocation strain contrast in
TEM 155
5.5.4 Contrast from crystals 157
5.5.5 Imaging of dislocations 157
5.5.6 Imaging of stacking faults 158
5.5.7 Application of dynamical
theory 158
5.5.8 Weak-beam microscopy 160
5.6 Specialized bombardment techniques 161
5.6.1 Neutron diffraction 161
5.6.2 Synchrotron radiation studies 162
5.6.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry
(SIMS) 163
5.7 Thermal analysis 164
5.7.1 General capabilities of thermal
analysis 164
5.7.2 Thermogravimetric analysis 164
5.7.3 Differential thermal analysis 165
5.7.4 Differential scanning
calorimetry 165
6 The physical properties of materials 168
6.1 Introduction 168
6.2 Density 168
6.3 Thermal properties 168
6.3.1 Thermal expansion 168
6.3.2 Specific heat capacity 170
6.3.3 The specific heat curve and
transformations 171
6.3.4 Free energy of transformation 171
6.4 Diffusion 172
6.4.1 Diffusion laws 172
6.4.2 Mechanisms of diffusion 174
6.4.3 Factors affecting diffusion 175
6.5 Anelasticity and internal friction 176
6.6 Ordering in alloys 177
6.6.1 Long-range and short-range
order 177
Contents vii
6.6.2 Detection of ordering 178
6.6.3 Influence of ordering upon
properties 179
6.7 Electrical properties 181
6.7.1 Electrical conductivity 181
6.7.2 Semiconductors 183
6.7.3 Superconductivity 185
6.7.4 Oxide superconductors 187
6.8 Magnetic properties 188
6.8.1 Magnetic susceptibility 188
6.8.2 Diamagnetism and
paramagnetism 189
6.8.3 Ferromagnetism 189
6.8.4 Magnetic alloys 191
6.8.5 Anti-ferromagnetism and
ferrimagnetism 192
6.9 Dielectric materials 193
6.9.1 Polarization 193
6.9.2 Capacitors and insulators 193
6.9.3 Piezoelectric materials 194
6.9.4 Pyroelectric and ferroelectric
materials 194
6.10 Optical properties 195
6.10.1 Reflection, absorption and
transmission effects 195
6.10.2 Optical fibres 195
6.10.3 Lasers 195
6.10.4 Ceramic ‘windows’ 196
6.10.5 Electro-optic ceramics 196
7 Mechanical behaviour of materials 197
7.1 Mechanical testing procedures 197
7.1.1 Introduction 197
7.1.2 The tensile test 197
7.1.3 Indentation hardness testing 199
7.1.4 Impact testing 199
7.1.5 Creep testing 199
7.1.6 Fatigue testing 200
7.1.7 Testing of ceramics 200
7.2 Elastic deformation 201
7.2.1 Elastic deformation of metals 201
7.2.2 Elastic deformation of
ceramics 203
7.3 Plastic deformation 203
7.3.1 Slip and twinning 203
7.3.2 Resolved shear stress 203
7.3.3 Relation of slip to crystal
structure 204
7.3.4 Law of critical resolved shear
stress 205
7.3.5 Multiple slip 205
7.3.6 Relation between work-hardening
and slip 206
7.4 Dislocation behaviour during plastic
deformation 207
7.4.1 Dislocation mobility 207
7.4.2 Variation of yield stress with
temperature and strain rate 208
7.4.3 Dislocation source operation 209
7.4.4 Discontinuous yielding 211
7.4.5 Yield points and crystal
structure 212
7.4.6 Discontinuous yielding in ordered
alloys 214
7.4.7 Solute–dislocation interaction 214
7.4.8 Dislocation locking and
temperature 216
7.4.9 Inhomogeneity interaction 217
7.4.10 Kinetics of strain-ageing 217
7.4.11 Influence of grain boundaries on
plasticity 218
7.4.12 Superplasticity 220
7.5 Mechanical twinning 221
7.5.1 Crystallography of twinning 221
7.5.2 Nucleation and growth of
twins 222
7.5.3 Effect of impurities on
twinning 223
7.5.4 Effect of prestrain on twinning 223
7.5.5 Dislocation mechanism of
twinning 223
7.5.6 Twinning and fracture 224
