كتاب Principles of Welding
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 كتاب Principles of Welding

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Principles of Welding    الأربعاء 19 يونيو 2013, 5:08 pm

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Principles of Welding

Processes, Physics, Chemistry, and Metallurgy
ROBERT W. MESSLER, Jr.
Materials Science and Engineering Department
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY

ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :


I THEPROCESSANDPROCESSESOFWELDING
 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCESS OF WELDING
 What Is Welding?
 The Evolution of Welding as a Process
 The Nature of an Ideal Weld: Achieving Continuity
 Impediments to Making Ideal Welds in the Real World
 What It Takes to Make a Real Weld
 Advantages and Disadvantages of Welding
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 CLASSIFYING WELDING PROCESSES
Why Classify Processes?
Mechanisms for Obtaining Material Continuity
The Roles of Temperature and Pressure
Alternative Bases for Classification
 Fusion Versus Nonfusion
 Pressure Versus Nonpressure
 Energy Source for Welding
 Interface Relationships and Classification by Energy
Transfer Processes
 Other Bases for Classification and Subclassification
 Allied Processes
 The AWS Classification Scheme
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 FUSION WELDING PROCESSES
 General Description of Fusion Welding Processes
 Chemical Fusion Welding Processes
 Oxyfuel Gas Welding
 Aluminothermic Welding
 Electric Arc Welding Processes
 Nonconsumable Electrode Arc Welding Processes
 Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding
 Plasma Arc Welding
 Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welding '
 Consumable Electrode Arc Welding Processes
 Gas-Metal Arc Welding
 Shielded-Metal Arc Welding
 Flux-Cored Arc Welding
 Submerged Arc Welding
 Electrogas Welding
 Electroslag Welding
 Resistance Welding Processes
 Resistance Spot, Resistance Seam, and Projection
Welding
 Flash, Upset, and Percussion Welding
 High-Intensity Radiant Energy or High-Density Beam
Welding Processes
 High-Energy-Density (Laser and Electron) Beam
Welding Processes
 Focused IR and Imaged Arc Welding
 Microwave Welding
References and Suggested Reading
 NONFUSION WELDING PROCESSES
 General Description of Nonfusion Welding Processes
 Pressure (Nonfusion) Welding Processes
 Cold Welding Processes
 Hot Pressure Welding
 Forge Welding
Pressure Gas Welding
 Roll Welding
 Explosion Welding
 Friction Welding Processes
 Radial and Orbital Welding
 Direct-Drive Versus Inertia-Drive (Friction)
Welding
 Angular and Linear Reciprocating (Friction)
Welding
 Ultrasonic (Friction) Welding
 Friction Stir Welding
 Friction Surfacing
 Diffusion Joining Processes
 Diffusion Welding
 Conventional Diffusion Welding
 Deformation Diffusion Welding
 Resistance Diffusion Welding
 Continuous Seam Diffusion Welding
 Diffusion Brazing
 Combined Forming and Diffusion Welding
 Solid-state Deposition Welding Processes
 Inspection and Repair of Nonfusion Welds
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
IJ THE PHYSICS OF WELDING
 ENERGY FOR WELDING
 Introduction to the Physics of Welding
 Sources of Energy for Welding
Source Energy, Transferred Power, Energy Density,
and Energy Distribution
 Energy Available at a Source (Energy Level
or Capacity
 Transferred Power
 Source Intensity or Energy Density
 Energy Distribution
Energy Input to a Weld
Causes of Loss During Energy Transfer From Source
to Work
Transfer Efficiency of Processes
Effects of Deposited Energy: Good and Bad
 Desirable Melting, Fluxing, or Softening
 Adverse Effects of Heat in and Around the Weld
Effects of Energy Density and Distribution
Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 THE FLOW OF HEAT IN WELDS
General Description of the Flow of Heat in Welds
Weld Joint Configurations
 Types of Weld Joints
 General Weld Design Guidelines
 Size of a Weld and Amount of Welding
The Welding Thermal Cycle
The Generalized Equation of Heat Flow
Analysis of Heat Flow During Welding
 Rosenthal's Simplified Approach