7.6 Strengthening and hardening
mechanisms 224
7.6.1 Point defect hardening 224
7.6.2 Work-hardening 226
7.6.3 Development of preferred
orientation 232
7.7 Macroscopic plasticity 235
7.7.1 Tresca and von Mises criteria 235
7.7.2 Effective stress and strain 236
7.8 Annealing 237
7.8.1 General effects of annealing 237
7.8.2 Recovery 237
7.8.3 Recrystallization 239
7.8.4 Grain growth 242
7.8.5 Annealing twins 243
7.8.6 Recrystallization textures 245
7.9 Metallic creep 245
7.9.1 Transient and steady-state
creep 245
7.9.2 Grain boundary contribution to
creep 247
7.9.3 Tertiary creep and fracture 249
7.9.4 Creep-resistant alloy design 249
7.10 Deformation mechanism maps 251
7.11 Metallic fatigue 252
7.11.1 Nature of fatigue failure 252
7.11.2 Engineering aspects of fatigue 252
7.11.3 Structural changes accompanying
fatigue 254
7.11.4 Crack formation and fatigue
failure 256
viii Contents
7.11.5 Fatigue at elevated
temperatures 258
8 Strengthening and toughening 259
8.1 Introduction 259
8.2 Strengthening of non-ferrous alloys by
heat-treatment 259
8.2.1 Precipitation-hardening of Al–Cu
alloys 259
8.2.2 Precipitation-hardening of Al–Ag
alloys 263
8.2.3 Mechanisms of
precipitation-hardening 265
8.2.4 Vacancies and precipitation 268
8.2.5 Duplex ageing 271
8.2.6 Particle-coarsening 272
8.2.7 Spinodal decomposition 273
8.3 Strengthening of steels by
heat-treatment 274
8.3.1 Time–temperature–transformation
diagrams 274
8.3.2 Austenite–pearlite
transformation 276
8.3.3 Austenite–martensite
transformation 278
8.3.4 Austenite–bainite
transformation 282
8.3.5 Tempering of martensite 282
8.3.6 Thermo-mechanical
treatments 283
8.4 Fracture and toughness 284
8.4.1 Griffith micro-crack criterion 284
8.4.2 Fracture toughness 285
8.4.3 Cleavage and the ductile–brittle
transition 288
8.4.4 Factors affecting brittleness of
steels 289
8.4.5 Hydrogen embrittlement of
steels 291
8.4.6 Intergranular fracture 291
8.4.7 Ductile failure 292
8.4.8 Rupture 293
8.4.9 Voiding and fracture at elevated
temperatures 293
8.4.10 Fracture mechanism maps 294
8.4.11 Crack growth under fatigue
conditions 295
9 Modern alloy developments 297
9.1 Introduction 297
9.2 Commercial steels 297
9.2.1 Plain carbon steels 297
9.2.2 Alloy steels 298
9.2.3 Maraging steels 299
9.2.4 High-strength low-alloy (HSLA)
steels 299
9.2.5 Dual-phase (DP) steels 300
9.2.6 Mechanically alloyed (MA)
steels 301
9.2.7 Designation of steels 302
9.3 Cast irons 303
9.4 Superalloys 305
9.4.1 Basic alloying features 305
9.4.2 Nickel-based superalloy
development 306
9.4.3 Dispersion-hardened
superalloys 307
9.5 Titanium alloys 308
9.5.1 Basic alloying and heat-treatment
features 308
9.5.2 Commercial titanium alloys 310
9.5.3 Processing of titanium alloys 312
9.6 Structural intermetallic compounds 312
9.6.1 General properties of intermetallic
compounds 312
9.6.2 Nickel aluminides 312
9.6.3 Titanium aluminides 314
9.6.4 Other intermetallic compounds 315
9.7 Aluminium alloys 316
9.7.1 Designation of aluminium
alloys 316
9.7.2 Applications of aluminium
alloys 316
9.7.3 Aluminium-lithium alloys 317
9.7.4 Processing developments 317
10 Ceramics and glasses 320
10.1 Classification of ceramics 320
10.2 General properties of ceramics 321
10.3 Production of ceramic powders 322
10.4 Selected engineering ceramics 323
10.4.1 Alumina 323
10.4.2 From silicon nitride to sialons 325
10.4.3 Zirconia 330
10.4.4 Glass-ceramics 331
10.4.5 Silicon carbide 334
10.4.6 Carbon 337
10.5 Aspects of glass technology 345
10.5.1 Viscous deformation of glass 345
10.5.2 Some special glasses 346
10.5.3 Toughened and laminated
glasses 346
10.6 The time-dependency of strength in
ceramics and glasses 348
11 Plastics and composites 351
11.1 Utilization of polymeric materials 351
11.1.1 Introduction 351
11.1.2 Mechanical aspects of Tg 351
11.1.3 The role of additives 352
11.1.4 Some applications of important
plastics 353
11.1.5 Management of waste plastics 354
Contents ix
11.2 Behaviour of plastics during
processing 355
11.2.1 Cold-drawing and crazing 355
11.2.2 Processing methods for
thermoplastics 356
11.2.3 Production of thermosets 357
11.2.4 Viscous aspects of melt
behaviour 358
11.2.5 Elastic aspects of melt
behaviour 359
11.2.6 Flow defects 360
11.3 Fibre-reinforced composite materials 361
11.3.1 Introduction to basic structural
principles 361
11.3.2 Types of fibre-reinforced
composite 366
12 Corrosion and surface
engineering 376
12.1 The engineering importance of
surfaces 376
12.2 Metallic corrosion 376
12.2.1 Oxidation at high temperatures 376
12.2.2 Aqueous corrosion 382
12.3 Surface engineering 387
12.3.1 The coating and modification of
surfaces 387
12.3.2 Surface coating by vapour
deposition 388
12.3.3 Surface coating by particle
bombardment 391
12.3.4 Surface modification with
high-energy beams 391
13 Biomaterials 394
13.1 Introduction 394
13.2 Requirements for biomaterials 394
13.3 Dental materials 395
13.3.1 Cavity fillers 395
13.3.2 Bridges, crowns and dentures 396
13.3.3 Dental implants 397
13.4 The structure of bone and bone
fractures 397
13.5 Replacement joints 398
13.5.1 Hip joints 398
13.5.2 Shoulder joints 399
13.5.3 Knee joints 399
13.5.4 Finger joints and hand surgery 399
13.6 Reconstructive surgery 400
13.6.1 Plastic surgery 400
13.6.2 Maxillofacial surgery 401
13.6.3 Ear implants 402
13.7 Biomaterials for heart repair 402
13.7.1 Heart valves 402
13.7.2 Pacemakers 403
13.7.3 Artificial arteries 403
13.8 Tissue repair and growth 403
13.9 Other surgical applications 404
13.10 Ophthalmics 404
13.11 Drug delivery systems 405
14 Materials for sports 406
14.1 The revolution in sports products 406
14.2 The tradition of using wood 406
14.3 Tennis rackets 407
14.3.1 Frames for tennis rackets 407
14.3.2 Strings for tennis rackets 408
14.4 Golf clubs 409
14.4.1 Kinetic aspects of a golf
stroke 409
14.4.2 Golf club shafts 410
14.4.3 Wood-type club heads 410
14.4.4 Iron-type club heads 411
14.4.5 Putting heads 411
14.5 Archery bows and arrows 411
14.5.1 The longbow 411
14.5.2 Bow design 411
14.5.3 Arrow design 412
14.6 Bicycles for sport 413
14.6.1 Frame design 413
14.6.2 Joining techniques for metallic
frames 414
14.6.3 Frame assembly using epoxy
adhesives 414
14.6.4 Composite frames 415
14.6.5 Bicycle wheels 415
14.7 Fencing foils 415
14.8 Materials for snow sports 416
14.8.1 General requirements 416
14.8.2 Snowboarding equipment 416
14.8.3 Skiing equipment 417
14.9 Safety helmets 417
14.9.1 Function and form of safety
helmets 417
14.9.2 Mechanical behaviour of
foams 418
14.9.3 Mechanical testing of safety
helmets 418
Appendices 420
1 SI units 420
2 Conversion factors, constants and physical
data 422
Figure references 424
Index 427


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