 Modifications to Rosenthal's Solutions
 Dimensionless Weld Depth Versus Dimensionless
Operating Parameter
Effect of Welding Parameters on Heat Distribution
Prediction of Weld Zones and Weld Cooling Rates
 Zones in Fusion-Welded Materials
 Simplified Equations for Approximating Welding
Conditions
 Peak Temperatures
 Width of the Heat-Affected Zone
 Solidification Rate
 Cooling Rates
 Weld Simulation and Simulators
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 THERMALLY INDUCED DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL
STRESSES DURING WELDING
 Origin of Thermal Stresses
 Distortion Versus Residual Stresses
 Causes of Residual Stresses in Weldments
 Residual Stresses From Mismatch
 Residual Stresses From Nonuniform,
Nonelastic Strains
 Causes of Distortion in Weldments
 Typical Residual Stresses in Weldments
 Effects of Distortion
 Effects of Residual Stresses
 Measurement of Residual Stresses in Weldments
 Stress-Relaxation Techniques
 A Sectioning Technique Using Electric-Resistance
Strain Gauges
 The Rosenthal-Norton Section Technique
 The Mathar-Soete Hole Drilling Technique
 The Gunnert Drilling Technique
 The X-ray Diffraction Technique
 Residual Stress Reduction and Distortion Control
 The Interplay Between Residual Stresses and
Distortion
 Prevention Versus Remediation
 Controlling or Removing Residual Stresses
 Controlling or Removing Distortion
 Numerical Methods for Estimating Residual Stresses
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 THE PHYSICS OF WELDING ENERGY OR POWER
SOURCES
 Electricity for Welding
 The Physics of an Electric Arc and Arc Welding
 The Physics of an Electric Arc
 The Welding Arc
 The Arc Plasma
 Arc Temperature
 Arc Radiation
 Arc Electrical Features
 Effect of Magnetic Fields on Arcs
 Volt-Ampere Characteristics for Welding
 Constant-Current Power Sources
 Constant-Voltage Power Sources
 Combined Characteristic Sources
 The Physics of a Plasma
 The Physics of Resistance (or Joule) Heating and
Resistance Welding
 Joule Heating
 The Resistance Welding Cycle
 Resistance Welding Power Supplies
 The Physics of Electron Beams
 Electron-Beam Generation
 Electron-Beam Control
 Role of Vacuum in EB Welding
 Electron-Beam-Material Interactions
 The Physics of Laser Beams
 Laser Light
 Laser Generation
 Nd:YAG Lasers
 CO, Lasers
 Laser-Beam Control
 Laser-Beam-Material Interactions
 Benefits of Laser-Beam and Electron-Beam Welding
 The Physics of a Combustion Flame
 Fuel Gas Combustion or Heat of Combustion
 Flame Temperature
 Flame Propagation Rate or Combustion Velocity
 Combustion Intensity
 The Physics of Converting Mechanical Work to Heat
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 MOLTEN METAL TRANSFER IN CONSUMABLE
ELECTRODE ARC WELDING
Forces Contributing to Molten Metal Transfer in Welding
 Gas Pressure Generation at Flux-Coated or Flux-Cored
Electrode Tips
 Electrostatic Attraction
 Gravity
 Electromagnetic Pinch Effect
 Explosive Evaporation
 Electromagnetic Pressure
 Plasma Friction
 Surface Tension
Free-Flight Transfer Modes
 Globular Transfer
 Spray Transfer
Bridging of Short-circuiting Transfer Modes
Pulsed-Arc or Pulsed-Current Transfer
Slag-Protected Transfer
Variations of Major Transfer Modes
Effect of Welding Process Parameters and Shielding Gas
on Transfer Mode
 Effects on Transition Current
 Shielding Gas Effects
 Process Effects
 Operating Mode or Polarity Effects
Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 WELD POOL CONVECTION, OSCILLATION,
AND EVAPORATION
 Origin of Convection
 Generalities on Convection in Weld Pools
 Buoyancy or Gravity Force
 Surface Gradient Force or Marangoni
Convection
 Electromotive Force or Lorentz Force
 Impinging or Friction Force
 Modeling Convection and Combined Force
Effects J
 Effects of Convection
 Effect of Convection on Penetration
 Effect of Convection on Macrosegregation
 Effect of Convection of Porosity
 Enhancing Convection
 Weld Pool Oscillation
 Weld Pool Evaporation and Its Effects
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 THE CHEMISTRY OF WELDING
 MOLTEN METAL AND WELD POOL REACTIONS
 Gas-Metal Reactions
 Gas Dissolution and Solubility in Molten
Metal
 Solid Solution Hardening and Phase
Stabilization
 Porosity Formation
 Embrittlement Reactions
 Hydrogen Effects
 Hydrogen Embrittlement
 Hydrogen Porosity
 Hydrogen Cracking
 Molten Metal Shielding
 Shielding Gases
 Slags
 Vacuum
 Slag-Metal Reactions
 DeoxidizingDenitriding (or Killing) Versus
Protection
 Flux-Protected Welding Processes
 Shielding Capacities of Different Processes
 Slag Formation
 Slag-Metal Chemical Reactions
 Flux Types
Common Covered- and Cored-Electrode Flux
Systems
 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrode
Coatings
 Flux-Cored Arc Weldipg Fluxes
 Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes
Basicity Index
Thermodynamic Model for Welding Slag- Metal
Reactions
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 WELD CHEMICAL HETEROGENEITY
 Weld (Pool) Dilution
 Microsegregation and Banding in the Weld Metal
 Unmixed and Partially Mixed Zones
 Impurities in the Weld Metal
 Macrosegregation in Dissimilar Welds
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
IV THE METALLURGY OF WELDING
 WELD FUSION ZONE SOLIDIFICATION
 Equilibrium Versus Nonequilibrium
 Solidification of a Pure Crystalline Material
 Criteria for Equilibrium at T, and Constant
Pressure
 Pure Material Growth Modes
 Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous
Nucleation
 Homogeneous Nucleation
 Super- or Undercooling
 Effect of Radius of Curvature on
Supercooling
 Heterogeneous Nucleation
 Epitaxial and Competitive Growth
 Effect of Weld Pool Shape on Structure
 Competing Rates of Melting and Solidification
 Effect of Nonequilibrium on Pure Material
Solidification
 Equilibrium Solidification of an Alloy
 Prerequisites for the Solidification of Alloys
 Equilibrium Solidification of a Hypothetical
Binary Alloy (Case )
 Nonequilibrium Solidification of Alloys
 Boundary Conditions for Solidification of Alloys
 Equilibrium Maintained Throughout the System at all
Times: Microscopic Equilibrium (Case )
 Complete Liquid MixingNo Diffusion in the Solid
(Case )
 Expression for the Composition of Solid at
the Advancing Solid-Liquid Interface
 Calculation of the Average Composition of
the Solid for Case 
 No Liquid MixingNo Diffusion in the Solid
(Case )
 Trace of Average Composition in the Solid
for Case 
 Expression for the Initial Transient in the
Composition of the Solid Formed
 Some Limitations of the Classic Models
 Other Effects of Rapid Solidification
 Nonequilibrium Solute Partitioning
 Nonequilibrium Phases
 Consequences of Nonequilibrium Solidification
 Interdendritic Microsegregation
 Solidus Suppression
 Substructure Formation
 Constitutional Supercooling
 Effect of Cooling Rate on Substructure
 Interface Stability
 Nucleation of New Grains Within the Fusion
Zone
 Controlling Substructure
 Centerline Segregation
 Fusion Zone Hot Cracking
 Mechanism of Hot Cracking
 Remediation of Hot Cracking
 Control of Weld Metal Composition
 Control of Solidification Structure
 Use of Favorable Welding Conditions
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 EUTECTIC, PERITECTIC, AND POSTSOLIDIFICATION
FUSION ZONE TRANSFORMATIONS
 Eutectic Reactions or Solidification of Two-Phase
Alloys
 Solidification at the Eutectic Composition
 Solidification of Two-Phase Alloys at Noneutectic
Compositions
 Morphology of Eutectic Phases
Equilibrium Conditions (Case )
 Alloys Below the Solubility Limit of the
Solid Phase in the Peritectic
 Alloys Between the Solubility Limit and
the Peritectic Composition
 Alloys With the Peritectic Composition
 Alloys Beyond the Peritectic Composition,
but Within the L + S Range
 Alloys Past the L + S Range of a Peritectic
in the Liquid Field
 No Diffusion in the SolidComplete Mixing
in the Liquid (Case )
 No Diffusion in the SolidNo Mixing,
Only Diffusion in the Liquid (Case )
 Peritectic Reactions
 Nonequilibrium Conditions
 Transformations in Ferrite + Austenite or Duplex Stainless
Steels
 Kinetics of Solid-state Phase Transformations:
Nonequilibrium Versus Equilibrium
 Austenite Decomposition Transformations
 Equilibrium Decomposition to Ferrite + Pearlite
(The Eutectiod Reaction)
 Nonequilibrium Decomposition to Other Ferrite
Morphologies (Very Slow to Moderately Slow
Cooling Rates)
(Faster Cooler Rates)
(Very Fast Cooling Rates)
 Nonequilibrium Transformation to Bainite
 Nonequilibrium Transformation to Martensite
 Sigma and Chi Phase Formation
 Grain Boundary Migration
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE
Origin and Location of the Partially Melted Zone
Constitutional Liquation
Defects Arising in the PMZ
 Conventional Hot Cracking and Liquation Cracking
in the PMZ
 Loss of Ductility in the PMZ
 Hydrogen-Induced Cracking in the PMZ
Remediation of Defects in the PMZ
Summary
References and Suggested Reading
 THE WELD HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE
 Heat-Affected Zones in Welds
 The HAZ in Work-Hardened or Cold-Worked Metals
and Alloys
 The Physical Metallurgy of Cold
WorkRecoveryRecrystallizationGrain Growth
 Cold Worked Metals and Alloys in Engineering
 Avoiding or Recovering Property Losses in
Work-Hardened Metals or Alloys
 Development of a Worked Zone in Pressure-Welded
Materials
 The HAZ in a Solid-Solution-Strengthened Metal or of an
Alloy
 The Physical Metallurgy of Solid-Solution
Strengthening or Alloying
 Major Engineering Alloys Consisting of Single-Phase
Solid Solutions
 Maintaining Properties in Single-Phase
Solid-Solution-Strengthened Alloys
 The HAZ in Precipitation-Hardened or Age-Hardenable
Alloys
 The Physical Metallurgy of Precipitation- or
Age-Hardenable Alloys
 Important Precipitation-Hardenable Alloys in
Engineering
 Avoiding or Recovering Property Losses in
Age-Hardenable Alloys
 The HAZ in Transformation-Hardenable Alloys
 The Physical Metallurgy of Transformation-Hardenable
Alloys
 Some Important Engineering Alloys Exhibiting
Transformation Hardening
 Welding Behavior of Carbon and Alloy Steels
 Behavior of Carbon Steels
 Behavior of Alloy Steels
 The HAZ in Corrosion-Resistant Stainless Steels
 The Physical Metallurgy of Stainless Steels
 Major Stainless Steels Used in Engineering
 Sensitization of Austenitic Stainless Steels by
Welding
 Welding of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steels
 The HAZ in Dispersion-Strengthened or Reinforced Alloys
 HAZ Defects and Their Remediation
 Liquation Cracking
 Reheat or Strain-Age Cracking
 Quench Cracking and Hydrogen Cold Cracking
 Weld Decay, Knife-Line Attack, and Stress Corrosion
Cracking
 Lamellar Tearing
References and Suggested Reading
 Summary
 WELDABILITY AND WELD TESTING
 Weldability Testing
 Direct Weldability or Actual Welding Tests
 Fusion and Partially Melted Zone Hot-Cracking
Tests
Finger Test
Houldcroft and Battelle Hot-Crack
Susceptibility Tests
Lehigh Restraint Test
Variable-Restraint (or Varestraint) Test
Murex Hot-Cracking Test
Root-Pass Crack Test
Keyhole-Slotted-Plate Test
Navy Circular-Fillet-Weldability (NCFW)
Test
Circular-Groove Cracking and
Segmented-Groove Tests
Circular-Patch Test
Restrained-Patch Test
Sigmajig Test
 Heat-Affected Zone General Cold-Cracking
Weldability Tests
 Hydrogen Cracking Testing
 Implant Test
 RPI Augmented Strain Cracking Test
 Controlled-Thermal-Severity (CTS) Test
 Lehigh Slot Weldability Test
 Wedge Test
 Tekken Test
 Gapped-Bead-on-Plate or G-BOP Test
 Reheat or Strain-Age Cracking Test
 Compact Tension Test
 Vinckier Test
 Spiral Notch Test
 Lamellar Tearing Tests
 Lehigh Cantilever Lamellar Tearing Test
 Tensile Lamellar Tearing Test
 Indirect Weldability Tests or Tests of Simulated Welds
 Weld Pool Shape Tests
 Weld Testing
 Transverse- and Longitudinal-Weld Tensile Tests
 All-Weld-Metal Tensile Tests
 Bend Ductility Tests
 Impact Tests
 Other Mechanical Tests
 Corrosion Tests
 General Corrosion and Its Testing
 Crevice Corrosion and Its Testing
 Pitting Corrosion and Its Testing
 Intergranular Corrosion and Its Testing
 Stress Corrosion and Its Testing
 Summary
References and Suggested Reading
CLOSING THOUGHTS
APPENDICES
INDEX

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Principles of Welding    الأربعاء 19 يونيو 2013, 6:08 pm

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Principles of Welding    الخميس 20 يونيو 2013, 2:10 am

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